view gcc/c-family/c-pretty-print.c @ 107:a3a2f64cf8f4

modify implementation of rectype
author Nobuyasu Oshiro <dimolto@cr.ie.u-ryukyu.ac.jp>
date Thu, 14 Jun 2012 19:44:54 +0900
parents b3cfc7733d3f
children ab0bcb71f44d
line wrap: on
line source

/* Subroutines common to both C and C++ pretty-printers.
   Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   Contributed by Gabriel Dos Reis <gdr@integrable-solutions.net>

This file is part of GCC.

GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later
version.

GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */

#include "config.h"
#include "system.h"
#include "coretypes.h"
#include "tm.h"
#include "tree.h"
#include "intl.h"
#include "c-pretty-print.h"
#include "tree-pretty-print.h"
#include "tree-iterator.h"
#include "diagnostic.h"
#ifndef noCbC
#include "cbc-tree.h"
#endif
/* Translate if being used for diagnostics, but not for dump files or
   __PRETTY_FUNCTION.  */
#define M_(msgid) (pp_translate_identifiers (pp) ? _(msgid) : (msgid))

/* The pretty-printer code is primarily designed to closely follow
   (GNU) C and C++ grammars.  That is to be contrasted with spaghetti
   codes we used to have in the past.  Following a structured
   approach (preferably the official grammars) is believed to make it
   much easier to add extensions and nifty pretty-printing effects that
   takes expression or declaration contexts into account.  */


#define pp_c_maybe_whitespace(PP)            \
   do {                                      \
     if (pp_base (PP)->padding == pp_before) \
       pp_c_whitespace (PP);                 \
   } while (0)

/* literal  */
static void pp_c_char (c_pretty_printer *, int);

/* postfix-expression  */
static void pp_c_initializer_list (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_brace_enclosed_initializer_list (c_pretty_printer *, tree);

static void pp_c_multiplicative_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_additive_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_shift_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_relational_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_equality_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_and_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_inclusive_or_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_logical_and_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_conditional_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);
static void pp_c_assignment_expression (c_pretty_printer *, tree);

/* declarations.  */


/* Helper functions.  */

void
pp_c_whitespace (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_space (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_left_paren (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_left_paren (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_right_paren (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_right_paren (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_left_brace (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_left_brace (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_right_brace (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_right_brace (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_left_bracket (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_left_bracket (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_right_bracket (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_right_bracket (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_dot (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_dot (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_ampersand (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_ampersand (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_star (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_star (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_arrow (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_arrow (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_semicolon (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_semicolon (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_complement (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_complement (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

void
pp_c_exclamation (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp_exclamation (pp);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_none;
}

/* Print out the external representation of QUALIFIERS.  */

void
pp_c_cv_qualifiers (c_pretty_printer *pp, int qualifiers, bool func_type)
{
  const char *p = pp_last_position_in_text (pp);
  bool previous = false;

  if (!qualifiers)
    return;

  /* The C programming language does not have references, but it is much
     simpler to handle those here rather than going through the same
     logic in the C++ pretty-printer.  */
  if (p != NULL && (*p == '*' || *p == '&'))
    pp_c_whitespace (pp);

  if (qualifiers & TYPE_QUAL_CONST)
    {
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, func_type ? "__attribute__((const))" : "const");
      previous = true;
    }

  if (qualifiers & TYPE_QUAL_VOLATILE)
    {
      if (previous)
        pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, func_type ? "__attribute__((noreturn))" : "volatile");
      previous = true;
    }

  if (qualifiers & TYPE_QUAL_RESTRICT)
    {
      if (previous)
        pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99 ? "restrict" : "__restrict__");
    }
}

/* Pretty-print T using the type-cast notation '( type-name )'.  */

static void
pp_c_type_cast (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
  pp_type_id (pp, t);
  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
}

/* We're about to pretty-print a pointer type as indicated by T.
   Output a whitespace, if needed, preparing for subsequent output.  */

void
pp_c_space_for_pointer_operator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  if (POINTER_TYPE_P (t))
    {
      tree pointee = strip_pointer_operator (TREE_TYPE (t));
      if (TREE_CODE (pointee) != ARRAY_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (pointee) != FUNCTION_TYPE)
	pp_c_whitespace (pp);
    }
}


/* Declarations.  */

/* C++ cv-qualifiers are called type-qualifiers in C.  Print out the
   cv-qualifiers of T.  If T is a declaration then it is the cv-qualifier
   of its type.  Take care of possible extensions.

   type-qualifier-list:
       type-qualifier
       type-qualifier-list type-qualifier

   type-qualifier:
       const
       restrict                              -- C99
       __restrict__                          -- GNU C
       address-space-qualifier		     -- GNU C
       volatile

   address-space-qualifier:
       identifier			     -- GNU C  */

void
pp_c_type_qualifier_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  int qualifiers;

  if (!t || t == error_mark_node)
    return;

  if (!TYPE_P (t))
    t = TREE_TYPE (t);

  qualifiers = TYPE_QUALS (t);
  pp_c_cv_qualifiers (pp, qualifiers,
		      TREE_CODE (t) == FUNCTION_TYPE);

  if (!ADDR_SPACE_GENERIC_P (TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (t)))
    {
      const char *as = c_addr_space_name (TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (t));
      pp_c_identifier (pp, as);
    }
}

/* pointer:
      * type-qualifier-list(opt)
      * type-qualifier-list(opt) pointer  */

static void
pp_c_pointer (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  if (!TYPE_P (t) && TREE_CODE (t) != TYPE_DECL)
    t = TREE_TYPE (t);
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case POINTER_TYPE:
      /* It is easier to handle C++ reference types here.  */
    case REFERENCE_TYPE:
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == POINTER_TYPE)
	pp_c_pointer (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      if (TREE_CODE (t) == POINTER_TYPE)
	pp_c_star (pp);
      else
	pp_c_ampersand (pp);
      pp_c_type_qualifier_list (pp, t);
      break;

      /* ??? This node is now in GENERIC and so shouldn't be here.  But
	 we'll fix that later.  */
    case DECL_EXPR:
      pp_declaration (pp, DECL_EXPR_DECL (t));
      pp_needs_newline (pp) = true;
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
    }
}

/* type-specifier:
      void
      char
      short
      int
      long
      float
      double
      signed
      unsigned
      _Bool                          -- C99
      _Complex                       -- C99
      _Imaginary                     -- C99
      struct-or-union-specifier
      enum-specifier
      typedef-name.

  GNU extensions.
  simple-type-specifier:
      __complex__
      __vector__   */

void
pp_c_type_specifier (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  const enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);
  switch (code)
    {
    case ERROR_MARK:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<type-error>"));
      break;

    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
      pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (pp, t);
      break;

    case VOID_TYPE:
    case BOOLEAN_TYPE:
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
    case REAL_TYPE:
    case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
      if (TYPE_NAME (t))
	{
	  t = TYPE_NAME (t);
	  pp_c_type_specifier (pp, t);
	}
      else
	{
	  int prec = TYPE_PRECISION (t);
	  if (ALL_FIXED_POINT_MODE_P (TYPE_MODE (t)))
	    t = c_common_type_for_mode (TYPE_MODE (t), TYPE_SATURATING (t));
	  else
	    t = c_common_type_for_mode (TYPE_MODE (t), TYPE_UNSIGNED (t));
	  if (TYPE_NAME (t))
	    {
	      pp_c_type_specifier (pp, t);
	      if (TYPE_PRECISION (t) != prec)
		{
		  pp_string (pp, ":");
		  pp_decimal_int (pp, prec);
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      switch (code)
		{
		case INTEGER_TYPE:
		  pp_string (pp, (TYPE_UNSIGNED (t)
				  ? M_("<unnamed-unsigned:")
				  : M_("<unnamed-signed:")));
		  break;
		case REAL_TYPE:
		  pp_string (pp, M_("<unnamed-float:"));
		  break;
		case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
		  pp_string (pp, M_("<unnamed-fixed:"));
		  break;
		default:
		  gcc_unreachable ();
		}
	      pp_decimal_int (pp, prec);
	      pp_string (pp, ">");
	    }
	}
      break;

    case TYPE_DECL:
      if (DECL_NAME (t))
	pp_id_expression (pp, t);
      else
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<typedef-error>"));
      break;

    case UNION_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
      if (code == UNION_TYPE)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "union");
      else if (code == RECORD_TYPE)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "struct");
      else if (code == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "enum");
      else
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<tag-error>"));

      if (TYPE_NAME (t))
	pp_id_expression (pp, TYPE_NAME (t));
      else
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<anonymous>"));
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}

/* specifier-qualifier-list:
      type-specifier specifier-qualifier-list-opt
      type-qualifier specifier-qualifier-list-opt


  Implementation note:  Because of the non-linearities in array or
  function declarations, this routine prints not just the
  specifier-qualifier-list of such entities or types of such entities,
  but also the 'pointer' production part of their declarators.  The
  remaining part is done by pp_declarator or pp_c_abstract_declarator.  */

void
pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  const enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);

  if (TREE_CODE (t) != POINTER_TYPE)
    pp_c_type_qualifier_list (pp, t);
  switch (code)
    {
    case REFERENCE_TYPE:
    case POINTER_TYPE:
      {
	/* Get the types-specifier of this type.  */
	tree pointee = strip_pointer_operator (TREE_TYPE (t));
	pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (pp, pointee);
	if (TREE_CODE (pointee) == ARRAY_TYPE
	    || TREE_CODE (pointee) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	  {
	    pp_c_whitespace (pp);
	    pp_c_left_paren (pp);
	  }
	else if (!c_dialect_cxx ())
	  pp_c_whitespace (pp);
	pp_ptr_operator (pp, t);
      }
      break;

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    case VECTOR_TYPE:
    case COMPLEX_TYPE:
      if (code == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99 ? "_Complex" : "__complex__");
      else if (code == VECTOR_TYPE)
	{
	  pp_c_ws_string (pp, "__vector");
	  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
	  pp_wide_integer (pp, TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (t));
	  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
	  pp_c_whitespace (pp);
	}
      pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    default:
      pp_simple_type_specifier (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}

/* parameter-type-list:
      parameter-list
      parameter-list , ...

   parameter-list:
      parameter-declaration
      parameter-list , parameter-declaration

   parameter-declaration:
      declaration-specifiers declarator
      declaration-specifiers abstract-declarator(opt)   */

void
pp_c_parameter_type_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  bool want_parm_decl = DECL_P (t) && !(pp->flags & pp_c_flag_abstract);
  tree parms = want_parm_decl ? DECL_ARGUMENTS (t) :  TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t);
  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
  if (parms == void_list_node)
    pp_c_ws_string (pp, "void");
  else
    {
      bool first = true;
      for ( ; parms && parms != void_list_node; parms = TREE_CHAIN (parms))
	{
	  if (!first)
	    pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
	  first = false;
	  pp_declaration_specifiers
	    (pp, want_parm_decl ? parms : TREE_VALUE (parms));
	  if (want_parm_decl)
	    pp_declarator (pp, parms);
	  else
	    pp_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_VALUE (parms));
	}
    }
  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
}

/* abstract-declarator:
      pointer
      pointer(opt) direct-abstract-declarator  */

static void
pp_c_abstract_declarator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == ARRAY_TYPE
	  || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	pp_c_right_paren (pp);
#ifndef noCbC
      if(IS_RECTYPE(t)) 
	return;
#endif
      t = TREE_TYPE (t);
    }

  pp_direct_abstract_declarator (pp, t);
}

/* direct-abstract-declarator:
      ( abstract-declarator )
      direct-abstract-declarator(opt) [ assignment-expression(opt) ]
      direct-abstract-declarator(opt) [ * ]
      direct-abstract-declarator(opt) ( parameter-type-list(opt) )  */

void
pp_c_direct_abstract_declarator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case POINTER_TYPE:
      pp_abstract_declarator (pp, t);
      break;

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      pp_c_parameter_type_list (pp, t);
      pp_direct_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      pp_c_left_bracket (pp);
      if (TYPE_DOMAIN (t) && TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (t)))
	{
	  tree maxval = TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (t));
	  tree type = TREE_TYPE (maxval);

	  if (host_integerp (maxval, 0))
	    pp_wide_integer (pp, tree_low_cst (maxval, 0) + 1);
	  else
	    pp_expression (pp, fold_build2 (PLUS_EXPR, type, maxval,
					    build_int_cst (type, 1)));
	}
      pp_c_right_bracket (pp);
      pp_direct_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
    case VOID_TYPE:
    case BOOLEAN_TYPE:
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
    case REAL_TYPE:
    case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
    case VECTOR_TYPE:
    case COMPLEX_TYPE:
    case TYPE_DECL:
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}

/* type-name:
      specifier-qualifier-list  abstract-declarator(opt)  */

void
pp_c_type_id (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (pp, t);
  pp_abstract_declarator (pp, t);
}

/* storage-class-specifier:
      typedef
      extern
      static
      auto
      register  */

void
pp_c_storage_class_specifier (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == TYPE_DECL)
    pp_c_ws_string (pp, "typedef");
  else if (DECL_P (t))
    {
      if (DECL_REGISTER (t))
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "register");
      else if (TREE_STATIC (t) && TREE_CODE (t) == VAR_DECL)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "static");
    }
}

/* function-specifier:
      inline   */

void
pp_c_function_specifier (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == FUNCTION_DECL && DECL_DECLARED_INLINE_P (t))
    pp_c_ws_string (pp, "inline");
}

/* declaration-specifiers:
      storage-class-specifier declaration-specifiers(opt)
      type-specifier declaration-specifiers(opt)
      type-qualifier declaration-specifiers(opt)
      function-specifier declaration-specifiers(opt)  */

void
pp_c_declaration_specifiers (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_storage_class_specifier (pp, t);
  pp_function_specifier (pp, t);
  pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list (pp, DECL_P (t) ?  TREE_TYPE (t) : t);
}

/* direct-declarator
      identifier
      ( declarator )
      direct-declarator [ type-qualifier-list(opt) assignment-expression(opt) ]
      direct-declarator [ static type-qualifier-list(opt) assignment-expression(opt)]
      direct-declarator [ type-qualifier-list static assignment-expression ]
      direct-declarator [ type-qualifier-list * ]
      direct-declarator ( parameter-type-list )
      direct-declarator ( identifier-list(opt) )  */

void
pp_c_direct_declarator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case TYPE_DECL:
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case LABEL_DECL:
      pp_c_space_for_pointer_operator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (pp, t);
      break;

    case ARRAY_TYPE:
    case POINTER_TYPE:
      pp_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      pp_parameter_list (pp, t);
      pp_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      break;

    case FUNCTION_DECL:
      pp_c_space_for_pointer_operator (pp, TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (t)));
      pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (pp, t);
      if (pp_c_base (pp)->flags & pp_c_flag_abstract)
	pp_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (t));
      else
	{
	  pp_parameter_list (pp, t);
	  pp_abstract_declarator (pp, TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (t)));
	}
      break;

    case INTEGER_TYPE:
    case REAL_TYPE:
    case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}


/* declarator:
      pointer(opt)  direct-declarator   */

void
pp_c_declarator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
    case REAL_TYPE:
    case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
      break;

    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case TYPE_DECL:
      pp_direct_declarator (pp, t);
    break;


    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}

/* declaration:
      declaration-specifiers init-declarator-list(opt) ;  */

void
pp_c_declaration (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_declaration_specifiers (pp, t);
  pp_c_init_declarator (pp, t);
}

/* Pretty-print ATTRIBUTES using GNU C extension syntax.  */

void
pp_c_attributes (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree attributes)
{
  if (attributes == NULL_TREE)
    return;

  pp_c_ws_string (pp, "__attribute__");
  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
  for (; attributes != NULL_TREE; attributes = TREE_CHAIN (attributes))
    {
      pp_tree_identifier (pp, TREE_PURPOSE (attributes));
      if (TREE_VALUE (attributes))
	pp_c_call_argument_list (pp, TREE_VALUE (attributes));

      if (TREE_CHAIN (attributes))
	pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
    }
  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
}

/* function-definition:
      declaration-specifiers declarator compound-statement  */

void
pp_c_function_definition (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_declaration_specifiers (pp, t);
  pp_declarator (pp, t);
  pp_needs_newline (pp) = true;
  pp_statement (pp, DECL_SAVED_TREE (t));
  pp_newline (pp);
  pp_flush (pp);
}


/* Expressions.  */

/* Print out a c-char.  This is called solely for characters which are
   in the *target* execution character set.  We ought to convert them
   back to the *host* execution character set before printing, but we
   have no way to do this at present.  A decent compromise is to print
   all characters as if they were in the host execution character set,
   and not attempt to recover any named escape characters, but render
   all unprintables as octal escapes.  If the host and target character
   sets are the same, this produces relatively readable output.  If they
   are not the same, strings may appear as gibberish, but that's okay
   (in fact, it may well be what the reader wants, e.g. if they are looking
   to see if conversion to the target character set happened correctly).

   A special case: we need to prefix \, ", and ' with backslashes.  It is
   correct to do so for the *host*'s \, ", and ', because the rest of the
   file appears in the host character set.  */

static void
pp_c_char (c_pretty_printer *pp, int c)
{
  if (ISPRINT (c))
    {
      switch (c)
	{
	case '\\': pp_string (pp, "\\\\"); break;
	case '\'': pp_string (pp, "\\\'"); break;
	case '\"': pp_string (pp, "\\\""); break;
	default:   pp_character (pp, c);
	}
    }
  else
    pp_scalar (pp, "\\%03o", (unsigned) c);
}

/* Print out a STRING literal.  */

void
pp_c_string_literal (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree s)
{
  const char *p = TREE_STRING_POINTER (s);
  int n = TREE_STRING_LENGTH (s) - 1;
  int i;
  pp_doublequote (pp);
  for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
    pp_c_char (pp, p[i]);
  pp_doublequote (pp);
}

/* Pretty-print an INTEGER literal.  */

static void
pp_c_integer_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree i)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (i);

  if (TREE_INT_CST_HIGH (i) == 0)
    pp_wide_integer (pp, TREE_INT_CST_LOW (i));
  else
    {
      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT low = TREE_INT_CST_LOW (i);
      HOST_WIDE_INT high = TREE_INT_CST_HIGH (i);
      if (tree_int_cst_sgn (i) < 0)
	{
	  pp_character (pp, '-');
	  high = ~high + !low;
	  low = -low;
	}
      sprintf (pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer, HOST_WIDE_INT_PRINT_DOUBLE_HEX,
	       (unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT) high, (unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT) low);
      pp_string (pp, pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer);
    }
  if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type))
    pp_character (pp, 'u');
  if (type == long_integer_type_node || type == long_unsigned_type_node)
    pp_character (pp, 'l');
  else if (type == long_long_integer_type_node
	   || type == long_long_unsigned_type_node)
    pp_string (pp, "ll");
  else if (type == int128_integer_type_node
           || type == int128_unsigned_type_node)
    pp_string (pp, "I128");
}

/* Print out a CHARACTER literal.  */

static void
pp_c_character_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree c)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (c);
  if (type == wchar_type_node)
    pp_character (pp, 'L');
  pp_quote (pp);
  if (host_integerp (c, TYPE_UNSIGNED (type)))
    pp_c_char (pp, tree_low_cst (c, TYPE_UNSIGNED (type)));
  else
    pp_scalar (pp, "\\x%x", (unsigned) TREE_INT_CST_LOW (c));
  pp_quote (pp);
}

/* Print out a BOOLEAN literal.  */

static void
pp_c_bool_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree b)
{
  if (b == boolean_false_node)
    {
      if (c_dialect_cxx ())
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "false");
      else if (flag_isoc99)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "_False");
      else
	pp_unsupported_tree (pp, b);
    }
  else if (b == boolean_true_node)
    {
      if (c_dialect_cxx ())
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "true");
      else if (flag_isoc99)
	pp_c_ws_string (pp, "_True");
      else
	pp_unsupported_tree (pp, b);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (b) == INTEGER_CST)
    pp_c_integer_constant (pp, b);
  else
    pp_unsupported_tree (pp, b);
}

/* Attempt to print out an ENUMERATOR.  Return true on success.  Else return
   false; that means the value was obtained by a cast, in which case
   print out the type-id part of the cast-expression -- the casted value
   is then printed by pp_c_integer_literal.  */

static bool
pp_c_enumeration_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  bool value_is_named = true;
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);
  tree value;

  /* Find the name of this constant.  */
  for (value = TYPE_VALUES (type);
       value != NULL_TREE && !tree_int_cst_equal (TREE_VALUE (value), e);
       value = TREE_CHAIN (value))
    ;

  if (value != NULL_TREE)
    pp_id_expression (pp, TREE_PURPOSE (value));
  else
    {
      /* Value must have been cast.  */
      pp_c_type_cast (pp, type);
      value_is_named = false;
    }

  return value_is_named;
}

/* Print out a REAL value as a decimal-floating-constant.  */

static void
pp_c_floating_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree r)
{
  real_to_decimal (pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer, &TREE_REAL_CST (r),
		   sizeof (pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer), 0, 1);
  pp_string (pp, pp_buffer(pp)->digit_buffer);
  if (TREE_TYPE (r) == float_type_node)
    pp_character (pp, 'f');
  else if (TREE_TYPE (r) == long_double_type_node)
    pp_character (pp, 'l');
  else if (TREE_TYPE (r) == dfloat128_type_node)
    pp_string (pp, "dl");
  else if (TREE_TYPE (r) == dfloat64_type_node)
    pp_string (pp, "dd");
  else if (TREE_TYPE (r) == dfloat32_type_node)
    pp_string (pp, "df");
}

/* Print out a FIXED value as a decimal-floating-constant.  */

static void
pp_c_fixed_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree r)
{
  fixed_to_decimal (pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer, &TREE_FIXED_CST (r),
		   sizeof (pp_buffer (pp)->digit_buffer));
  pp_string (pp, pp_buffer(pp)->digit_buffer);
}

/* Pretty-print a compound literal expression.  GNU extensions include
   vector constants.  */

static void
pp_c_compound_literal (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);
  pp_c_type_cast (pp, type);

  switch (TREE_CODE (type))
    {
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
    case VECTOR_TYPE:
    case COMPLEX_TYPE:
      pp_c_brace_enclosed_initializer_list (pp, e);
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* Pretty-print a COMPLEX_EXPR expression.  */

static void
pp_c_complex_expr (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  /* Handle a few common special cases, otherwise fallback
     to printing it as compound literal.  */
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);
  tree realexpr = TREE_OPERAND (e, 0);
  tree imagexpr = TREE_OPERAND (e, 1);

  /* Cast of an COMPLEX_TYPE expression to a different COMPLEX_TYPE.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (realexpr) == NOP_EXPR
      && TREE_CODE (imagexpr) == NOP_EXPR
      && TREE_TYPE (realexpr) == TREE_TYPE (type)
      && TREE_TYPE (imagexpr) == TREE_TYPE (type)
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (realexpr, 0)) == REALPART_EXPR
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (imagexpr, 0)) == IMAGPART_EXPR
      && TREE_OPERAND (TREE_OPERAND (realexpr, 0), 0)
	 == TREE_OPERAND (TREE_OPERAND (imagexpr, 0), 0))
    {
      pp_c_type_cast (pp, type);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (TREE_OPERAND (realexpr, 0), 0));
      return;
    }

  /* Cast of an scalar expression to COMPLEX_TYPE.  */
  if ((integer_zerop (imagexpr) || real_zerop (imagexpr))
      && TREE_TYPE (realexpr) == TREE_TYPE (type))
    {
      pp_c_type_cast (pp, type);
      if (TREE_CODE (realexpr) == NOP_EXPR)
	realexpr = TREE_OPERAND (realexpr, 0);
      pp_expression (pp, realexpr);
      return;
    }

  pp_c_compound_literal (pp, e);
}

/* constant:
      integer-constant
      floating-constant
      fixed-point-constant
      enumeration-constant
      character-constant   */

void
pp_c_constant (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  const enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);

  switch (code)
    {
    case INTEGER_CST:
      {
	tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);
	if (type == boolean_type_node)
	  pp_c_bool_constant (pp, e);
	else if (type == char_type_node)
	  pp_c_character_constant (pp, e);
	else if (TREE_CODE (type) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
		 && pp_c_enumeration_constant (pp, e))
	  ;
	else
	  pp_c_integer_constant (pp, e);
      }
      break;

    case REAL_CST:
      pp_c_floating_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case FIXED_CST:
      pp_c_fixed_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case STRING_CST:
      pp_c_string_literal (pp, e);
      break;

    case COMPLEX_CST:
      /* Sometimes, we are confused and we think a complex literal
         is a constant.  Such thing is a compound literal which
         grammatically belongs to postfix-expr production.  */
      pp_c_compound_literal (pp, e);
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* Pretty-print a string such as an identifier, without changing its
   encoding, preceded by whitespace is necessary.  */

void
pp_c_ws_string (c_pretty_printer *pp, const char *str)
{
  pp_c_maybe_whitespace (pp);
  pp_string (pp, str);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_before;
}

/* Pretty-print an IDENTIFIER_NODE, which may contain UTF-8 sequences
   that need converting to the locale encoding, preceded by whitespace
   is necessary.  */

void
pp_c_identifier (c_pretty_printer *pp, const char *id)
{
  pp_c_maybe_whitespace (pp);
  pp_identifier (pp, id);
  pp_base (pp)->padding = pp_before;
}

/* Pretty-print a C primary-expression.
   primary-expression:
      identifier
      constant
      string-literal
      ( expression )   */

void
pp_c_primary_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (e))
    {
    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case CONST_DECL:
    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case LABEL_DECL:
      pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (pp, e);
      break;

    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
      pp_c_tree_identifier (pp, e);
      break;

    case ERROR_MARK:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<erroneous-expression>"));
      break;

    case RESULT_DECL:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, M_("<return-value>"));
      break;

    case INTEGER_CST:
    case REAL_CST:
    case FIXED_CST:
    case STRING_CST:
      pp_c_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case TARGET_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, "__builtin_memcpy");
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_ampersand (pp);
      pp_primary_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
      pp_ampersand (pp);
      pp_initializer (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      if (TREE_OPERAND (e, 2))
	{
	  pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
	  pp_c_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 2));
	}
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;

    default:
      /* FIXME:  Make sure we won't get into an infinite loop.  */
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, e);
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;
    }
}

/* Print out a C initializer -- also support C compound-literals.
   initializer:
      assignment-expression:
      { initializer-list }
      { initializer-list , }   */

static void
pp_c_initializer (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    pp_c_brace_enclosed_initializer_list (pp, e);
  else
    pp_expression (pp, e);
}

/* init-declarator:
      declarator:
      declarator = initializer   */

void
pp_c_init_declarator (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_declarator (pp, t);
  /* We don't want to output function definitions here.  There are handled
     elsewhere (and the syntactic form is bogus anyway).  */
  if (TREE_CODE (t) != FUNCTION_DECL && DECL_INITIAL (t))
    {
      tree init = DECL_INITIAL (t);
      /* This C++ bit is handled here because it is easier to do so.
	 In templates, the C++ parser builds a TREE_LIST for a
	 direct-initialization; the TREE_PURPOSE is the variable to
	 initialize and the TREE_VALUE is the initializer.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (init) == TREE_LIST)
	{
	  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
	  pp_expression (pp, TREE_VALUE (init));
	  pp_right_paren (pp);
	}
      else
	{
	  pp_space (pp);
	  pp_equal (pp);
	  pp_space (pp);
	  pp_c_initializer (pp, init);
	}
    }
}

/* initializer-list:
      designation(opt) initializer
      initializer-list , designation(opt) initializer

   designation:
      designator-list =

   designator-list:
      designator
      designator-list designator

   designator:
      [ constant-expression ]
      identifier   */

static void
pp_c_initializer_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);
  const enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);

  if (TREE_CODE (e) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      pp_c_constructor_elts (pp, CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (e));
      return;
    }

  switch (code)
    {
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      {
	tree init = TREE_OPERAND (e, 0);
	for (; init != NULL_TREE; init = TREE_CHAIN (init))
	  {
	    if (code == RECORD_TYPE || code == UNION_TYPE)
	      {
		pp_c_dot (pp);
		pp_c_primary_expression (pp, TREE_PURPOSE (init));
	      }
	    else
	      {
		pp_c_left_bracket (pp);
		if (TREE_PURPOSE (init))
		  pp_c_constant (pp, TREE_PURPOSE (init));
		pp_c_right_bracket (pp);
	      }
	    pp_c_whitespace (pp);
	    pp_equal (pp);
	    pp_c_whitespace (pp);
	    pp_initializer (pp, TREE_VALUE (init));
	    if (TREE_CHAIN (init))
	      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
	  }
      }
      return;

    case VECTOR_TYPE:
      if (TREE_CODE (e) == VECTOR_CST)
	pp_c_expression_list (pp, TREE_VECTOR_CST_ELTS (e));
      else
	break;
      return;

    case COMPLEX_TYPE:
      if (TREE_CODE (e) == COMPLEX_CST || TREE_CODE (e) == COMPLEX_EXPR)
	{
	  const bool cst = TREE_CODE (e) == COMPLEX_CST;
	  pp_expression (pp, cst ? TREE_REALPART (e) : TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
	  pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
	  pp_expression (pp, cst ? TREE_IMAGPART (e) : TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
	}
      else
	break;
      return;

    default:
      break;
    }

  pp_unsupported_tree (pp, type);
}

/* Pretty-print a brace-enclosed initializer-list.  */

static void
pp_c_brace_enclosed_initializer_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree l)
{
  pp_c_left_brace (pp);
  pp_c_initializer_list (pp, l);
  pp_c_right_brace (pp);
}


/*  This is a convenient function, used to bridge gap between C and C++
    grammars.

    id-expression:
       identifier  */

void
pp_c_id_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case CONST_DECL:
    case TYPE_DECL:
    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case LABEL_DECL:
      pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (pp, t);
      break;

    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
      pp_c_tree_identifier (pp, t);
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, t);
      break;
    }
}

/* postfix-expression:
      primary-expression
      postfix-expression [ expression ]
      postfix-expression ( argument-expression-list(opt) )
      postfix-expression . identifier
      postfix-expression -> identifier
      postfix-expression ++
      postfix-expression --
      ( type-name ) { initializer-list }
      ( type-name ) { initializer-list , }  */

void
pp_c_postfix_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case POSTINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTDECREMENT_EXPR:
      pp_postfix_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_string (pp, code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR ? "++" : "--");
      break;

    case ARRAY_REF:
      pp_postfix_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_left_bracket (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      pp_c_right_bracket (pp);
      break;

    case CALL_EXPR:
      {
	call_expr_arg_iterator iter;
	tree arg;
	pp_postfix_expression (pp, CALL_EXPR_FN (e));
	pp_c_left_paren (pp);
	FOR_EACH_CALL_EXPR_ARG (arg, iter, e)
	  {
	    pp_expression (pp, arg);
	    if (more_call_expr_args_p (&iter))
	      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
	  }
	pp_c_right_paren (pp);
	break;
      }

    case UNORDERED_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "isunordered"
			   : "__builtin_isunordered");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case ORDERED_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!isunordered"
			   : "!__builtin_isunordered");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case UNLT_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!isgreaterequal"
			   : "!__builtin_isgreaterequal");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case UNLE_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!isgreater"
			   : "!__builtin_isgreater");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case UNGT_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!islessequal"
			   : "!__builtin_islessequal");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case UNGE_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!isless"
			   : "!__builtin_isless");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case UNEQ_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "!islessgreater"
			   : "!__builtin_islessgreater");
      goto two_args_fun;

    case LTGT_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, flag_isoc99
			   ? "islessgreater"
			   : "__builtin_islessgreater");
      goto two_args_fun;

    two_args_fun:
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;

    case ABS_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, "__builtin_abs");
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;

    case COMPONENT_REF:
      {
	tree object = TREE_OPERAND (e, 0);
	if (TREE_CODE (object) == INDIRECT_REF)
	  {
	    pp_postfix_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (object, 0));
	    pp_c_arrow (pp);
	  }
	else
	  {
	    pp_postfix_expression (pp, object);
	    pp_c_dot (pp);
	  }
	pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      }
      break;

    case BIT_FIELD_REF:
      {
	tree type = TREE_TYPE (e);

	type = signed_or_unsigned_type_for (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type), type);
	if (type
	    && tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_SIZE (type), TREE_OPERAND (e, 1)))
	  {
	    HOST_WIDE_INT bitpos = tree_low_cst (TREE_OPERAND (e, 2), 0);
	    HOST_WIDE_INT size = tree_low_cst (TYPE_SIZE (type), 0);
	    if ((bitpos % size) == 0)
	      {
		pp_c_left_paren (pp);
		pp_c_left_paren (pp);
		pp_type_id (pp, type);
		pp_c_star (pp);
		pp_c_right_paren (pp);
		pp_c_ampersand (pp);
		pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
		pp_c_right_paren (pp);
		pp_c_left_bracket (pp);
		pp_wide_integer (pp, bitpos / size);
		pp_c_right_bracket (pp);
		break;
	      }
	  }
	pp_unsupported_tree (pp, e);
      }
      break;

    case MEM_REF:
      pp_c_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case COMPLEX_CST:
    case VECTOR_CST:
      pp_c_compound_literal (pp, e);
      break;

    case COMPLEX_EXPR:
      pp_c_complex_expr (pp, e);
      break;

    case COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR:
      e = DECL_INITIAL (COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR_DECL (e));
      /* Fall through.  */
    case CONSTRUCTOR:
      pp_initializer (pp, e);
      break;

    case VA_ARG_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, "__builtin_va_arg");
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_assignment_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
      pp_type_id (pp, TREE_TYPE (e));
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;

    case ADDR_EXPR:
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (e, 0)) == FUNCTION_DECL)
	{
	  pp_c_id_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
	  break;
	}
      /* else fall through.  */

    default:
      pp_primary_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* Print out an expression-list; E is expected to be a TREE_LIST.  */

void
pp_c_expression_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  for (; e != NULL_TREE; e = TREE_CHAIN (e))
    {
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_VALUE (e));
      if (TREE_CHAIN (e))
	pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
    }
}

/* Print out V, which contains the elements of a constructor.  */

void
pp_c_constructor_elts (c_pretty_printer *pp, VEC(constructor_elt,gc) *v)
{
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT ix;
  tree value;

  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_VALUE (v, ix, value)
    {
      pp_expression (pp, value);
      if (ix != VEC_length (constructor_elt, v) - 1)
	pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
    }
}

/* Print out an expression-list in parens, as if it were the argument
   list to a function.  */

void
pp_c_call_argument_list (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  pp_c_left_paren (pp);
  if (t && TREE_CODE (t) == TREE_LIST)
    pp_c_expression_list (pp, t);
  pp_c_right_paren (pp);
}

/* unary-expression:
      postfix-expression
      ++ cast-expression
      -- cast-expression
      unary-operator cast-expression
      sizeof unary-expression
      sizeof ( type-id )

  unary-operator: one of
      * &  + - ! ~

   GNU extensions.
   unary-expression:
      __alignof__ unary-expression
      __alignof__ ( type-id )
      __real__ unary-expression
      __imag__ unary-expression  */

void
pp_c_unary_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case PREINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case PREDECREMENT_EXPR:
      pp_string (pp, code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR ? "++" : "--");
      pp_c_unary_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      break;

    case ADDR_EXPR:
    case INDIRECT_REF:
    case NEGATE_EXPR:
    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
    case CONJ_EXPR:
      /* String literal are used by address.  */
      if (code == ADDR_EXPR && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (e, 0)) != STRING_CST)
	pp_ampersand (pp);
      else if (code == INDIRECT_REF)
	pp_c_star (pp);
      else if (code == NEGATE_EXPR)
	pp_minus (pp);
      else if (code == BIT_NOT_EXPR || code == CONJ_EXPR)
	pp_complement (pp);
      else if (code == TRUTH_NOT_EXPR)
	pp_exclamation (pp);
      pp_c_cast_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      break;

    case MEM_REF:
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (e, 0)) == ADDR_EXPR
	  && integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (e, 1)))
	pp_c_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (TREE_OPERAND (e, 0), 0));
      else
	{
	  pp_c_star (pp);
	  if (!integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (e, 1)))
	    {
	      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
	      if (!integer_onep (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT
				 (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (e, 0))))))
		pp_c_type_cast (pp, ptr_type_node);
	    }
	  pp_c_cast_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
	  if (!integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (e, 1)))
	    {
	      pp_plus (pp);
	      pp_c_integer_constant (pp,
				     fold_convert (ssizetype,
						   TREE_OPERAND (e, 1)));
	      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
	    }
	}
      break;

    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
      pp_c_ws_string (pp, code == REALPART_EXPR ? "__real__" : "__imag__");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_unary_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      break;

    default:
      pp_postfix_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* cast-expression:
      unary-expression
      ( type-name ) cast-expression  */

void
pp_c_cast_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (e))
    {
    case FLOAT_EXPR:
    case FIX_TRUNC_EXPR:
    CASE_CONVERT:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
      pp_c_type_cast (pp, TREE_TYPE (e));
      pp_c_cast_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      break;

    default:
      pp_unary_expression (pp, e);
    }
}

/* multiplicative-expression:
      cast-expression
      multiplicative-expression * cast-expression
      multiplicative-expression / cast-expression
      multiplicative-expression % cast-expression   */

static void
pp_c_multiplicative_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case MULT_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_MOD_EXPR:
      pp_multiplicative_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      if (code == MULT_EXPR)
	pp_c_star (pp);
      else if (code == TRUNC_DIV_EXPR)
	pp_slash (pp);
      else
	pp_modulo (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_cast_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    default:
      pp_c_cast_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* additive-expression:
      multiplicative-expression
      additive-expression + multiplicative-expression
      additive-expression - multiplicative-expression   */

static void
pp_c_additive_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
    case PLUS_EXPR:
    case MINUS_EXPR:
      pp_c_additive_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      if (code == PLUS_EXPR || code == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR)
	pp_plus (pp);
      else
	pp_minus (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_multiplicative_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    default:
      pp_multiplicative_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* additive-expression:
      additive-expression
      shift-expression << additive-expression
      shift-expression >> additive-expression   */

static void
pp_c_shift_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case LSHIFT_EXPR:
    case RSHIFT_EXPR:
      pp_c_shift_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_string (pp, code == LSHIFT_EXPR ? "<<" : ">>");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_additive_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    default:
      pp_c_additive_expression (pp, e);
    }
}

/* relational-expression:
      shift-expression
      relational-expression < shift-expression
      relational-expression > shift-expression
      relational-expression <= shift-expression
      relational-expression >= shift-expression   */

static void
pp_c_relational_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case LT_EXPR:
    case GT_EXPR:
    case LE_EXPR:
    case GE_EXPR:
      pp_c_relational_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      if (code == LT_EXPR)
	pp_less (pp);
      else if (code == GT_EXPR)
	pp_greater (pp);
      else if (code == LE_EXPR)
	pp_string (pp, "<=");
      else if (code == GE_EXPR)
	pp_string (pp, ">=");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_shift_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    default:
      pp_c_shift_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* equality-expression:
      relational-expression
      equality-expression == relational-expression
      equality-equality != relational-expression  */

static void
pp_c_equality_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (e);
  switch (code)
    {
    case EQ_EXPR:
    case NE_EXPR:
      pp_c_equality_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_string (pp, code == EQ_EXPR ? "==" : "!=");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_relational_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    default:
      pp_c_relational_expression (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}

/* AND-expression:
      equality-expression
      AND-expression & equality-equality   */

static void
pp_c_and_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == BIT_AND_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_and_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_ampersand (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_equality_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_equality_expression (pp, e);
}

/* exclusive-OR-expression:
     AND-expression
     exclusive-OR-expression ^ AND-expression  */

static void
pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == BIT_XOR_EXPR
      || TREE_CODE (e) == TRUTH_XOR_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      if (TREE_CODE (e) == BIT_XOR_EXPR)
	pp_c_maybe_whitespace (pp);
      else
	pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_carret (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_and_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_and_expression (pp, e);
}

/* inclusive-OR-expression:
     exclusive-OR-expression
     inclusive-OR-expression | exclusive-OR-expression  */

static void
pp_c_inclusive_or_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == BIT_IOR_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_bar (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (pp, e);
}

/* logical-AND-expression:
      inclusive-OR-expression
      logical-AND-expression && inclusive-OR-expression  */

static void
pp_c_logical_and_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR
      || TREE_CODE (e) == TRUTH_AND_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_logical_and_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_string (pp, "&&");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_inclusive_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_inclusive_or_expression (pp, e);
}

/* logical-OR-expression:
      logical-AND-expression
      logical-OR-expression || logical-AND-expression  */

void
pp_c_logical_or_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR
      || TREE_CODE (e) == TRUTH_OR_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_logical_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_string (pp, "||");
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_logical_and_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_logical_and_expression (pp, e);
}

/* conditional-expression:
      logical-OR-expression
      logical-OR-expression ? expression : conditional-expression  */

static void
pp_c_conditional_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == COND_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_logical_or_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_question (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_colon (pp);
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_c_conditional_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 2));
    }
  else
    pp_c_logical_or_expression (pp, e);
}


/* assignment-expression:
      conditional-expression
      unary-expression assignment-operator  assignment-expression

   assignment-expression: one of
      =    *=    /=    %=    +=    -=    >>=    <<=    &=    ^=    |=  */

static void
pp_c_assignment_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (e) == MODIFY_EXPR
      || TREE_CODE (e) == INIT_EXPR)
    {
      pp_c_unary_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_c_whitespace (pp);
      pp_equal (pp);
      pp_space (pp);
      pp_c_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
    }
  else
    pp_c_conditional_expression (pp, e);
}

/* expression:
       assignment-expression
       expression , assignment-expression

  Implementation note:  instead of going through the usual recursion
  chain, I take the liberty of dispatching nodes to the appropriate
  functions.  This makes some redundancy, but it worths it. That also
  prevents a possible infinite recursion between pp_c_primary_expression ()
  and pp_c_expression ().  */

void
pp_c_expression (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree e)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (e))
    {
    case INTEGER_CST:
      pp_c_integer_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case REAL_CST:
      pp_c_floating_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case FIXED_CST:
      pp_c_fixed_constant (pp, e);
      break;

    case STRING_CST:
      pp_c_string_literal (pp, e);
      break;

    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case VAR_DECL:
    case CONST_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case RESULT_DECL:
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case LABEL_DECL:
    case ERROR_MARK:
      pp_primary_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case POSTINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTDECREMENT_EXPR:
    case ARRAY_REF:
    case CALL_EXPR:
    case COMPONENT_REF:
    case BIT_FIELD_REF:
    case COMPLEX_CST:
    case COMPLEX_EXPR:
    case VECTOR_CST:
    case ORDERED_EXPR:
    case UNORDERED_EXPR:
    case LTGT_EXPR:
    case UNEQ_EXPR:
    case UNLE_EXPR:
    case UNLT_EXPR:
    case UNGE_EXPR:
    case UNGT_EXPR:
    case ABS_EXPR:
    case CONSTRUCTOR:
    case COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR:
    case VA_ARG_EXPR:
      pp_postfix_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case CONJ_EXPR:
    case ADDR_EXPR:
    case INDIRECT_REF:
    case MEM_REF:
    case NEGATE_EXPR:
    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
    case PREINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case PREDECREMENT_EXPR:
    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
      pp_c_unary_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case FLOAT_EXPR:
    case FIX_TRUNC_EXPR:
    CASE_CONVERT:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
      pp_c_cast_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case MULT_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_MOD_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
      pp_multiplicative_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case LSHIFT_EXPR:
    case RSHIFT_EXPR:
      pp_c_shift_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case LT_EXPR:
    case GT_EXPR:
    case LE_EXPR:
    case GE_EXPR:
      pp_c_relational_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case BIT_AND_EXPR:
      pp_c_and_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_XOR_EXPR:
      pp_c_exclusive_or_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
      pp_c_inclusive_or_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_AND_EXPR:
      pp_c_logical_and_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_OR_EXPR:
      pp_c_logical_or_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case EQ_EXPR:
    case NE_EXPR:
      pp_c_equality_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case COND_EXPR:
      pp_conditional_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
    case PLUS_EXPR:
    case MINUS_EXPR:
      pp_c_additive_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case MODIFY_EXPR:
    case INIT_EXPR:
      pp_assignment_expression (pp, e);
      break;

    case COMPOUND_EXPR:
      pp_c_left_paren (pp);
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      pp_separate_with (pp, ',');
      pp_assignment_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      pp_c_right_paren (pp);
      break;

    case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
    case SAVE_EXPR:
      pp_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 0));
      break;

    case TARGET_EXPR:
      pp_postfix_expression (pp, TREE_OPERAND (e, 1));
      break;

    case BIND_EXPR:
    case GOTO_EXPR:
      /* We don't yet have a way of dumping statements in a
         human-readable format.  */
      pp_string (pp, "({...})");
      break;

    case C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR:
      pp_c_expression (pp, C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (e));
      break;

    default:
      pp_unsupported_tree (pp, e);
      break;
    }
}



/* Statements.  */

void
pp_c_statement (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree stmt)
{
  if (stmt == NULL)
    return;

  if (pp_needs_newline (pp))
    pp_newline_and_indent (pp, 0);

  dump_generic_node (pp_base (pp), stmt, pp_indentation (pp), 0, true);
}


/* Initialize the PRETTY-PRINTER for handling C codes.  */

void
pp_c_pretty_printer_init (c_pretty_printer *pp)
{
  pp->offset_list               = 0;

  pp->declaration               = pp_c_declaration;
  pp->declaration_specifiers    = pp_c_declaration_specifiers;
  pp->declarator                = pp_c_declarator;
  pp->direct_declarator         = pp_c_direct_declarator;
  pp->type_specifier_seq        = pp_c_specifier_qualifier_list;
  pp->abstract_declarator       = pp_c_abstract_declarator;
  pp->direct_abstract_declarator = pp_c_direct_abstract_declarator;
  pp->ptr_operator              = pp_c_pointer;
  pp->parameter_list            = pp_c_parameter_type_list;
  pp->type_id                   = pp_c_type_id;
  pp->simple_type_specifier     = pp_c_type_specifier;
  pp->function_specifier        = pp_c_function_specifier;
  pp->storage_class_specifier   = pp_c_storage_class_specifier;

  pp->statement                 = pp_c_statement;

  pp->constant                  = pp_c_constant;
  pp->id_expression             = pp_c_id_expression;
  pp->primary_expression        = pp_c_primary_expression;
  pp->postfix_expression        = pp_c_postfix_expression;
  pp->unary_expression          = pp_c_unary_expression;
  pp->initializer               = pp_c_initializer;
  pp->multiplicative_expression = pp_c_multiplicative_expression;
  pp->conditional_expression    = pp_c_conditional_expression;
  pp->assignment_expression     = pp_c_assignment_expression;
  pp->expression                = pp_c_expression;
}


/* Print the tree T in full, on file FILE.  */

void
print_c_tree (FILE *file, tree t)
{
  static c_pretty_printer pp_rec;
  static bool initialized = 0;
  c_pretty_printer *pp = &pp_rec;

  if (!initialized)
    {
      initialized = 1;
      pp_construct (pp_base (pp), NULL, 0);
      pp_c_pretty_printer_init (pp);
      pp_needs_newline (pp) = true;
    }
  pp_base (pp)->buffer->stream = file;

  pp_statement (pp, t);

  pp_newline (pp);
  pp_flush (pp);
}

/* Print the tree T in full, on stderr.  */

DEBUG_FUNCTION void
debug_c_tree (tree t)
{
  print_c_tree (stderr, t);
  fputc ('\n', stderr);
}

/* Output the DECL_NAME of T.  If T has no DECL_NAME, output a string made
   up of T's memory address.  */

void
pp_c_tree_decl_identifier (c_pretty_printer *pp, tree t)
{
  const char *name;

  gcc_assert (DECL_P (t));

  if (DECL_NAME (t))
    name = IDENTIFIER_POINTER (DECL_NAME (t));
  else
    {
      static char xname[8];
      sprintf (xname, "<U%4x>", ((unsigned)((uintptr_t)(t) & 0xffff)));
      name = xname;
    }

  pp_c_identifier (pp, name);
}