view gcc/c/c-typeck.c @ 16:04ced10e8804

gcc 7
author kono
date Fri, 27 Oct 2017 22:46:09 +0900
parents
children 84e7813d76e9
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/* Build expressions with type checking for C compiler.
   Copyright (C) 1987-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This file is part of GCC.

GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later
version.

GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */


/* This file is part of the C front end.
   It contains routines to build C expressions given their operands,
   including computing the types of the result, C-specific error checks,
   and some optimization.  */

#include "config.h"
#include "system.h"
#include "coretypes.h"
#include "memmodel.h"
#include "target.h"
#include "function.h"
#include "bitmap.h"
#include "c-tree.h"
#include "gimple-expr.h"
#include "predict.h"
#include "stor-layout.h"
#include "trans-mem.h"
#include "varasm.h"
#include "stmt.h"
#include "langhooks.h"
#include "c-lang.h"
#include "intl.h"
#include "tree-iterator.h"
#include "gimplify.h"
#include "tree-inline.h"
#include "omp-general.h"
#include "c-family/c-objc.h"
#include "c-family/c-ubsan.h"
#include "cilk.h"
#include "gomp-constants.h"
#include "spellcheck-tree.h"
#include "gcc-rich-location.h"
#include "stringpool.h"
#include "attribs.h"
#include "asan.h"

/* Possible cases of implicit bad conversions.  Used to select
   diagnostic messages in convert_for_assignment.  */
enum impl_conv {
  ic_argpass,
  ic_assign,
  ic_init,
  ic_return
};

/* The level of nesting inside "__alignof__".  */
int in_alignof;

/* The level of nesting inside "sizeof".  */
int in_sizeof;

/* The level of nesting inside "typeof".  */
int in_typeof;

/* The argument of last parsed sizeof expression, only to be tested
   if expr.original_code == SIZEOF_EXPR.  */
tree c_last_sizeof_arg;
location_t c_last_sizeof_loc;

/* Nonzero if we might need to print a "missing braces around
   initializer" message within this initializer.  */
static int found_missing_braces;

static int require_constant_value;
static int require_constant_elements;

static bool null_pointer_constant_p (const_tree);
static tree qualify_type (tree, tree);
static int tagged_types_tu_compatible_p (const_tree, const_tree, bool *,
					 bool *);
static int comp_target_types (location_t, tree, tree);
static int function_types_compatible_p (const_tree, const_tree, bool *,
					bool *);
static int type_lists_compatible_p (const_tree, const_tree, bool *, bool *);
static tree lookup_field (tree, tree);
static int convert_arguments (location_t, vec<location_t>, tree,
			      vec<tree, va_gc> *, vec<tree, va_gc> *, tree,
			      tree);
static tree pointer_diff (location_t, tree, tree);
static tree convert_for_assignment (location_t, location_t, tree, tree, tree,
				    enum impl_conv, bool, tree, tree, int);
static tree valid_compound_expr_initializer (tree, tree);
static void push_string (const char *);
static void push_member_name (tree);
static int spelling_length (void);
static char *print_spelling (char *);
static void warning_init (location_t, int, const char *);
static tree digest_init (location_t, tree, tree, tree, bool, bool, int);
static void output_init_element (location_t, tree, tree, bool, tree, tree, bool,
				 bool, struct obstack *);
static void output_pending_init_elements (int, struct obstack *);
static bool set_designator (location_t, bool, struct obstack *);
static void push_range_stack (tree, struct obstack *);
static void add_pending_init (location_t, tree, tree, tree, bool,
			      struct obstack *);
static void set_nonincremental_init (struct obstack *);
static void set_nonincremental_init_from_string (tree, struct obstack *);
static tree find_init_member (tree, struct obstack *);
static void readonly_warning (tree, enum lvalue_use);
static int lvalue_or_else (location_t, const_tree, enum lvalue_use);
static void record_maybe_used_decl (tree);
static int comptypes_internal (const_tree, const_tree, bool *, bool *);

/* Return true if EXP is a null pointer constant, false otherwise.  */

static bool
null_pointer_constant_p (const_tree expr)
{
  /* This should really operate on c_expr structures, but they aren't
     yet available everywhere required.  */
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (expr);
  return (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST
	  && !TREE_OVERFLOW (expr)
	  && integer_zerop (expr)
	  && (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type)
	      || (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
		  && VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type))
		  && TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (type)) == TYPE_UNQUALIFIED)));
}

/* EXPR may appear in an unevaluated part of an integer constant
   expression, but not in an evaluated part.  Wrap it in a
   C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, or mark it with TREE_OVERFLOW if it is just an
   INTEGER_CST and we cannot create a C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR.  */

static tree
note_integer_operands (tree expr)
{
  tree ret;
  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST && in_late_binary_op)
    {
      ret = copy_node (expr);
      TREE_OVERFLOW (ret) = 1;
    }
  else
    {
      ret = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (expr), NULL_TREE, expr);
      C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_INT_OPERANDS (ret) = 1;
    }
  return ret;
}

/* Having checked whether EXPR may appear in an unevaluated part of an
   integer constant expression and found that it may, remove any
   C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR noting this fact and return the resulting
   expression.  */

static inline tree
remove_c_maybe_const_expr (tree expr)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
    return C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (expr);
  else
    return expr;
}

/* This is a cache to hold if two types are compatible or not.  */

struct tagged_tu_seen_cache {
  const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * next;
  const_tree t1;
  const_tree t2;
  /* The return value of tagged_types_tu_compatible_p if we had seen
     these two types already.  */
  int val;
};

static const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * tagged_tu_seen_base;
static void free_all_tagged_tu_seen_up_to (const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *);

/* Do `exp = require_complete_type (loc, exp);' to make sure exp
   does not have an incomplete type.  (That includes void types.)
   LOC is the location of the use.  */

tree
require_complete_type (location_t loc, tree value)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (value);

  if (error_operand_p (value))
    return error_mark_node;

  /* First, detect a valid value with a complete type.  */
  if (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (type))
    return value;

  c_incomplete_type_error (loc, value, type);
  return error_mark_node;
}

/* Print an error message for invalid use of an incomplete type.
   VALUE is the expression that was used (or 0 if that isn't known)
   and TYPE is the type that was invalid.  LOC is the location for
   the error.  */

void
c_incomplete_type_error (location_t loc, const_tree value, const_tree type)
{
  /* Avoid duplicate error message.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ERROR_MARK)
    return;

  if (value != NULL_TREE && (VAR_P (value) || TREE_CODE (value) == PARM_DECL))
    error_at (loc, "%qD has an incomplete type %qT", value, type);
  else
    {
    retry:
      /* We must print an error message.  Be clever about what it says.  */

      switch (TREE_CODE (type))
	{
	case RECORD_TYPE:
	case UNION_TYPE:
	case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
	  break;

	case VOID_TYPE:
	  error_at (loc, "invalid use of void expression");
	  return;

	case ARRAY_TYPE:
	  if (TYPE_DOMAIN (type))
	    {
	      if (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)) == NULL)
		{
		  error_at (loc, "invalid use of flexible array member");
		  return;
		}
	      type = TREE_TYPE (type);
	      goto retry;
	    }
	  error_at (loc, "invalid use of array with unspecified bounds");
	  return;

	default:
	  gcc_unreachable ();
	}

      if (TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (type)) == IDENTIFIER_NODE)
	error_at (loc, "invalid use of undefined type %qT", type);
      else
	/* If this type has a typedef-name, the TYPE_NAME is a TYPE_DECL.  */
	error_at (loc, "invalid use of incomplete typedef %qT", type);
    }
}

/* Given a type, apply default promotions wrt unnamed function
   arguments and return the new type.  */

tree
c_type_promotes_to (tree type)
{
  tree ret = NULL_TREE;

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type) == float_type_node)
    ret = double_type_node;
  else if (c_promoting_integer_type_p (type))
    {
      /* Preserve unsignedness if not really getting any wider.  */
      if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type)
	  && (TYPE_PRECISION (type) == TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node)))
	ret = unsigned_type_node;
      else
	ret = integer_type_node;
    }

  if (ret != NULL_TREE)
    return (TYPE_ATOMIC (type)
	    ? c_build_qualified_type (ret, TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	    : ret);

  return type;
}

/* Return true if between two named address spaces, whether there is a superset
   named address space that encompasses both address spaces.  If there is a
   superset, return which address space is the superset.  */

static bool
addr_space_superset (addr_space_t as1, addr_space_t as2, addr_space_t *common)
{
  if (as1 == as2)
    {
      *common = as1;
      return true;
    }
  else if (targetm.addr_space.subset_p (as1, as2))
    {
      *common = as2;
      return true;
    }
  else if (targetm.addr_space.subset_p (as2, as1))
    {
      *common = as1;
      return true;
    }
  else
    return false;
}

/* Return a variant of TYPE which has all the type qualifiers of LIKE
   as well as those of TYPE.  */

static tree
qualify_type (tree type, tree like)
{
  addr_space_t as_type = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (type);
  addr_space_t as_like = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (like);
  addr_space_t as_common;

  /* If the two named address spaces are different, determine the common
     superset address space.  If there isn't one, raise an error.  */
  if (!addr_space_superset (as_type, as_like, &as_common))
    {
      as_common = as_type;
      error ("%qT and %qT are in disjoint named address spaces",
	     type, like);
    }

  return c_build_qualified_type (type,
				 TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (type)
				 | TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE_NO_ATOMIC (like)
				 | ENCODE_QUAL_ADDR_SPACE (as_common));
}

/* Return true iff the given tree T is a variable length array.  */

bool
c_vla_type_p (const_tree t)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && C_TYPE_VARIABLE_SIZE (t))
    return true;
  return false;
}

/* Return the composite type of two compatible types.

   We assume that comptypes has already been done and returned
   nonzero; if that isn't so, this may crash.  In particular, we
   assume that qualifiers match.  */

tree
composite_type (tree t1, tree t2)
{
  enum tree_code code1;
  enum tree_code code2;
  tree attributes;

  /* Save time if the two types are the same.  */

  if (t1 == t2) return t1;

  /* If one type is nonsense, use the other.  */
  if (t1 == error_mark_node)
    return t2;
  if (t2 == error_mark_node)
    return t1;

  code1 = TREE_CODE (t1);
  code2 = TREE_CODE (t2);

  /* Merge the attributes.  */
  attributes = targetm.merge_type_attributes (t1, t2);

  /* If one is an enumerated type and the other is the compatible
     integer type, the composite type might be either of the two
     (DR#013 question 3).  For consistency, use the enumerated type as
     the composite type.  */

  if (code1 == ENUMERAL_TYPE && code2 == INTEGER_TYPE)
    return t1;
  if (code2 == ENUMERAL_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
    return t2;

  gcc_assert (code1 == code2);

  switch (code1)
    {
    case POINTER_TYPE:
      /* For two pointers, do this recursively on the target type.  */
      {
	tree pointed_to_1 = TREE_TYPE (t1);
	tree pointed_to_2 = TREE_TYPE (t2);
	tree target = composite_type (pointed_to_1, pointed_to_2);
        t1 = build_pointer_type_for_mode (target, TYPE_MODE (t1), false);
	t1 = build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	return qualify_type (t1, t2);
      }

    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      {
	tree elt = composite_type (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2));
	int quals;
	tree unqual_elt;
	tree d1 = TYPE_DOMAIN (t1);
	tree d2 = TYPE_DOMAIN (t2);
	bool d1_variable, d2_variable;
	bool d1_zero, d2_zero;
	bool t1_complete, t2_complete;

	/* We should not have any type quals on arrays at all.  */
	gcc_assert (!TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (t1)
		    && !TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (t2));

	t1_complete = COMPLETE_TYPE_P (t1);
	t2_complete = COMPLETE_TYPE_P (t2);

	d1_zero = d1 == NULL_TREE || !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d1);
	d2_zero = d2 == NULL_TREE || !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d2);

	d1_variable = (!d1_zero
		       && (TREE_CODE (TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d1)) != INTEGER_CST
			   || TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d1)) != INTEGER_CST));
	d2_variable = (!d2_zero
		       && (TREE_CODE (TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d2)) != INTEGER_CST
			   || TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d2)) != INTEGER_CST));
	d1_variable = d1_variable || (d1_zero && c_vla_type_p (t1));
	d2_variable = d2_variable || (d2_zero && c_vla_type_p (t2));

	/* Save space: see if the result is identical to one of the args.  */
	if (elt == TREE_TYPE (t1) && TYPE_DOMAIN (t1)
	    && (d2_variable || d2_zero || !d1_variable))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	if (elt == TREE_TYPE (t2) && TYPE_DOMAIN (t2)
	    && (d1_variable || d1_zero || !d2_variable))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t2, attributes);

	if (elt == TREE_TYPE (t1) && !TYPE_DOMAIN (t2) && !TYPE_DOMAIN (t1))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	if (elt == TREE_TYPE (t2) && !TYPE_DOMAIN (t2) && !TYPE_DOMAIN (t1))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t2, attributes);

	/* Merge the element types, and have a size if either arg has
	   one.  We may have qualifiers on the element types.  To set
	   up TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT correctly, we need to form the
	   composite of the unqualified types and add the qualifiers
	   back at the end.  */
	quals = TYPE_QUALS (strip_array_types (elt));
	unqual_elt = c_build_qualified_type (elt, TYPE_UNQUALIFIED);
	t1 = build_array_type (unqual_elt,
			       TYPE_DOMAIN ((TYPE_DOMAIN (t1)
					     && (d2_variable
						 || d2_zero
						 || !d1_variable))
					    ? t1
					    : t2));
	/* Ensure a composite type involving a zero-length array type
	   is a zero-length type not an incomplete type.  */
	if (d1_zero && d2_zero
	    && (t1_complete || t2_complete)
	    && !COMPLETE_TYPE_P (t1))
	  {
	    TYPE_SIZE (t1) = bitsize_zero_node;
	    TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (t1) = size_zero_node;
	  }
	t1 = c_build_qualified_type (t1, quals);
	return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
      }

    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
      if (attributes != NULL)
	{
	  /* Try harder not to create a new aggregate type.  */
	  if (attribute_list_equal (TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t1), attributes))
	    return t1;
	  if (attribute_list_equal (TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t2), attributes))
	    return t2;
	}
      return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      /* Function types: prefer the one that specified arg types.
	 If both do, merge the arg types.  Also merge the return types.  */
      {
	tree valtype = composite_type (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2));
	tree p1 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t1);
	tree p2 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t2);
	int len;
	tree newargs, n;
	int i;

	/* Save space: see if the result is identical to one of the args.  */
	if (valtype == TREE_TYPE (t1) && !TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t2))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	if (valtype == TREE_TYPE (t2) && !TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t1))
	  return build_type_attribute_variant (t2, attributes);

	/* Simple way if one arg fails to specify argument types.  */
	if (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t1) == NULL_TREE)
	 {
	    t1 = build_function_type (valtype, TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t2));
	    t1 = build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	    return qualify_type (t1, t2);
	 }
	if (TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t2) == NULL_TREE)
	 {
	   t1 = build_function_type (valtype, TYPE_ARG_TYPES (t1));
	   t1 = build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
	   return qualify_type (t1, t2);
	 }

	/* If both args specify argument types, we must merge the two
	   lists, argument by argument.  */

	for (len = 0, newargs = p1;
	     newargs && newargs != void_list_node;
	     len++, newargs = TREE_CHAIN (newargs))
	  ;

	for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
	  newargs = tree_cons (NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, newargs);

	n = newargs;

	for (; p1 && p1 != void_list_node;
	     p1 = TREE_CHAIN (p1), p2 = TREE_CHAIN (p2), n = TREE_CHAIN (n))
	  {
	    /* A null type means arg type is not specified.
	       Take whatever the other function type has.  */
	    if (TREE_VALUE (p1) == NULL_TREE)
	      {
		TREE_VALUE (n) = TREE_VALUE (p2);
		goto parm_done;
	      }
	    if (TREE_VALUE (p2) == NULL_TREE)
	      {
		TREE_VALUE (n) = TREE_VALUE (p1);
		goto parm_done;
	      }

	    /* Given  wait (union {union wait *u; int *i} *)
	       and  wait (union wait *),
	       prefer  union wait *  as type of parm.  */
	    if (TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (p1)) == UNION_TYPE
		&& TREE_VALUE (p1) != TREE_VALUE (p2))
	      {
		tree memb;
		tree mv2 = TREE_VALUE (p2);
		if (mv2 && mv2 != error_mark_node
		    && TREE_CODE (mv2) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		  mv2 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv2);
		for (memb = TYPE_FIELDS (TREE_VALUE (p1));
		     memb; memb = DECL_CHAIN (memb))
		  {
		    tree mv3 = TREE_TYPE (memb);
		    if (mv3 && mv3 != error_mark_node
			&& TREE_CODE (mv3) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		      mv3 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3);
		    if (comptypes (mv3, mv2))
		      {
			TREE_VALUE (n) = composite_type (TREE_TYPE (memb),
							 TREE_VALUE (p2));
			pedwarn (input_location, OPT_Wpedantic,
				 "function types not truly compatible in ISO C");
			goto parm_done;
		      }
		  }
	      }
	    if (TREE_CODE (TREE_VALUE (p2)) == UNION_TYPE
		&& TREE_VALUE (p2) != TREE_VALUE (p1))
	      {
		tree memb;
		tree mv1 = TREE_VALUE (p1);
		if (mv1 && mv1 != error_mark_node
		    && TREE_CODE (mv1) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		  mv1 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv1);
		for (memb = TYPE_FIELDS (TREE_VALUE (p2));
		     memb; memb = DECL_CHAIN (memb))
		  {
		    tree mv3 = TREE_TYPE (memb);
		    if (mv3 && mv3 != error_mark_node
			&& TREE_CODE (mv3) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		      mv3 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3);
		    if (comptypes (mv3, mv1))
		      {
			TREE_VALUE (n) = composite_type (TREE_TYPE (memb),
							 TREE_VALUE (p1));
			pedwarn (input_location, OPT_Wpedantic,
				 "function types not truly compatible in ISO C");
			goto parm_done;
		      }
		  }
	      }
	    TREE_VALUE (n) = composite_type (TREE_VALUE (p1), TREE_VALUE (p2));
	  parm_done: ;
	  }

	t1 = build_function_type (valtype, newargs);
	t1 = qualify_type (t1, t2);
      }
      /* FALLTHRU */

    default:
      return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
    }

}

/* Return the type of a conditional expression between pointers to
   possibly differently qualified versions of compatible types.

   We assume that comp_target_types has already been done and returned
   nonzero; if that isn't so, this may crash.  */

static tree
common_pointer_type (tree t1, tree t2)
{
  tree attributes;
  tree pointed_to_1, mv1;
  tree pointed_to_2, mv2;
  tree target;
  unsigned target_quals;
  addr_space_t as1, as2, as_common;
  int quals1, quals2;

  /* Save time if the two types are the same.  */

  if (t1 == t2) return t1;

  /* If one type is nonsense, use the other.  */
  if (t1 == error_mark_node)
    return t2;
  if (t2 == error_mark_node)
    return t1;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (t1) == POINTER_TYPE
	      && TREE_CODE (t2) == POINTER_TYPE);

  /* Merge the attributes.  */
  attributes = targetm.merge_type_attributes (t1, t2);

  /* Find the composite type of the target types, and combine the
     qualifiers of the two types' targets.  Do not lose qualifiers on
     array element types by taking the TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT.  */
  mv1 = pointed_to_1 = TREE_TYPE (t1);
  mv2 = pointed_to_2 = TREE_TYPE (t2);
  if (TREE_CODE (mv1) != ARRAY_TYPE)
    mv1 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (pointed_to_1);
  if (TREE_CODE (mv2) != ARRAY_TYPE)
    mv2 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (pointed_to_2);
  target = composite_type (mv1, mv2);

  /* Strip array types to get correct qualifier for pointers to arrays */
  quals1 = TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (strip_array_types (pointed_to_1));
  quals2 = TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (strip_array_types (pointed_to_2));

  /* For function types do not merge const qualifiers, but drop them
     if used inconsistently.  The middle-end uses these to mark const
     and noreturn functions.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (pointed_to_1) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    target_quals = (quals1 & quals2);
  else
    target_quals = (quals1 | quals2);

  /* If the two named address spaces are different, determine the common
     superset address space.  This is guaranteed to exist due to the
     assumption that comp_target_type returned non-zero.  */
  as1 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (pointed_to_1);
  as2 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (pointed_to_2);
  if (!addr_space_superset (as1, as2, &as_common))
    gcc_unreachable ();

  target_quals |= ENCODE_QUAL_ADDR_SPACE (as_common);

  t1 = build_pointer_type (c_build_qualified_type (target, target_quals));
  return build_type_attribute_variant (t1, attributes);
}

/* Return the common type for two arithmetic types under the usual
   arithmetic conversions.  The default conversions have already been
   applied, and enumerated types converted to their compatible integer
   types.  The resulting type is unqualified and has no attributes.

   This is the type for the result of most arithmetic operations
   if the operands have the given two types.  */

static tree
c_common_type (tree t1, tree t2)
{
  enum tree_code code1;
  enum tree_code code2;

  /* If one type is nonsense, use the other.  */
  if (t1 == error_mark_node)
    return t2;
  if (t2 == error_mark_node)
    return t1;

  if (TYPE_QUALS (t1) != TYPE_UNQUALIFIED)
    t1 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1);

  if (TYPE_QUALS (t2) != TYPE_UNQUALIFIED)
    t2 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2);

  if (TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t1) != NULL_TREE)
    t1 = build_type_attribute_variant (t1, NULL_TREE);

  if (TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t2) != NULL_TREE)
    t2 = build_type_attribute_variant (t2, NULL_TREE);

  /* Save time if the two types are the same.  */

  if (t1 == t2) return t1;

  code1 = TREE_CODE (t1);
  code2 = TREE_CODE (t2);

  gcc_assert (code1 == VECTOR_TYPE || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE
	      || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	      || code1 == INTEGER_TYPE);
  gcc_assert (code2 == VECTOR_TYPE || code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE
	      || code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code2 == REAL_TYPE
	      || code2 == INTEGER_TYPE);

  /* When one operand is a decimal float type, the other operand cannot be
     a generic float type or a complex type.  We also disallow vector types
     here.  */
  if ((DECIMAL_FLOAT_TYPE_P (t1) || DECIMAL_FLOAT_TYPE_P (t2))
      && !(DECIMAL_FLOAT_TYPE_P (t1) && DECIMAL_FLOAT_TYPE_P (t2)))
    {
      if (code1 == VECTOR_TYPE || code2 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	{
	  error ("can%'t mix operands of decimal float and vector types");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	{
	  error ("can%'t mix operands of decimal float and complex types");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (code1 == REAL_TYPE && code2 == REAL_TYPE)
	{
	  error ("can%'t mix operands of decimal float and other float types");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }

  /* If one type is a vector type, return that type.  (How the usual
     arithmetic conversions apply to the vector types extension is not
     precisely specified.)  */
  if (code1 == VECTOR_TYPE)
    return t1;

  if (code2 == VECTOR_TYPE)
    return t2;

  /* If one type is complex, form the common type of the non-complex
     components, then make that complex.  Use T1 or T2 if it is the
     required type.  */
  if (code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE)
    {
      tree subtype1 = code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE ? TREE_TYPE (t1) : t1;
      tree subtype2 = code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE ? TREE_TYPE (t2) : t2;
      tree subtype = c_common_type (subtype1, subtype2);

      if (code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE && TREE_TYPE (t1) == subtype)
	return t1;
      else if (code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE && TREE_TYPE (t2) == subtype)
	return t2;
      else
	return build_complex_type (subtype);
    }

  /* If only one is real, use it as the result.  */

  if (code1 == REAL_TYPE && code2 != REAL_TYPE)
    return t1;

  if (code2 == REAL_TYPE && code1 != REAL_TYPE)
    return t2;

  /* If both are real and either are decimal floating point types, use
     the decimal floating point type with the greater precision. */

  if (code1 == REAL_TYPE && code2 == REAL_TYPE)
    {
      if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == dfloat128_type_node
	  || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == dfloat128_type_node)
	return dfloat128_type_node;
      else if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == dfloat64_type_node
	       || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == dfloat64_type_node)
	return dfloat64_type_node;
      else if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == dfloat32_type_node
	       || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == dfloat32_type_node)
	return dfloat32_type_node;
    }

  /* Deal with fixed-point types.  */
  if (code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
    {
      unsigned int unsignedp = 0, satp = 0;
      scalar_mode m1, m2;
      unsigned int fbit1, ibit1, fbit2, ibit2, max_fbit, max_ibit;

      m1 = SCALAR_TYPE_MODE (t1);
      m2 = SCALAR_TYPE_MODE (t2);

      /* If one input type is saturating, the result type is saturating.  */
      if (TYPE_SATURATING (t1) || TYPE_SATURATING (t2))
	satp = 1;

      /* If both fixed-point types are unsigned, the result type is unsigned.
	 When mixing fixed-point and integer types, follow the sign of the
	 fixed-point type.
	 Otherwise, the result type is signed.  */
      if ((TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1) && TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2)
	   && code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE && code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
	  || (code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE && code2 != FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	      && TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1))
	  || (code1 != FIXED_POINT_TYPE && code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	      && TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2)))
	unsignedp = 1;

      /* The result type is signed.  */
      if (unsignedp == 0)
	{
	  /* If the input type is unsigned, we need to convert to the
	     signed type.  */
	  if (code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE && TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1))
	    {
	      enum mode_class mclass = (enum mode_class) 0;
	      if (GET_MODE_CLASS (m1) == MODE_UFRACT)
		mclass = MODE_FRACT;
	      else if (GET_MODE_CLASS (m1) == MODE_UACCUM)
		mclass = MODE_ACCUM;
	      else
		gcc_unreachable ();
	      m1 = as_a <scalar_mode>
		(mode_for_size (GET_MODE_PRECISION (m1), mclass, 0));
	    }
	  if (code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE && TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2))
	    {
	      enum mode_class mclass = (enum mode_class) 0;
	      if (GET_MODE_CLASS (m2) == MODE_UFRACT)
		mclass = MODE_FRACT;
	      else if (GET_MODE_CLASS (m2) == MODE_UACCUM)
		mclass = MODE_ACCUM;
	      else
		gcc_unreachable ();
	      m2 = as_a <scalar_mode>
		(mode_for_size (GET_MODE_PRECISION (m2), mclass, 0));
	    }
	}

      if (code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
	{
	  fbit1 = GET_MODE_FBIT (m1);
	  ibit1 = GET_MODE_IBIT (m1);
	}
      else
	{
	  fbit1 = 0;
	  /* Signed integers need to subtract one sign bit.  */
	  ibit1 = TYPE_PRECISION (t1) - (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1));
	}

      if (code2 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
	{
	  fbit2 = GET_MODE_FBIT (m2);
	  ibit2 = GET_MODE_IBIT (m2);
	}
      else
	{
	  fbit2 = 0;
	  /* Signed integers need to subtract one sign bit.  */
	  ibit2 = TYPE_PRECISION (t2) - (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2));
	}

      max_ibit = ibit1 >= ibit2 ?  ibit1 : ibit2;
      max_fbit = fbit1 >= fbit2 ?  fbit1 : fbit2;
      return c_common_fixed_point_type_for_size (max_ibit, max_fbit, unsignedp,
						 satp);
    }

  /* Both real or both integers; use the one with greater precision.  */

  if (TYPE_PRECISION (t1) > TYPE_PRECISION (t2))
    return t1;
  else if (TYPE_PRECISION (t2) > TYPE_PRECISION (t1))
    return t2;

  /* Same precision.  Prefer long longs to longs to ints when the
     same precision, following the C99 rules on integer type rank
     (which are equivalent to the C90 rules for C90 types).  */

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == long_long_unsigned_type_node
      || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == long_long_unsigned_type_node)
    return long_long_unsigned_type_node;

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == long_long_integer_type_node
      || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == long_long_integer_type_node)
    {
      if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1) || TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2))
	return long_long_unsigned_type_node;
      else
	return long_long_integer_type_node;
    }

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == long_unsigned_type_node
      || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == long_unsigned_type_node)
    return long_unsigned_type_node;

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == long_integer_type_node
      || TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2) == long_integer_type_node)
    {
      /* But preserve unsignedness from the other type,
	 since long cannot hold all the values of an unsigned int.  */
      if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1) || TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2))
	return long_unsigned_type_node;
      else
	return long_integer_type_node;
    }

  /* For floating types of the same TYPE_PRECISION (which we here
     assume means either the same set of values, or sets of values
     neither a subset of the other, with behavior being undefined in
     the latter case), follow the rules from TS 18661-3: prefer
     interchange types _FloatN, then standard types long double,
     double, float, then extended types _FloatNx.  For extended types,
     check them starting with _Float128x as that seems most consistent
     in spirit with preferring long double to double; for interchange
     types, also check in that order for consistency although it's not
     possible for more than one of them to have the same
     precision.  */
  tree mv1 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1);
  tree mv2 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2);

  for (int i = NUM_FLOATN_TYPES - 1; i >= 0; i--)
    if (mv1 == FLOATN_TYPE_NODE (i) || mv2 == FLOATN_TYPE_NODE (i))
      return FLOATN_TYPE_NODE (i);

  /* Likewise, prefer long double to double even if same size.  */
  if (mv1 == long_double_type_node || mv2 == long_double_type_node)
    return long_double_type_node;

  /* Likewise, prefer double to float even if same size.
     We got a couple of embedded targets with 32 bit doubles, and the
     pdp11 might have 64 bit floats.  */
  if (mv1 == double_type_node || mv2 == double_type_node)
    return double_type_node;

  if (mv1 == float_type_node || mv2 == float_type_node)
    return float_type_node;

  for (int i = NUM_FLOATNX_TYPES - 1; i >= 0; i--)
    if (mv1 == FLOATNX_TYPE_NODE (i) || mv2 == FLOATNX_TYPE_NODE (i))
      return FLOATNX_TYPE_NODE (i);

  /* Otherwise prefer the unsigned one.  */

  if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1))
    return t1;
  else
    return t2;
}

/* Wrapper around c_common_type that is used by c-common.c and other
   front end optimizations that remove promotions.  ENUMERAL_TYPEs
   are allowed here and are converted to their compatible integer types.
   BOOLEAN_TYPEs are allowed here and return either boolean_type_node or
   preferably a non-Boolean type as the common type.  */
tree
common_type (tree t1, tree t2)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (t1) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    t1 = c_common_type_for_size (TYPE_PRECISION (t1), 1);
  if (TREE_CODE (t2) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    t2 = c_common_type_for_size (TYPE_PRECISION (t2), 1);

  /* If both types are BOOLEAN_TYPE, then return boolean_type_node.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (t1) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (t2) == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
    return boolean_type_node;

  /* If either type is BOOLEAN_TYPE, then return the other.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (t1) == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
    return t2;
  if (TREE_CODE (t2) == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
    return t1;

  return c_common_type (t1, t2);
}

/* Return 1 if TYPE1 and TYPE2 are compatible types for assignment
   or various other operations.  Return 2 if they are compatible
   but a warning may be needed if you use them together.  */

int
comptypes (tree type1, tree type2)
{
  const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * tagged_tu_seen_base1 = tagged_tu_seen_base;
  int val;

  val = comptypes_internal (type1, type2, NULL, NULL);
  free_all_tagged_tu_seen_up_to (tagged_tu_seen_base1);

  return val;
}

/* Like comptypes, but if it returns non-zero because enum and int are
   compatible, it sets *ENUM_AND_INT_P to true.  */

static int
comptypes_check_enum_int (tree type1, tree type2, bool *enum_and_int_p)
{
  const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * tagged_tu_seen_base1 = tagged_tu_seen_base;
  int val;

  val = comptypes_internal (type1, type2, enum_and_int_p, NULL);
  free_all_tagged_tu_seen_up_to (tagged_tu_seen_base1);

  return val;
}

/* Like comptypes, but if it returns nonzero for different types, it
   sets *DIFFERENT_TYPES_P to true.  */

int
comptypes_check_different_types (tree type1, tree type2,
				 bool *different_types_p)
{
  const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * tagged_tu_seen_base1 = tagged_tu_seen_base;
  int val;

  val = comptypes_internal (type1, type2, NULL, different_types_p);
  free_all_tagged_tu_seen_up_to (tagged_tu_seen_base1);

  return val;
}

/* Return 1 if TYPE1 and TYPE2 are compatible types for assignment
   or various other operations.  Return 2 if they are compatible
   but a warning may be needed if you use them together.  If
   ENUM_AND_INT_P is not NULL, and one type is an enum and the other a
   compatible integer type, then this sets *ENUM_AND_INT_P to true;
   *ENUM_AND_INT_P is never set to false.  If DIFFERENT_TYPES_P is not
   NULL, and the types are compatible but different enough not to be
   permitted in C11 typedef redeclarations, then this sets
   *DIFFERENT_TYPES_P to true; *DIFFERENT_TYPES_P is never set to
   false, but may or may not be set if the types are incompatible.
   This differs from comptypes, in that we don't free the seen
   types.  */

static int
comptypes_internal (const_tree type1, const_tree type2, bool *enum_and_int_p,
		    bool *different_types_p)
{
  const_tree t1 = type1;
  const_tree t2 = type2;
  int attrval, val;

  /* Suppress errors caused by previously reported errors.  */

  if (t1 == t2 || !t1 || !t2
      || TREE_CODE (t1) == ERROR_MARK || TREE_CODE (t2) == ERROR_MARK)
    return 1;

  /* Enumerated types are compatible with integer types, but this is
     not transitive: two enumerated types in the same translation unit
     are compatible with each other only if they are the same type.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (t1) == ENUMERAL_TYPE && TREE_CODE (t2) != ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    {
      t1 = c_common_type_for_size (TYPE_PRECISION (t1), TYPE_UNSIGNED (t1));
      if (TREE_CODE (t2) != VOID_TYPE)
	{
	  if (enum_and_int_p != NULL)
	    *enum_and_int_p = true;
	  if (different_types_p != NULL)
	    *different_types_p = true;
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (t2) == ENUMERAL_TYPE && TREE_CODE (t1) != ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    {
      t2 = c_common_type_for_size (TYPE_PRECISION (t2), TYPE_UNSIGNED (t2));
      if (TREE_CODE (t1) != VOID_TYPE)
	{
	  if (enum_and_int_p != NULL)
	    *enum_and_int_p = true;
	  if (different_types_p != NULL)
	    *different_types_p = true;
	}
    }

  if (t1 == t2)
    return 1;

  /* Different classes of types can't be compatible.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (t1) != TREE_CODE (t2))
    return 0;

  /* Qualifiers must match. C99 6.7.3p9 */

  if (TYPE_QUALS (t1) != TYPE_QUALS (t2))
    return 0;

  /* Allow for two different type nodes which have essentially the same
     definition.  Note that we already checked for equality of the type
     qualifiers (just above).  */

  if (TREE_CODE (t1) != ARRAY_TYPE
      && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2))
    return 1;

  /* 1 if no need for warning yet, 2 if warning cause has been seen.  */
  if (!(attrval = comp_type_attributes (t1, t2)))
     return 0;

  /* 1 if no need for warning yet, 2 if warning cause has been seen.  */
  val = 0;

  switch (TREE_CODE (t1))
    {
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
    case FIXED_POINT_TYPE:
    case REAL_TYPE:
      /* With these nodes, we can't determine type equivalence by
	 looking at what is stored in the nodes themselves, because
	 two nodes might have different TYPE_MAIN_VARIANTs but still
	 represent the same type.  For example, wchar_t and int could
	 have the same properties (TYPE_PRECISION, TYPE_MIN_VALUE,
	 TYPE_MAX_VALUE, etc.), but have different TYPE_MAIN_VARIANTs
	 and are distinct types.  On the other hand, int and the
	 following typedef

	   typedef int INT __attribute((may_alias));

	 have identical properties, different TYPE_MAIN_VARIANTs, but
	 represent the same type.  The canonical type system keeps
	 track of equivalence in this case, so we fall back on it.  */
      return TYPE_CANONICAL (t1) == TYPE_CANONICAL (t2);

    case POINTER_TYPE:
      /* Do not remove mode information.  */
      if (TYPE_MODE (t1) != TYPE_MODE (t2))
	break;
      val = (TREE_TYPE (t1) == TREE_TYPE (t2)
	     ? 1 : comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2),
				       enum_and_int_p, different_types_p));
      break;

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      val = function_types_compatible_p (t1, t2, enum_and_int_p,
					 different_types_p);
      break;

    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      {
	tree d1 = TYPE_DOMAIN (t1);
	tree d2 = TYPE_DOMAIN (t2);
	bool d1_variable, d2_variable;
	bool d1_zero, d2_zero;
	val = 1;

	/* Target types must match incl. qualifiers.  */
	if (TREE_TYPE (t1) != TREE_TYPE (t2)
	    && 0 == (val = comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2),
					       enum_and_int_p,
					       different_types_p)))
	  return 0;

	if (different_types_p != NULL
	    && (d1 == NULL_TREE) != (d2 == NULL_TREE))
	  *different_types_p = true;
	/* Sizes must match unless one is missing or variable.  */
	if (d1 == NULL_TREE || d2 == NULL_TREE || d1 == d2)
	  break;

	d1_zero = !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d1);
	d2_zero = !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d2);

	d1_variable = (!d1_zero
		       && (TREE_CODE (TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d1)) != INTEGER_CST
			   || TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d1)) != INTEGER_CST));
	d2_variable = (!d2_zero
		       && (TREE_CODE (TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d2)) != INTEGER_CST
			   || TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d2)) != INTEGER_CST));
	d1_variable = d1_variable || (d1_zero && c_vla_type_p (t1));
	d2_variable = d2_variable || (d2_zero && c_vla_type_p (t2));

	if (different_types_p != NULL
	    && d1_variable != d2_variable)
	  *different_types_p = true;
	if (d1_variable || d2_variable)
	  break;
	if (d1_zero && d2_zero)
	  break;
	if (d1_zero || d2_zero
	    || !tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d1), TYPE_MIN_VALUE (d2))
	    || !tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d1), TYPE_MAX_VALUE (d2)))
	  val = 0;

	break;
      }

    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
    case RECORD_TYPE:
    case UNION_TYPE:
      if (val != 1 && !same_translation_unit_p (t1, t2))
	{
	  tree a1 = TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t1);
	  tree a2 = TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (t2);

	  if (! attribute_list_contained (a1, a2)
	      && ! attribute_list_contained (a2, a1))
	    break;

	  if (attrval != 2)
	    return tagged_types_tu_compatible_p (t1, t2, enum_and_int_p,
						 different_types_p);
	  val = tagged_types_tu_compatible_p (t1, t2, enum_and_int_p,
					      different_types_p);
	}
      break;

    case VECTOR_TYPE:
      val = (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (t1) == TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (t2)
	     && comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2),
				    enum_and_int_p, different_types_p));
      break;

    default:
      break;
    }
  return attrval == 2 && val == 1 ? 2 : val;
}

/* Return 1 if TTL and TTR are pointers to types that are equivalent, ignoring
   their qualifiers, except for named address spaces.  If the pointers point to
   different named addresses, then we must determine if one address space is a
   subset of the other.  */

static int
comp_target_types (location_t location, tree ttl, tree ttr)
{
  int val;
  int val_ped;
  tree mvl = TREE_TYPE (ttl);
  tree mvr = TREE_TYPE (ttr);
  addr_space_t asl = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (mvl);
  addr_space_t asr = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (mvr);
  addr_space_t as_common;
  bool enum_and_int_p;

  /* Fail if pointers point to incompatible address spaces.  */
  if (!addr_space_superset (asl, asr, &as_common))
    return 0;

  /* For pedantic record result of comptypes on arrays before losing
     qualifiers on the element type below. */
  val_ped = 1;

  if (TREE_CODE (mvl) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (mvr) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    val_ped = comptypes (mvl, mvr);

  /* Qualifiers on element types of array types that are
     pointer targets are lost by taking their TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT.  */

  mvl = (TYPE_ATOMIC (strip_array_types (mvl))
	 ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvl), TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	 : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvl));

  mvr = (TYPE_ATOMIC (strip_array_types (mvr))
	 ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvr), TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	 : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvr));

  enum_and_int_p = false;
  val = comptypes_check_enum_int (mvl, mvr, &enum_and_int_p);

  if (val == 1 && val_ped != 1)
    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic, "pointers to arrays with different qualifiers "
                                      "are incompatible in ISO C");

  if (val == 2)
    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic, "types are not quite compatible");

  if (val == 1 && enum_and_int_p && warn_cxx_compat)
    warning_at (location, OPT_Wc___compat,
		"pointer target types incompatible in C++");

  return val;
}

/* Subroutines of `comptypes'.  */

/* Determine whether two trees derive from the same translation unit.
   If the CONTEXT chain ends in a null, that tree's context is still
   being parsed, so if two trees have context chains ending in null,
   they're in the same translation unit.  */

bool
same_translation_unit_p (const_tree t1, const_tree t2)
{
  while (t1 && TREE_CODE (t1) != TRANSLATION_UNIT_DECL)
    switch (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (t1)))
      {
      case tcc_declaration:
	t1 = DECL_CONTEXT (t1); break;
      case tcc_type:
	t1 = TYPE_CONTEXT (t1); break;
      case tcc_exceptional:
	t1 = BLOCK_SUPERCONTEXT (t1); break;  /* assume block */
      default: gcc_unreachable ();
      }

  while (t2 && TREE_CODE (t2) != TRANSLATION_UNIT_DECL)
    switch (TREE_CODE_CLASS (TREE_CODE (t2)))
      {
      case tcc_declaration:
	t2 = DECL_CONTEXT (t2); break;
      case tcc_type:
	t2 = TYPE_CONTEXT (t2); break;
      case tcc_exceptional:
	t2 = BLOCK_SUPERCONTEXT (t2); break;  /* assume block */
      default: gcc_unreachable ();
      }

  return t1 == t2;
}

/* Allocate the seen two types, assuming that they are compatible. */

static struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *
alloc_tagged_tu_seen_cache (const_tree t1, const_tree t2)
{
  struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu = XNEW (struct tagged_tu_seen_cache);
  tu->next = tagged_tu_seen_base;
  tu->t1 = t1;
  tu->t2 = t2;

  tagged_tu_seen_base = tu;

  /* The C standard says that two structures in different translation
     units are compatible with each other only if the types of their
     fields are compatible (among other things).  We assume that they
     are compatible until proven otherwise when building the cache.
     An example where this can occur is:
     struct a
     {
       struct a *next;
     };
     If we are comparing this against a similar struct in another TU,
     and did not assume they were compatible, we end up with an infinite
     loop.  */
  tu->val = 1;
  return tu;
}

/* Free the seen types until we get to TU_TIL. */

static void
free_all_tagged_tu_seen_up_to (const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu_til)
{
  const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu = tagged_tu_seen_base;
  while (tu != tu_til)
    {
      const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *const tu1
	= (const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *) tu;
      tu = tu1->next;
      free (CONST_CAST (struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *, tu1));
    }
  tagged_tu_seen_base = tu_til;
}

/* Return 1 if two 'struct', 'union', or 'enum' types T1 and T2 are
   compatible.  If the two types are not the same (which has been
   checked earlier), this can only happen when multiple translation
   units are being compiled.  See C99 6.2.7 paragraph 1 for the exact
   rules.  ENUM_AND_INT_P and DIFFERENT_TYPES_P are as in
   comptypes_internal.  */

static int
tagged_types_tu_compatible_p (const_tree t1, const_tree t2,
			      bool *enum_and_int_p, bool *different_types_p)
{
  tree s1, s2;
  bool needs_warning = false;

  /* We have to verify that the tags of the types are the same.  This
     is harder than it looks because this may be a typedef, so we have
     to go look at the original type.  It may even be a typedef of a
     typedef...
     In the case of compiler-created builtin structs the TYPE_DECL
     may be a dummy, with no DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE.  Don't fault.  */
  while (TYPE_NAME (t1)
	 && TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (t1)) == TYPE_DECL
	 && DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (TYPE_NAME (t1)))
    t1 = DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (TYPE_NAME (t1));

  while (TYPE_NAME (t2)
	 && TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (t2)) == TYPE_DECL
	 && DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (TYPE_NAME (t2)))
    t2 = DECL_ORIGINAL_TYPE (TYPE_NAME (t2));

  /* C90 didn't have the requirement that the two tags be the same.  */
  if (flag_isoc99 && TYPE_NAME (t1) != TYPE_NAME (t2))
    return 0;

  /* C90 didn't say what happened if one or both of the types were
     incomplete; we choose to follow C99 rules here, which is that they
     are compatible.  */
  if (TYPE_SIZE (t1) == NULL
      || TYPE_SIZE (t2) == NULL)
    return 1;

  {
    const struct tagged_tu_seen_cache * tts_i;
    for (tts_i = tagged_tu_seen_base; tts_i != NULL; tts_i = tts_i->next)
      if (tts_i->t1 == t1 && tts_i->t2 == t2)
	return tts_i->val;
  }

  switch (TREE_CODE (t1))
    {
    case ENUMERAL_TYPE:
      {
	struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu = alloc_tagged_tu_seen_cache (t1, t2);
	/* Speed up the case where the type values are in the same order.  */
	tree tv1 = TYPE_VALUES (t1);
	tree tv2 = TYPE_VALUES (t2);

	if (tv1 == tv2)
	  {
	    return 1;
	  }

	for (;tv1 && tv2; tv1 = TREE_CHAIN (tv1), tv2 = TREE_CHAIN (tv2))
	  {
	    if (TREE_PURPOSE (tv1) != TREE_PURPOSE (tv2))
	      break;
	    if (simple_cst_equal (TREE_VALUE (tv1), TREE_VALUE (tv2)) != 1)
	      {
		tu->val = 0;
		return 0;
	      }
	  }

	if (tv1 == NULL_TREE && tv2 == NULL_TREE)
	  {
	    return 1;
	  }
	if (tv1 == NULL_TREE || tv2 == NULL_TREE)
	  {
	    tu->val = 0;
	    return 0;
	  }

	if (list_length (TYPE_VALUES (t1)) != list_length (TYPE_VALUES (t2)))
	  {
	    tu->val = 0;
	    return 0;
	  }

	for (s1 = TYPE_VALUES (t1); s1; s1 = TREE_CHAIN (s1))
	  {
	    s2 = purpose_member (TREE_PURPOSE (s1), TYPE_VALUES (t2));
	    if (s2 == NULL
		|| simple_cst_equal (TREE_VALUE (s1), TREE_VALUE (s2)) != 1)
	      {
		tu->val = 0;
		return 0;
	      }
	  }
	return 1;
      }

    case UNION_TYPE:
      {
	struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu = alloc_tagged_tu_seen_cache (t1, t2);
	if (list_length (TYPE_FIELDS (t1)) != list_length (TYPE_FIELDS (t2)))
	  {
	    tu->val = 0;
	    return 0;
	  }

	/*  Speed up the common case where the fields are in the same order. */
	for (s1 = TYPE_FIELDS (t1), s2 = TYPE_FIELDS (t2); s1 && s2;
	     s1 = DECL_CHAIN (s1), s2 = DECL_CHAIN (s2))
	  {
	    int result;

	    if (DECL_NAME (s1) != DECL_NAME (s2))
	      break;
	    result = comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (s1), TREE_TYPE (s2),
					 enum_and_int_p, different_types_p);

	    if (result != 1 && !DECL_NAME (s1))
	      break;
	    if (result == 0)
	      {
		tu->val = 0;
		return 0;
	      }
	    if (result == 2)
	      needs_warning = true;

	    if (TREE_CODE (s1) == FIELD_DECL
		&& simple_cst_equal (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s1),
				     DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s2)) != 1)
	      {
		tu->val = 0;
		return 0;
	      }
	  }
	if (!s1 && !s2)
	  {
	    tu->val = needs_warning ? 2 : 1;
	    return tu->val;
	  }

	for (s1 = TYPE_FIELDS (t1); s1; s1 = DECL_CHAIN (s1))
	  {
	    bool ok = false;

	    for (s2 = TYPE_FIELDS (t2); s2; s2 = DECL_CHAIN (s2))
	      if (DECL_NAME (s1) == DECL_NAME (s2))
		{
		  int result;

		  result = comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (s1), TREE_TYPE (s2),
					       enum_and_int_p,
					       different_types_p);

		  if (result != 1 && !DECL_NAME (s1))
		    continue;
		  if (result == 0)
		    {
		      tu->val = 0;
		      return 0;
		    }
		  if (result == 2)
		    needs_warning = true;

		  if (TREE_CODE (s1) == FIELD_DECL
		      && simple_cst_equal (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s1),
					   DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s2)) != 1)
		    break;

		  ok = true;
		  break;
		}
	    if (!ok)
	      {
		tu->val = 0;
		return 0;
	      }
	  }
	tu->val = needs_warning ? 2 : 10;
	return tu->val;
      }

    case RECORD_TYPE:
      {
	struct tagged_tu_seen_cache *tu = alloc_tagged_tu_seen_cache (t1, t2);

	for (s1 = TYPE_FIELDS (t1), s2 = TYPE_FIELDS (t2);
	     s1 && s2;
	     s1 = DECL_CHAIN (s1), s2 = DECL_CHAIN (s2))
	  {
	    int result;
	    if (TREE_CODE (s1) != TREE_CODE (s2)
		|| DECL_NAME (s1) != DECL_NAME (s2))
	      break;
	    result = comptypes_internal (TREE_TYPE (s1), TREE_TYPE (s2),
					 enum_and_int_p, different_types_p);
	    if (result == 0)
	      break;
	    if (result == 2)
	      needs_warning = true;

	    if (TREE_CODE (s1) == FIELD_DECL
		&& simple_cst_equal (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s1),
				     DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (s2)) != 1)
	      break;
	  }
	if (s1 && s2)
	  tu->val = 0;
	else
	  tu->val = needs_warning ? 2 : 1;
	return tu->val;
      }

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }
}

/* Return 1 if two function types F1 and F2 are compatible.
   If either type specifies no argument types,
   the other must specify a fixed number of self-promoting arg types.
   Otherwise, if one type specifies only the number of arguments,
   the other must specify that number of self-promoting arg types.
   Otherwise, the argument types must match.
   ENUM_AND_INT_P and DIFFERENT_TYPES_P are as in comptypes_internal.  */

static int
function_types_compatible_p (const_tree f1, const_tree f2,
			     bool *enum_and_int_p, bool *different_types_p)
{
  tree args1, args2;
  /* 1 if no need for warning yet, 2 if warning cause has been seen.  */
  int val = 1;
  int val1;
  tree ret1, ret2;

  ret1 = TREE_TYPE (f1);
  ret2 = TREE_TYPE (f2);

  /* 'volatile' qualifiers on a function's return type used to mean
     the function is noreturn.  */
  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (ret1) != TYPE_VOLATILE (ret2))
    pedwarn (input_location, 0, "function return types not compatible due to %<volatile%>");
  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (ret1))
    ret1 = build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (ret1),
				 TYPE_QUALS (ret1) & ~TYPE_QUAL_VOLATILE);
  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (ret2))
    ret2 = build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (ret2),
				 TYPE_QUALS (ret2) & ~TYPE_QUAL_VOLATILE);
  val = comptypes_internal (ret1, ret2, enum_and_int_p, different_types_p);
  if (val == 0)
    return 0;

  args1 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (f1);
  args2 = TYPE_ARG_TYPES (f2);

  if (different_types_p != NULL
      && (args1 == NULL_TREE) != (args2 == NULL_TREE))
    *different_types_p = true;

  /* An unspecified parmlist matches any specified parmlist
     whose argument types don't need default promotions.  */

  if (args1 == NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (!self_promoting_args_p (args2))
	return 0;
      /* If one of these types comes from a non-prototype fn definition,
	 compare that with the other type's arglist.
	 If they don't match, ask for a warning (but no error).  */
      if (TYPE_ACTUAL_ARG_TYPES (f1)
	  && 1 != type_lists_compatible_p (args2, TYPE_ACTUAL_ARG_TYPES (f1),
					   enum_and_int_p, different_types_p))
	val = 2;
      return val;
    }
  if (args2 == NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (!self_promoting_args_p (args1))
	return 0;
      if (TYPE_ACTUAL_ARG_TYPES (f2)
	  && 1 != type_lists_compatible_p (args1, TYPE_ACTUAL_ARG_TYPES (f2),
					   enum_and_int_p, different_types_p))
	val = 2;
      return val;
    }

  /* Both types have argument lists: compare them and propagate results.  */
  val1 = type_lists_compatible_p (args1, args2, enum_and_int_p,
				  different_types_p);
  return val1 != 1 ? val1 : val;
}

/* Check two lists of types for compatibility, returning 0 for
   incompatible, 1 for compatible, or 2 for compatible with
   warning.  ENUM_AND_INT_P and DIFFERENT_TYPES_P are as in
   comptypes_internal.  */

static int
type_lists_compatible_p (const_tree args1, const_tree args2,
			 bool *enum_and_int_p, bool *different_types_p)
{
  /* 1 if no need for warning yet, 2 if warning cause has been seen.  */
  int val = 1;
  int newval = 0;

  while (1)
    {
      tree a1, mv1, a2, mv2;
      if (args1 == NULL_TREE && args2 == NULL_TREE)
	return val;
      /* If one list is shorter than the other,
	 they fail to match.  */
      if (args1 == NULL_TREE || args2 == NULL_TREE)
	return 0;
      mv1 = a1 = TREE_VALUE (args1);
      mv2 = a2 = TREE_VALUE (args2);
      if (mv1 && mv1 != error_mark_node && TREE_CODE (mv1) != ARRAY_TYPE)
	mv1 = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mv1)
	       ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv1),
					 TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	       : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv1));
      if (mv2 && mv2 != error_mark_node && TREE_CODE (mv2) != ARRAY_TYPE)
	mv2 = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mv2)
	       ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv2),
					 TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	       : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv2));
      /* A null pointer instead of a type
	 means there is supposed to be an argument
	 but nothing is specified about what type it has.
	 So match anything that self-promotes.  */
      if (different_types_p != NULL
	  && (a1 == NULL_TREE) != (a2 == NULL_TREE))
	*different_types_p = true;
      if (a1 == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  if (c_type_promotes_to (a2) != a2)
	    return 0;
	}
      else if (a2 == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  if (c_type_promotes_to (a1) != a1)
	    return 0;
	}
      /* If one of the lists has an error marker, ignore this arg.  */
      else if (TREE_CODE (a1) == ERROR_MARK
	       || TREE_CODE (a2) == ERROR_MARK)
	;
      else if (!(newval = comptypes_internal (mv1, mv2, enum_and_int_p,
					      different_types_p)))
	{
	  if (different_types_p != NULL)
	    *different_types_p = true;
	  /* Allow  wait (union {union wait *u; int *i} *)
	     and  wait (union wait *)  to be compatible.  */
	  if (TREE_CODE (a1) == UNION_TYPE
	      && (TYPE_NAME (a1) == NULL_TREE
		  || TYPE_TRANSPARENT_AGGR (a1))
	      && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE (a1)) == INTEGER_CST
	      && tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_SIZE (a1),
				     TYPE_SIZE (a2)))
	    {
	      tree memb;
	      for (memb = TYPE_FIELDS (a1);
		   memb; memb = DECL_CHAIN (memb))
		{
		  tree mv3 = TREE_TYPE (memb);
		  if (mv3 && mv3 != error_mark_node
		      && TREE_CODE (mv3) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		    mv3 = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mv3)
			   ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3),
						     TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
			   : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3));
		  if (comptypes_internal (mv3, mv2, enum_and_int_p,
					  different_types_p))
		    break;
		}
	      if (memb == NULL_TREE)
		return 0;
	    }
	  else if (TREE_CODE (a2) == UNION_TYPE
		   && (TYPE_NAME (a2) == NULL_TREE
		       || TYPE_TRANSPARENT_AGGR (a2))
		   && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE (a2)) == INTEGER_CST
		   && tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_SIZE (a2),
					  TYPE_SIZE (a1)))
	    {
	      tree memb;
	      for (memb = TYPE_FIELDS (a2);
		   memb; memb = DECL_CHAIN (memb))
		{
		  tree mv3 = TREE_TYPE (memb);
		  if (mv3 && mv3 != error_mark_node
		      && TREE_CODE (mv3) != ARRAY_TYPE)
		    mv3 = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mv3)
			   ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3),
						     TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
			   : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mv3));
		  if (comptypes_internal (mv3, mv1, enum_and_int_p,
					  different_types_p))
		    break;
		}
	      if (memb == NULL_TREE)
		return 0;
	    }
	  else
	    return 0;
	}

      /* comptypes said ok, but record if it said to warn.  */
      if (newval > val)
	val = newval;

      args1 = TREE_CHAIN (args1);
      args2 = TREE_CHAIN (args2);
    }
}

/* Compute the size to increment a pointer by.  When a function type or void
   type or incomplete type is passed, size_one_node is returned.
   This function does not emit any diagnostics; the caller is responsible
   for that.  */

static tree
c_size_in_bytes (const_tree type)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);

  if (code == FUNCTION_TYPE || code == VOID_TYPE || code == ERROR_MARK
      || !COMPLETE_TYPE_P (type))
    return size_one_node;

  /* Convert in case a char is more than one unit.  */
  return size_binop_loc (input_location, CEIL_DIV_EXPR, TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type),
			 size_int (TYPE_PRECISION (char_type_node)
				   / BITS_PER_UNIT));
}

/* Return either DECL or its known constant value (if it has one).  */

tree
decl_constant_value (tree decl)
{
  if (/* Don't change a variable array bound or initial value to a constant
	 in a place where a variable is invalid.  Note that DECL_INITIAL
	 isn't valid for a PARM_DECL.  */
      current_function_decl != NULL_TREE
      && TREE_CODE (decl) != PARM_DECL
      && !TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (decl)
      && TREE_READONLY (decl)
      && DECL_INITIAL (decl) != NULL_TREE
      && TREE_CODE (DECL_INITIAL (decl)) != ERROR_MARK
      /* This is invalid if initial value is not constant.
	 If it has either a function call, a memory reference,
	 or a variable, then re-evaluating it could give different results.  */
      && TREE_CONSTANT (DECL_INITIAL (decl))
      /* Check for cases where this is sub-optimal, even though valid.  */
      && TREE_CODE (DECL_INITIAL (decl)) != CONSTRUCTOR)
    return DECL_INITIAL (decl);
  return decl;
}

/* Convert the array expression EXP to a pointer.  */
static tree
array_to_pointer_conversion (location_t loc, tree exp)
{
  tree orig_exp = exp;
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (exp);
  tree adr;
  tree restype = TREE_TYPE (type);
  tree ptrtype;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE);

  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (exp);

  if (TREE_NO_WARNING (orig_exp))
    TREE_NO_WARNING (exp) = 1;

  ptrtype = build_pointer_type (restype);

  if (INDIRECT_REF_P (exp))
    return convert (ptrtype, TREE_OPERAND (exp, 0));

  /* In C++ array compound literals are temporary objects unless they are
     const or appear in namespace scope, so they are destroyed too soon
     to use them for much of anything  (c++/53220).  */
  if (warn_cxx_compat && TREE_CODE (exp) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
    {
      tree decl = TREE_OPERAND (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 0), 0);
      if (!TREE_READONLY (decl) && !TREE_STATIC (decl))
	warning_at (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (decl), OPT_Wc___compat,
		    "converting an array compound literal to a pointer "
		    "is ill-formed in C++");
    }

  adr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, exp, true);
  return convert (ptrtype, adr);
}

/* Convert the function expression EXP to a pointer.  */
static tree
function_to_pointer_conversion (location_t loc, tree exp)
{
  tree orig_exp = exp;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (exp)) == FUNCTION_TYPE);

  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (exp);

  if (TREE_NO_WARNING (orig_exp))
    TREE_NO_WARNING (exp) = 1;

  return build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, exp, false);
}

/* Mark EXP as read, not just set, for set but not used -Wunused
   warning purposes.  */

void
mark_exp_read (tree exp)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (exp))
    {
    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
      DECL_READ_P (exp) = 1;
      break;
    case ARRAY_REF:
    case COMPONENT_REF:
    case MODIFY_EXPR:
    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
    CASE_CONVERT:
    case ADDR_EXPR:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
      mark_exp_read (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 0));
      break;
    case COMPOUND_EXPR:
    case C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR:
      mark_exp_read (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 1));
      break;
    default:
      break;
    }
}

/* Perform the default conversion of arrays and functions to pointers.
   Return the result of converting EXP.  For any other expression, just
   return EXP.

   LOC is the location of the expression.  */

struct c_expr
default_function_array_conversion (location_t loc, struct c_expr exp)
{
  tree orig_exp = exp.value;
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (exp.value);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);

  switch (code)
    {
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      {
	bool not_lvalue = false;
	bool lvalue_array_p;

	while ((TREE_CODE (exp.value) == NON_LVALUE_EXPR
		|| CONVERT_EXPR_P (exp.value))
	       && TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (exp.value, 0)) == type)
	  {
	    if (TREE_CODE (exp.value) == NON_LVALUE_EXPR)
	      not_lvalue = true;
	    exp.value = TREE_OPERAND (exp.value, 0);
	  }

	if (TREE_NO_WARNING (orig_exp))
	  TREE_NO_WARNING (exp.value) = 1;

	lvalue_array_p = !not_lvalue && lvalue_p (exp.value);
	if (!flag_isoc99 && !lvalue_array_p)
	  {
	    /* Before C99, non-lvalue arrays do not decay to pointers.
	       Normally, using such an array would be invalid; but it can
	       be used correctly inside sizeof or as a statement expression.
	       Thus, do not give an error here; an error will result later.  */
	    return exp;
	  }

	exp.value = array_to_pointer_conversion (loc, exp.value);
      }
      break;
    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      exp.value = function_to_pointer_conversion (loc, exp.value);
      break;
    default:
      break;
    }

  return exp;
}

struct c_expr
default_function_array_read_conversion (location_t loc, struct c_expr exp)
{
  mark_exp_read (exp.value);
  return default_function_array_conversion (loc, exp);
}

/* Return whether EXPR should be treated as an atomic lvalue for the
   purposes of load and store handling.  */

static bool
really_atomic_lvalue (tree expr)
{
  if (error_operand_p (expr))
    return false;
  if (!TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (expr)))
    return false;
  if (!lvalue_p (expr))
    return false;

  /* Ignore _Atomic on register variables, since their addresses can't
     be taken so (a) atomicity is irrelevant and (b) the normal atomic
     sequences wouldn't work.  Ignore _Atomic on structures containing
     bit-fields, since accessing elements of atomic structures or
     unions is undefined behavior (C11 6.5.2.3#5), but it's unclear if
     it's undefined at translation time or execution time, and the
     normal atomic sequences again wouldn't work.  */
  while (handled_component_p (expr))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (expr) == COMPONENT_REF
	  && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (TREE_OPERAND (expr, 1)))
	return false;
      expr = TREE_OPERAND (expr, 0);
    }
  if (DECL_P (expr) && C_DECL_REGISTER (expr))
    return false;
  return true;
}

/* Convert expression EXP (location LOC) from lvalue to rvalue,
   including converting functions and arrays to pointers if CONVERT_P.
   If READ_P, also mark the expression as having been read.  */

struct c_expr
convert_lvalue_to_rvalue (location_t loc, struct c_expr exp,
			  bool convert_p, bool read_p)
{
  if (read_p)
    mark_exp_read (exp.value);
  if (convert_p)
    exp = default_function_array_conversion (loc, exp);
  if (really_atomic_lvalue (exp.value))
    {
      vec<tree, va_gc> *params;
      tree nonatomic_type, tmp, tmp_addr, fndecl, func_call;
      tree expr_type = TREE_TYPE (exp.value);
      tree expr_addr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, exp.value, false);
      tree seq_cst = build_int_cst (integer_type_node, MEMMODEL_SEQ_CST);

      gcc_assert (TYPE_ATOMIC (expr_type));

      /* Expansion of a generic atomic load may require an addition
	 element, so allocate enough to prevent a resize.  */
      vec_alloc (params, 4);

      /* Remove the qualifiers for the rest of the expressions and
	 create the VAL temp variable to hold the RHS.  */
      nonatomic_type = build_qualified_type (expr_type, TYPE_UNQUALIFIED);
      tmp = create_tmp_var_raw (nonatomic_type);
      tmp_addr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, tmp, false);
      TREE_ADDRESSABLE (tmp) = 1;
      TREE_NO_WARNING (tmp) = 1;

      /* Issue __atomic_load (&expr, &tmp, SEQ_CST);  */
      fndecl = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_LOAD);
      params->quick_push (expr_addr);
      params->quick_push (tmp_addr);
      params->quick_push (seq_cst);
      func_call = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, fndecl, params, NULL);

      /* EXPR is always read.  */
      mark_exp_read (exp.value);

      /* Return tmp which contains the value loaded.  */
      exp.value = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, nonatomic_type, tmp, func_call,
			  NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
    }
  return exp;
}

/* EXP is an expression of integer type.  Apply the integer promotions
   to it and return the promoted value.  */

tree
perform_integral_promotions (tree exp)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (exp);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);

  gcc_assert (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type));

  /* Normally convert enums to int,
     but convert wide enums to something wider.  */
  if (code == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    {
      type = c_common_type_for_size (MAX (TYPE_PRECISION (type),
					  TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node)),
				     ((TYPE_PRECISION (type)
				       >= TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node))
				      && TYPE_UNSIGNED (type)));

      return convert (type, exp);
    }

  /* ??? This should no longer be needed now bit-fields have their
     proper types.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (exp) == COMPONENT_REF
      && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 1))
      /* If it's thinner than an int, promote it like a
	 c_promoting_integer_type_p, otherwise leave it alone.  */
      && 0 > compare_tree_int (DECL_SIZE (TREE_OPERAND (exp, 1)),
			       TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node)))
    return convert (integer_type_node, exp);

  if (c_promoting_integer_type_p (type))
    {
      /* Preserve unsignedness if not really getting any wider.  */
      if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type)
	  && TYPE_PRECISION (type) == TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node))
	return convert (unsigned_type_node, exp);

      return convert (integer_type_node, exp);
    }

  return exp;
}


/* Perform default promotions for C data used in expressions.
   Enumeral types or short or char are converted to int.
   In addition, manifest constants symbols are replaced by their values.  */

tree
default_conversion (tree exp)
{
  tree orig_exp;
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (exp);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);
  tree promoted_type;

  mark_exp_read (exp);

  /* Functions and arrays have been converted during parsing.  */
  gcc_assert (code != FUNCTION_TYPE);
  if (code == ARRAY_TYPE)
    return exp;

  /* Constants can be used directly unless they're not loadable.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (exp) == CONST_DECL)
    exp = DECL_INITIAL (exp);

  /* Strip no-op conversions.  */
  orig_exp = exp;
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (exp);

  if (TREE_NO_WARNING (orig_exp))
    TREE_NO_WARNING (exp) = 1;

  if (code == VOID_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (exp, input_location),
		"void value not ignored as it ought to be");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  exp = require_complete_type (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (exp, input_location), exp);
  if (exp == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  promoted_type = targetm.promoted_type (type);
  if (promoted_type)
    return convert (promoted_type, exp);

  if (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type))
    return perform_integral_promotions (exp);

  return exp;
}

/* Look up COMPONENT in a structure or union TYPE.

   If the component name is not found, returns NULL_TREE.  Otherwise,
   the return value is a TREE_LIST, with each TREE_VALUE a FIELD_DECL
   stepping down the chain to the component, which is in the last
   TREE_VALUE of the list.  Normally the list is of length one, but if
   the component is embedded within (nested) anonymous structures or
   unions, the list steps down the chain to the component.  */

static tree
lookup_field (tree type, tree component)
{
  tree field;

  /* If TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC is set, then it is a sorted array of pointers
     to the field elements.  Use a binary search on this array to quickly
     find the element.  Otherwise, do a linear search.  TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC
     will always be set for structures which have many elements.  */

  if (TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type) && TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)->s)
    {
      int bot, top, half;
      tree *field_array = &TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)->s->elts[0];

      field = TYPE_FIELDS (type);
      bot = 0;
      top = TYPE_LANG_SPECIFIC (type)->s->len;
      while (top - bot > 1)
	{
	  half = (top - bot + 1) >> 1;
	  field = field_array[bot+half];

	  if (DECL_NAME (field) == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      /* Step through all anon unions in linear fashion.  */
	      while (DECL_NAME (field_array[bot]) == NULL_TREE)
		{
		  field = field_array[bot++];
		  if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
		    {
		      tree anon = lookup_field (TREE_TYPE (field), component);

		      if (anon)
			return tree_cons (NULL_TREE, field, anon);

		      /* The Plan 9 compiler permits referring
			 directly to an anonymous struct/union field
			 using a typedef name.  */
		      if (flag_plan9_extensions
			  && TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field)) != NULL_TREE
			  && (TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field)))
			      == TYPE_DECL)
			  && (DECL_NAME (TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field)))
			      == component))
			break;
		    }
		}

	      /* Entire record is only anon unions.  */
	      if (bot > top)
		return NULL_TREE;

	      /* Restart the binary search, with new lower bound.  */
	      continue;
	    }

	  if (DECL_NAME (field) == component)
	    break;
	  if (DECL_NAME (field) < component)
	    bot += half;
	  else
	    top = bot + half;
	}

      if (DECL_NAME (field_array[bot]) == component)
	field = field_array[bot];
      else if (DECL_NAME (field) != component)
	return NULL_TREE;
    }
  else
    {
      for (field = TYPE_FIELDS (type); field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
	{
	  if (DECL_NAME (field) == NULL_TREE
	      && RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
	    {
	      tree anon = lookup_field (TREE_TYPE (field), component);

	      if (anon)
		return tree_cons (NULL_TREE, field, anon);

	      /* The Plan 9 compiler permits referring directly to an
		 anonymous struct/union field using a typedef
		 name.  */
	      if (flag_plan9_extensions
		  && TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field)) != NULL_TREE
		  && TREE_CODE (TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field))) == TYPE_DECL
		  && (DECL_NAME (TYPE_NAME (TREE_TYPE (field)))
		      == component))
		break;
	    }

	  if (DECL_NAME (field) == component)
	    break;
	}

      if (field == NULL_TREE)
	return NULL_TREE;
    }

  return tree_cons (NULL_TREE, field, NULL_TREE);
}

/* Recursively append candidate IDENTIFIER_NODEs to CANDIDATES.  */

static void
lookup_field_fuzzy_find_candidates (tree type, tree component,
				    vec<tree> *candidates)
{
  tree field;
  for (field = TYPE_FIELDS (type); field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
    {
      if (DECL_NAME (field) == NULL_TREE
	  && RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
	lookup_field_fuzzy_find_candidates (TREE_TYPE (field), component,
					    candidates);

      if (DECL_NAME (field))
	candidates->safe_push (DECL_NAME (field));
    }
}

/* Like "lookup_field", but find the closest matching IDENTIFIER_NODE,
   rather than returning a TREE_LIST for an exact match.  */

static tree
lookup_field_fuzzy (tree type, tree component)
{
  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (component) == IDENTIFIER_NODE);

  /* First, gather a list of candidates.  */
  auto_vec <tree> candidates;

  lookup_field_fuzzy_find_candidates (type, component,
				      &candidates);

  return find_closest_identifier (component, &candidates);
}

/* Support function for build_component_ref's error-handling.

   Given DATUM_TYPE, and "DATUM.COMPONENT", where DATUM is *not* a
   struct or union, should we suggest "DATUM->COMPONENT" as a hint?  */

static bool
should_suggest_deref_p (tree datum_type)
{
  /* We don't do it for Objective-C, since Objective-C 2.0 dot-syntax
     allows "." for ptrs; we could be handling a failed attempt
     to access a property.  */
  if (c_dialect_objc ())
    return false;

  /* Only suggest it for pointers...  */
  if (TREE_CODE (datum_type) != POINTER_TYPE)
    return false;

  /* ...to structs/unions.  */
  tree underlying_type = TREE_TYPE (datum_type);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (underlying_type);
  if (code == RECORD_TYPE || code == UNION_TYPE)
    return true;
  else
    return false;
}

/* Make an expression to refer to the COMPONENT field of structure or
   union value DATUM.  COMPONENT is an IDENTIFIER_NODE.  LOC is the
   location of the COMPONENT_REF.  COMPONENT_LOC is the location
   of COMPONENT.  */

tree
build_component_ref (location_t loc, tree datum, tree component,
		     location_t component_loc)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (datum);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);
  tree field = NULL;
  tree ref;
  bool datum_lvalue = lvalue_p (datum);

  if (!objc_is_public (datum, component))
    return error_mark_node;

  /* Detect Objective-C property syntax object.property.  */
  if (c_dialect_objc ()
      && (ref = objc_maybe_build_component_ref (datum, component)))
    return ref;

  /* See if there is a field or component with name COMPONENT.  */

  if (code == RECORD_TYPE || code == UNION_TYPE)
    {
      if (!COMPLETE_TYPE_P (type))
	{
	  c_incomplete_type_error (loc, NULL_TREE, type);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}

      field = lookup_field (type, component);

      if (!field)
	{
	  tree guessed_id = lookup_field_fuzzy (type, component);
	  if (guessed_id)
	    {
	      /* Attempt to provide a fixit replacement hint, if
		 we have a valid range for the component.  */
	      location_t reported_loc
		= (component_loc != UNKNOWN_LOCATION) ? component_loc : loc;
	      gcc_rich_location rich_loc (reported_loc);
	      if (component_loc != UNKNOWN_LOCATION)
		rich_loc.add_fixit_misspelled_id (component_loc, guessed_id);
	      error_at_rich_loc
		(&rich_loc,
		 "%qT has no member named %qE; did you mean %qE?",
		 type, component, guessed_id);
	    }
	  else
	    error_at (loc, "%qT has no member named %qE", type, component);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}

      /* Accessing elements of atomic structures or unions is undefined
	 behavior (C11 6.5.2.3#5).  */
      if (TYPE_ATOMIC (type) && c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
	{
	  if (code == RECORD_TYPE)
	    warning_at (loc, 0, "accessing a member %qE of an atomic "
			"structure %qE", component, datum);
	  else
	    warning_at (loc, 0, "accessing a member %qE of an atomic "
			"union %qE", component, datum);
	}

      /* Chain the COMPONENT_REFs if necessary down to the FIELD.
	 This might be better solved in future the way the C++ front
	 end does it - by giving the anonymous entities each a
	 separate name and type, and then have build_component_ref
	 recursively call itself.  We can't do that here.  */
      do
	{
	  tree subdatum = TREE_VALUE (field);
	  int quals;
	  tree subtype;
	  bool use_datum_quals;

	  if (TREE_TYPE (subdatum) == error_mark_node)
	    return error_mark_node;

	  /* If this is an rvalue, it does not have qualifiers in C
	     standard terms and we must avoid propagating such
	     qualifiers down to a non-lvalue array that is then
	     converted to a pointer.  */
	  use_datum_quals = (datum_lvalue
			     || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (subdatum)) != ARRAY_TYPE);

	  quals = TYPE_QUALS (strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (subdatum)));
	  if (use_datum_quals)
	    quals |= TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (datum));
	  subtype = c_build_qualified_type (TREE_TYPE (subdatum), quals);

	  ref = build3 (COMPONENT_REF, subtype, datum, subdatum,
			NULL_TREE);
	  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (ref, loc);
	  if (TREE_READONLY (subdatum)
	      || (use_datum_quals && TREE_READONLY (datum)))
	    TREE_READONLY (ref) = 1;
	  if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (subdatum)
	      || (use_datum_quals && TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (datum)))
	    TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (ref) = 1;

	  if (TREE_DEPRECATED (subdatum))
	    warn_deprecated_use (subdatum, NULL_TREE);

	  datum = ref;

	  field = TREE_CHAIN (field);
	}
      while (field);

      return ref;
    }
  else if (should_suggest_deref_p (type))
    {
      /* Special-case the error message for "ptr.field" for the case
	 where the user has confused "." vs "->".  */
      rich_location richloc (line_table, loc);
      /* "loc" should be the "." token.  */
      richloc.add_fixit_replace ("->");
      error_at_rich_loc (&richloc,
			 "%qE is a pointer; did you mean to use %<->%>?",
			 datum);
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  else if (code != ERROR_MARK)
    error_at (loc,
	      "request for member %qE in something not a structure or union",
	      component);

  return error_mark_node;
}

/* Given an expression PTR for a pointer, return an expression
   for the value pointed to.
   ERRORSTRING is the name of the operator to appear in error messages.

   LOC is the location to use for the generated tree.  */

tree
build_indirect_ref (location_t loc, tree ptr, ref_operator errstring)
{
  tree pointer = default_conversion (ptr);
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (pointer);
  tree ref;

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      if (CONVERT_EXPR_P (pointer)
          || TREE_CODE (pointer) == VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR)
	{
	  /* If a warning is issued, mark it to avoid duplicates from
	     the backend.  This only needs to be done at
	     warn_strict_aliasing > 2.  */
	  if (warn_strict_aliasing > 2)
	    if (strict_aliasing_warning (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (pointer, 0)),
					 type, TREE_OPERAND (pointer, 0)))
	      TREE_NO_WARNING (pointer) = 1;
	}

      if (TREE_CODE (pointer) == ADDR_EXPR
	  && (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (pointer, 0))
	      == TREE_TYPE (type)))
	{
	  ref = TREE_OPERAND (pointer, 0);
	  protected_set_expr_location (ref, loc);
	  return ref;
	}
      else
	{
	  tree t = TREE_TYPE (type);

	  ref = build1 (INDIRECT_REF, t, pointer);

	  if (!COMPLETE_OR_VOID_TYPE_P (t) && TREE_CODE (t) != ARRAY_TYPE)
	    {
	      if (!C_TYPE_ERROR_REPORTED (TREE_TYPE (ptr)))
		{
		  error_at (loc, "dereferencing pointer to incomplete type "
			    "%qT", t);
		  C_TYPE_ERROR_REPORTED (TREE_TYPE (ptr)) = 1;
		}
	      return error_mark_node;
	    }
	  if (VOID_TYPE_P (t) && c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
	    warning_at (loc, 0, "dereferencing %<void *%> pointer");

	  /* We *must* set TREE_READONLY when dereferencing a pointer to const,
	     so that we get the proper error message if the result is used
	     to assign to.  Also, &* is supposed to be a no-op.
	     And ANSI C seems to specify that the type of the result
	     should be the const type.  */
	  /* A de-reference of a pointer to const is not a const.  It is valid
	     to change it via some other pointer.  */
	  TREE_READONLY (ref) = TYPE_READONLY (t);
	  TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (ref)
	    = TYPE_VOLATILE (t) || TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (pointer);
	  TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (ref) = TYPE_VOLATILE (t);
	  protected_set_expr_location (ref, loc);
	  return ref;
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (pointer) != ERROR_MARK)
    invalid_indirection_error (loc, type, errstring);

  return error_mark_node;
}

/* This handles expressions of the form "a[i]", which denotes
   an array reference.

   This is logically equivalent in C to *(a+i), but we may do it differently.
   If A is a variable or a member, we generate a primitive ARRAY_REF.
   This avoids forcing the array out of registers, and can work on
   arrays that are not lvalues (for example, members of structures returned
   by functions).

   For vector types, allow vector[i] but not i[vector], and create
   *(((type*)&vectortype) + i) for the expression.

   LOC is the location to use for the returned expression.  */

tree
build_array_ref (location_t loc, tree array, tree index)
{
  tree ret;
  bool swapped = false;
  if (TREE_TYPE (array) == error_mark_node
      || TREE_TYPE (index) == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (flag_cilkplus && contains_array_notation_expr (index))
    {
      size_t rank = 0;
      if (!find_rank (loc, index, index, true, &rank))
	return error_mark_node;
      if (rank > 1)
	{
	  error_at (loc, "rank of the array's index is greater than 1");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (array)) != ARRAY_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (array)) != POINTER_TYPE
      /* Allow vector[index] but not index[vector].  */
      && !VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (array)))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (index)) != ARRAY_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (index)) != POINTER_TYPE)
	{
          error_at (loc,
            "subscripted value is neither array nor pointer nor vector");

	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      std::swap (array, index);
      swapped = true;
    }

  if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (index)))
    {
      error_at (loc, "array subscript is not an integer");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array))) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (loc, "subscripted value is pointer to function");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  /* ??? Existing practice has been to warn only when the char
     index is syntactically the index, not for char[array].  */
  if (!swapped)
     warn_array_subscript_with_type_char (loc, index);

  /* Apply default promotions *after* noticing character types.  */
  index = default_conversion (index);
  if (index == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (index)) == INTEGER_TYPE);

  bool was_vector = VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (array));
  bool non_lvalue = convert_vector_to_array_for_subscript (loc, &array, index);

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (array)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      tree rval, type;

      /* An array that is indexed by a non-constant
	 cannot be stored in a register; we must be able to do
	 address arithmetic on its address.
	 Likewise an array of elements of variable size.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (index) != INTEGER_CST
	  || (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array)))
	      && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array)))) != INTEGER_CST))
	{
	  if (!c_mark_addressable (array, true))
	    return error_mark_node;
	}
      /* An array that is indexed by a constant value which is not within
	 the array bounds cannot be stored in a register either; because we
	 would get a crash in store_bit_field/extract_bit_field when trying
	 to access a non-existent part of the register.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (index) == INTEGER_CST
	  && TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (array))
	  && !int_fits_type_p (index, TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (array))))
	{
	  if (!c_mark_addressable (array))
	    return error_mark_node;
	}

      if ((pedantic || warn_c90_c99_compat)
	  && ! was_vector)
	{
	  tree foo = array;
	  while (TREE_CODE (foo) == COMPONENT_REF)
	    foo = TREE_OPERAND (foo, 0);
	  if (VAR_P (foo) && C_DECL_REGISTER (foo))
	    pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ISO C forbids subscripting %<register%> array");
	  else if (!lvalue_p (foo))
	    pedwarn_c90 (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
			 "ISO C90 forbids subscripting non-lvalue "
			 "array");
	}

      type = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array));
      rval = build4 (ARRAY_REF, type, array, index, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
      /* Array ref is const/volatile if the array elements are
	 or if the array is.  */
      TREE_READONLY (rval)
	|= (TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array)))
	    | TREE_READONLY (array));
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (rval)
	|= (TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array)))
	    | TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (array));
      TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (rval)
	|= (TYPE_VOLATILE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (array)))
	    /* This was added by rms on 16 Nov 91.
	       It fixes  vol struct foo *a;  a->elts[1]
	       in an inline function.
	       Hope it doesn't break something else.  */
	    | TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (array));
      ret = require_complete_type (loc, rval);
      protected_set_expr_location (ret, loc);
      if (non_lvalue)
	ret = non_lvalue_loc (loc, ret);
      return ret;
    }
  else
    {
      tree ar = default_conversion (array);

      if (ar == error_mark_node)
	return ar;

      gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ar)) == POINTER_TYPE);
      gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (ar))) != FUNCTION_TYPE);

      ret = build_indirect_ref (loc, build_binary_op (loc, PLUS_EXPR, ar,
						      index, false),
				RO_ARRAY_INDEXING);
      if (non_lvalue)
	ret = non_lvalue_loc (loc, ret);
      return ret;
    }
}

/* Build an external reference to identifier ID.  FUN indicates
   whether this will be used for a function call.  LOC is the source
   location of the identifier.  This sets *TYPE to the type of the
   identifier, which is not the same as the type of the returned value
   for CONST_DECLs defined as enum constants.  If the type of the
   identifier is not available, *TYPE is set to NULL.  */
tree
build_external_ref (location_t loc, tree id, bool fun, tree *type)
{
  tree ref;
  tree decl = lookup_name (id);

  /* In Objective-C, an instance variable (ivar) may be preferred to
     whatever lookup_name() found.  */
  decl = objc_lookup_ivar (decl, id);

  *type = NULL;
  if (decl && decl != error_mark_node)
    {
      ref = decl;
      *type = TREE_TYPE (ref);
    }
  else if (fun)
    /* Implicit function declaration.  */
    ref = implicitly_declare (loc, id);
  else if (decl == error_mark_node)
    /* Don't complain about something that's already been
       complained about.  */
    return error_mark_node;
  else
    {
      undeclared_variable (loc, id);
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (TREE_TYPE (ref) == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (TREE_DEPRECATED (ref))
    warn_deprecated_use (ref, NULL_TREE);

  /* Recursive call does not count as usage.  */
  if (ref != current_function_decl)
    {
      TREE_USED (ref) = 1;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (ref) == FUNCTION_DECL && !in_alignof)
    {
      if (!in_sizeof && !in_typeof)
	C_DECL_USED (ref) = 1;
      else if (DECL_INITIAL (ref) == NULL_TREE
	       && DECL_EXTERNAL (ref)
	       && !TREE_PUBLIC (ref))
	record_maybe_used_decl (ref);
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (ref) == CONST_DECL)
    {
      used_types_insert (TREE_TYPE (ref));

      if (warn_cxx_compat
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ref)) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
	  && C_TYPE_DEFINED_IN_STRUCT (TREE_TYPE (ref)))
	{
	  warning_at (loc, OPT_Wc___compat,
		      ("enum constant defined in struct or union "
		       "is not visible in C++"));
	  inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (ref), "enum constant defined here");
	}

      ref = DECL_INITIAL (ref);
      TREE_CONSTANT (ref) = 1;
    }
  else if (current_function_decl != NULL_TREE
	   && !DECL_FILE_SCOPE_P (current_function_decl)
	   && (VAR_OR_FUNCTION_DECL_P (ref)
	       || TREE_CODE (ref) == PARM_DECL))
    {
      tree context = decl_function_context (ref);

      if (context != NULL_TREE && context != current_function_decl)
	DECL_NONLOCAL (ref) = 1;
    }
  /* C99 6.7.4p3: An inline definition of a function with external
     linkage ... shall not contain a reference to an identifier with
     internal linkage.  */
  else if (current_function_decl != NULL_TREE
	   && DECL_DECLARED_INLINE_P (current_function_decl)
	   && DECL_EXTERNAL (current_function_decl)
	   && VAR_OR_FUNCTION_DECL_P (ref)
	   && (!VAR_P (ref) || TREE_STATIC (ref))
	   && ! TREE_PUBLIC (ref)
	   && DECL_CONTEXT (ref) != current_function_decl)
    record_inline_static (loc, current_function_decl, ref,
			  csi_internal);

  return ref;
}

/* Record details of decls possibly used inside sizeof or typeof.  */
struct maybe_used_decl
{
  /* The decl.  */
  tree decl;
  /* The level seen at (in_sizeof + in_typeof).  */
  int level;
  /* The next one at this level or above, or NULL.  */
  struct maybe_used_decl *next;
};

static struct maybe_used_decl *maybe_used_decls;

/* Record that DECL, an undefined static function reference seen
   inside sizeof or typeof, might be used if the operand of sizeof is
   a VLA type or the operand of typeof is a variably modified
   type.  */

static void
record_maybe_used_decl (tree decl)
{
  struct maybe_used_decl *t = XOBNEW (&parser_obstack, struct maybe_used_decl);
  t->decl = decl;
  t->level = in_sizeof + in_typeof;
  t->next = maybe_used_decls;
  maybe_used_decls = t;
}

/* Pop the stack of decls possibly used inside sizeof or typeof.  If
   USED is false, just discard them.  If it is true, mark them used
   (if no longer inside sizeof or typeof) or move them to the next
   level up (if still inside sizeof or typeof).  */

void
pop_maybe_used (bool used)
{
  struct maybe_used_decl *p = maybe_used_decls;
  int cur_level = in_sizeof + in_typeof;
  while (p && p->level > cur_level)
    {
      if (used)
	{
	  if (cur_level == 0)
	    C_DECL_USED (p->decl) = 1;
	  else
	    p->level = cur_level;
	}
      p = p->next;
    }
  if (!used || cur_level == 0)
    maybe_used_decls = p;
}

/* Return the result of sizeof applied to EXPR.  */

struct c_expr
c_expr_sizeof_expr (location_t loc, struct c_expr expr)
{
  struct c_expr ret;
  if (expr.value == error_mark_node)
    {
      ret.value = error_mark_node;
      ret.original_code = ERROR_MARK;
      ret.original_type = NULL;
      pop_maybe_used (false);
    }
  else
    {
      bool expr_const_operands = true;

      if (TREE_CODE (expr.value) == PARM_DECL
	  && C_ARRAY_PARAMETER (expr.value))
	{
	  if (warning_at (loc, OPT_Wsizeof_array_argument,
			  "%<sizeof%> on array function parameter %qE will "
			  "return size of %qT", expr.value,
			  TREE_TYPE (expr.value)))
	    inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (expr.value), "declared here");
	}
      tree folded_expr = c_fully_fold (expr.value, require_constant_value,
				       &expr_const_operands);
      ret.value = c_sizeof (loc, TREE_TYPE (folded_expr));
      c_last_sizeof_arg = expr.value;
      c_last_sizeof_loc = loc;
      ret.original_code = SIZEOF_EXPR;
      ret.original_type = NULL;
      if (c_vla_type_p (TREE_TYPE (folded_expr)))
	{
	  /* sizeof is evaluated when given a vla (C99 6.5.3.4p2).  */
	  ret.value = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret.value),
			      folded_expr, ret.value);
	  C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (ret.value) = !expr_const_operands;
	  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (ret.value, loc);
	}
      pop_maybe_used (C_TYPE_VARIABLE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (folded_expr)));
    }
  return ret;
}

/* Return the result of sizeof applied to T, a structure for the type
   name passed to sizeof (rather than the type itself).  LOC is the
   location of the original expression.  */

struct c_expr
c_expr_sizeof_type (location_t loc, struct c_type_name *t)
{
  tree type;
  struct c_expr ret;
  tree type_expr = NULL_TREE;
  bool type_expr_const = true;
  type = groktypename (t, &type_expr, &type_expr_const);
  ret.value = c_sizeof (loc, type);
  c_last_sizeof_arg = type;
  c_last_sizeof_loc = loc;
  ret.original_code = SIZEOF_EXPR;
  ret.original_type = NULL;
  if ((type_expr || TREE_CODE (ret.value) == INTEGER_CST)
      && c_vla_type_p (type))
    {
      /* If the type is a [*] array, it is a VLA but is represented as
	 having a size of zero.  In such a case we must ensure that
	 the result of sizeof does not get folded to a constant by
	 c_fully_fold, because if the size is evaluated the result is
	 not constant and so constraints on zero or negative size
	 arrays must not be applied when this sizeof call is inside
	 another array declarator.  */
      if (!type_expr)
	type_expr = integer_zero_node;
      ret.value = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret.value),
			  type_expr, ret.value);
      C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (ret.value) = !type_expr_const;
    }
  pop_maybe_used (type != error_mark_node
		  ? C_TYPE_VARIABLE_SIZE (type) : false);
  return ret;
}

/* Build a function call to function FUNCTION with parameters PARAMS.
   The function call is at LOC.
   PARAMS is a list--a chain of TREE_LIST nodes--in which the
   TREE_VALUE of each node is a parameter-expression.
   FUNCTION's data type may be a function type or a pointer-to-function.  */

tree
build_function_call (location_t loc, tree function, tree params)
{
  vec<tree, va_gc> *v;
  tree ret;

  vec_alloc (v, list_length (params));
  for (; params; params = TREE_CHAIN (params))
    v->quick_push (TREE_VALUE (params));
  ret = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, function, v, NULL);
  vec_free (v);
  return ret;
}

/* Give a note about the location of the declaration of DECL.  */

static void
inform_declaration (tree decl)
{
  if (decl && (TREE_CODE (decl) != FUNCTION_DECL || !DECL_IS_BUILTIN (decl)))
    inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (decl), "declared here");
}

/* Build a function call to function FUNCTION with parameters PARAMS.
   ORIGTYPES, if not NULL, is a vector of types; each element is
   either NULL or the original type of the corresponding element in
   PARAMS.  The original type may differ from TREE_TYPE of the
   parameter for enums.  FUNCTION's data type may be a function type
   or pointer-to-function.  This function changes the elements of
   PARAMS.  */

tree
build_function_call_vec (location_t loc, vec<location_t> arg_loc,
			 tree function, vec<tree, va_gc> *params,
			 vec<tree, va_gc> *origtypes)
{
  tree fntype, fundecl = NULL_TREE;
  tree name = NULL_TREE, result;
  tree tem;
  int nargs;
  tree *argarray;


  /* Strip NON_LVALUE_EXPRs, etc., since we aren't using as an lvalue.  */
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (function);

  /* Convert anything with function type to a pointer-to-function.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (function) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      name = DECL_NAME (function);

      if (flag_tm)
	tm_malloc_replacement (function);
      fundecl = function;
      /* Atomic functions have type checking/casting already done.  They are 
	 often rewritten and don't match the original parameter list.  */
      if (name && !strncmp (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (name), "__atomic_", 9))
        origtypes = NULL;

      if (flag_cilkplus
	  && is_cilkplus_reduce_builtin (function))
	origtypes = NULL;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (function)) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    function = function_to_pointer_conversion (loc, function);

  /* For Objective-C, convert any calls via a cast to OBJC_TYPE_REF
     expressions, like those used for ObjC messenger dispatches.  */
  if (params && !params->is_empty ())
    function = objc_rewrite_function_call (function, (*params)[0]);

  function = c_fully_fold (function, false, NULL);

  fntype = TREE_TYPE (function);

  if (TREE_CODE (fntype) == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (!(TREE_CODE (fntype) == POINTER_TYPE
	&& TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (fntype)) == FUNCTION_TYPE))
    {
      if (!flag_diagnostics_show_caret)
	error_at (loc,
		  "called object %qE is not a function or function pointer",
		  function);
      else if (DECL_P (function))
	{
	  error_at (loc,
		    "called object %qD is not a function or function pointer",
		    function);
	  inform_declaration (function);
	}
      else
	error_at (loc,
		  "called object is not a function or function pointer");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (fundecl && TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (fundecl))
    current_function_returns_abnormally = 1;

  /* fntype now gets the type of function pointed to.  */
  fntype = TREE_TYPE (fntype);

  /* Convert the parameters to the types declared in the
     function prototype, or apply default promotions.  */

  nargs = convert_arguments (loc, arg_loc, TYPE_ARG_TYPES (fntype), params,
			     origtypes, function, fundecl);
  if (nargs < 0)
    return error_mark_node;

  /* Check that the function is called through a compatible prototype.
     If it is not, warn.  */
  if (CONVERT_EXPR_P (function)
      && TREE_CODE (tem = TREE_OPERAND (function, 0)) == ADDR_EXPR
      && TREE_CODE (tem = TREE_OPERAND (tem, 0)) == FUNCTION_DECL
      && !comptypes (fntype, TREE_TYPE (tem)))
    {
      tree return_type = TREE_TYPE (fntype);

      /* This situation leads to run-time undefined behavior.  We can't,
	 therefore, simply error unless we can prove that all possible
	 executions of the program must execute the code.  */
      warning_at (loc, 0, "function called through a non-compatible type");

      if (VOID_TYPE_P (return_type)
	  && TYPE_QUALS (return_type) != TYPE_UNQUALIFIED)
	pedwarn (loc, 0,
		 "function with qualified void return type called");
     }

  argarray = vec_safe_address (params);

  /* Check that arguments to builtin functions match the expectations.  */
  if (fundecl
      && DECL_BUILT_IN (fundecl)
      && DECL_BUILT_IN_CLASS (fundecl) == BUILT_IN_NORMAL
      && !check_builtin_function_arguments (loc, arg_loc, fundecl, nargs,
					    argarray))
    return error_mark_node;

  /* Check that the arguments to the function are valid.  */
  bool warned_p = check_function_arguments (loc, fundecl, fntype,
					    nargs, argarray, &arg_loc);

  if (name != NULL_TREE
      && !strncmp (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (name), "__builtin_", 10))
    {
      if (require_constant_value)
	result
	  = fold_build_call_array_initializer_loc (loc, TREE_TYPE (fntype),
						   function, nargs, argarray);
      else
	result = fold_build_call_array_loc (loc, TREE_TYPE (fntype),
					    function, nargs, argarray);
      if (TREE_CODE (result) == NOP_EXPR
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (result, 0)) == INTEGER_CST)
	STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (result);
    }
  else
    result = build_call_array_loc (loc, TREE_TYPE (fntype),
				   function, nargs, argarray);
  /* If -Wnonnull warning has been diagnosed, avoid diagnosing it again
     later.  */
  if (warned_p && TREE_CODE (result) == CALL_EXPR)
    TREE_NO_WARNING (result) = 1;

  /* In this improbable scenario, a nested function returns a VM type.
     Create a TARGET_EXPR so that the call always has a LHS, much as
     what the C++ FE does for functions returning non-PODs.  */
  if (variably_modified_type_p (TREE_TYPE (fntype), NULL_TREE))
    {
      tree tmp = create_tmp_var_raw (TREE_TYPE (fntype));
      result = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (fntype), tmp, result,
		       NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
    }

  if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (result)))
    {
      if (TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (result)) != TYPE_UNQUALIFIED)
	pedwarn (loc, 0,
		 "function with qualified void return type called");
      return result;
    }
  return require_complete_type (loc, result);
}

/* Like build_function_call_vec, but call also resolve_overloaded_builtin.  */

tree
c_build_function_call_vec (location_t loc, vec<location_t> arg_loc,
			   tree function, vec<tree, va_gc> *params,
			   vec<tree, va_gc> *origtypes)
{
  /* Strip NON_LVALUE_EXPRs, etc., since we aren't using as an lvalue.  */
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (function);

  /* Convert anything with function type to a pointer-to-function.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (function) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      /* Implement type-directed function overloading for builtins.
	 resolve_overloaded_builtin and targetm.resolve_overloaded_builtin
	 handle all the type checking.  The result is a complete expression
	 that implements this function call.  */
      tree tem = resolve_overloaded_builtin (loc, function, params);
      if (tem)
	return tem;
    }
  return build_function_call_vec (loc, arg_loc, function, params, origtypes);
}

/* Convert the argument expressions in the vector VALUES
   to the types in the list TYPELIST.

   If TYPELIST is exhausted, or when an element has NULL as its type,
   perform the default conversions.

   ORIGTYPES is the original types of the expressions in VALUES.  This
   holds the type of enum values which have been converted to integral
   types.  It may be NULL.

   FUNCTION is a tree for the called function.  It is used only for
   error messages, where it is formatted with %qE.

   This is also where warnings about wrong number of args are generated.

   ARG_LOC are locations of function arguments (if any).

   Returns the actual number of arguments processed (which may be less
   than the length of VALUES in some error situations), or -1 on
   failure.  */

static int
convert_arguments (location_t loc, vec<location_t> arg_loc, tree typelist,
		   vec<tree, va_gc> *values, vec<tree, va_gc> *origtypes,
		   tree function, tree fundecl)
{
  tree typetail, val;
  unsigned int parmnum;
  bool error_args = false;
  const bool type_generic = fundecl
    && lookup_attribute ("type generic", TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (TREE_TYPE (fundecl)));
  bool type_generic_remove_excess_precision = false;
  bool type_generic_overflow_p = false;
  tree selector;

  /* Change pointer to function to the function itself for
     diagnostics.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (function) == ADDR_EXPR
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (function, 0)) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    function = TREE_OPERAND (function, 0);

  /* Handle an ObjC selector specially for diagnostics.  */
  selector = objc_message_selector ();

  /* For type-generic built-in functions, determine whether excess
     precision should be removed (classification) or not
     (comparison).  */
  if (type_generic
      && DECL_BUILT_IN (fundecl)
      && DECL_BUILT_IN_CLASS (fundecl) == BUILT_IN_NORMAL)
    {
      switch (DECL_FUNCTION_CODE (fundecl))
	{
	case BUILT_IN_ISFINITE:
	case BUILT_IN_ISINF:
	case BUILT_IN_ISINF_SIGN:
	case BUILT_IN_ISNAN:
	case BUILT_IN_ISNORMAL:
	case BUILT_IN_FPCLASSIFY:
	  type_generic_remove_excess_precision = true;
	  break;

	case BUILT_IN_ADD_OVERFLOW_P:
	case BUILT_IN_SUB_OVERFLOW_P:
	case BUILT_IN_MUL_OVERFLOW_P:
	  /* The last argument of these type-generic builtins
	     should not be promoted.  */
	  type_generic_overflow_p = true;
	  break;

	default:
	  break;
	}
    }
  if (flag_cilkplus && fundecl && is_cilkplus_reduce_builtin (fundecl))
    return vec_safe_length (values);

  /* Scan the given expressions and types, producing individual
     converted arguments.  */

  for (typetail = typelist, parmnum = 0;
       values && values->iterate (parmnum, &val);
       ++parmnum)
    {
      tree type = typetail ? TREE_VALUE (typetail) : 0;
      tree valtype = TREE_TYPE (val);
      tree rname = function;
      int argnum = parmnum + 1;
      const char *invalid_func_diag;
      bool excess_precision = false;
      bool npc;
      tree parmval;
      /* Some __atomic_* builtins have additional hidden argument at
	 position 0.  */
      location_t ploc
	= !arg_loc.is_empty () && values->length () == arg_loc.length ()
	  ? expansion_point_location_if_in_system_header (arg_loc[parmnum])
	  : input_location;

      if (type == void_type_node)
	{
	  if (selector)
	    error_at (loc, "too many arguments to method %qE", selector);
	  else
	    error_at (loc, "too many arguments to function %qE", function);
	  inform_declaration (fundecl);
	  return error_args ? -1 : (int) parmnum;
	}

      if (selector && argnum > 2)
	{
	  rname = selector;
	  argnum -= 2;
	}

      npc = null_pointer_constant_p (val);

      /* If there is excess precision and a prototype, convert once to
	 the required type rather than converting via the semantic
	 type.  Likewise without a prototype a float value represented
	 as long double should be converted once to double.  But for
	 type-generic classification functions excess precision must
	 be removed here.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (val) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR
	  && (type || !type_generic || !type_generic_remove_excess_precision))
	{
	  val = TREE_OPERAND (val, 0);
	  excess_precision = true;
	}
      val = c_fully_fold (val, false, NULL);
      STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (val);

      val = require_complete_type (ploc, val);

      /* Some floating-point arguments must be promoted to double when
	 no type is specified by a prototype.  This applies to
	 arguments of type float, and to architecture-specific types
	 (ARM __fp16), but not to _FloatN or _FloatNx types.  */
      bool promote_float_arg = false;
      if (type == NULL_TREE
	  && TREE_CODE (valtype) == REAL_TYPE
	  && (TYPE_PRECISION (valtype)
	      <= TYPE_PRECISION (double_type_node))
	  && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (valtype) != double_type_node
	  && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (valtype) != long_double_type_node
	  && !DECIMAL_FLOAT_MODE_P (TYPE_MODE (valtype)))
	{
	  /* Promote this argument, unless it has a _FloatN or
	     _FloatNx type.  */
	  promote_float_arg = true;
	  for (int i = 0; i < NUM_FLOATN_NX_TYPES; i++)
	    if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (valtype) == FLOATN_NX_TYPE_NODE (i))
	      {
		promote_float_arg = false;
		break;
	      }
	}

      if (type != NULL_TREE)
	{
	  /* Formal parm type is specified by a function prototype.  */

	  if (type == error_mark_node || !COMPLETE_TYPE_P (type))
	    {
	      error_at (ploc, "type of formal parameter %d is incomplete",
			parmnum + 1);
	      parmval = val;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      tree origtype;

	      /* Optionally warn about conversions that
		 differ from the default conversions.  */
	      if (warn_traditional_conversion || warn_traditional)
		{
		  unsigned int formal_prec = TYPE_PRECISION (type);

		  if (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type)
		      && TREE_CODE (valtype) == REAL_TYPE)
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as integer rather "
				"than floating due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  if (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type)
		      && TREE_CODE (valtype) == COMPLEX_TYPE)
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as integer rather "
				"than complex due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == COMPLEX_TYPE
			   && TREE_CODE (valtype) == REAL_TYPE)
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as complex rather "
				"than floating due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == REAL_TYPE
			   && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (valtype))
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as floating rather "
				"than integer due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == COMPLEX_TYPE
			   && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (valtype))
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as complex rather "
				"than integer due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == REAL_TYPE
			   && TREE_CODE (valtype) == COMPLEX_TYPE)
		    warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				"passing argument %d of %qE as floating rather "
				"than complex due to prototype",
				argnum, rname);
		  /* ??? At some point, messages should be written about
		     conversions between complex types, but that's too messy
		     to do now.  */
		  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == REAL_TYPE
			   && TREE_CODE (valtype) == REAL_TYPE)
		    {
		      /* Warn if any argument is passed as `float',
			 since without a prototype it would be `double'.  */
		      if (formal_prec == TYPE_PRECISION (float_type_node)
			  && type != dfloat32_type_node)
			warning_at (ploc, 0,
				    "passing argument %d of %qE as %<float%> "
				    "rather than %<double%> due to prototype",
				    argnum, rname);

		      /* Warn if mismatch between argument and prototype
			 for decimal float types.  Warn of conversions with
			 binary float types and of precision narrowing due to
			 prototype. */
 		      else if (type != valtype
			       && (type == dfloat32_type_node
				   || type == dfloat64_type_node
				   || type == dfloat128_type_node
				   || valtype == dfloat32_type_node
				   || valtype == dfloat64_type_node
				   || valtype == dfloat128_type_node)
			       && (formal_prec
				   <= TYPE_PRECISION (valtype)
				   || (type == dfloat128_type_node
				       && (valtype
					   != dfloat64_type_node
					   && (valtype
					       != dfloat32_type_node)))
				   || (type == dfloat64_type_node
				       && (valtype
					   != dfloat32_type_node))))
			warning_at (ploc, 0,
				    "passing argument %d of %qE as %qT "
				    "rather than %qT due to prototype",
				    argnum, rname, type, valtype);

		    }
		  /* Detect integer changing in width or signedness.
		     These warnings are only activated with
		     -Wtraditional-conversion, not with -Wtraditional.  */
		  else if (warn_traditional_conversion
			   && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type)
			   && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (valtype))
		    {
		      tree would_have_been = default_conversion (val);
		      tree type1 = TREE_TYPE (would_have_been);

		      if (val == error_mark_node)
			/* VAL could have been of incomplete type.  */;
		      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
			       && (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)
				   == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (valtype)))
			/* No warning if function asks for enum
			   and the actual arg is that enum type.  */
			;
		      else if (formal_prec != TYPE_PRECISION (type1))
			warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				    "passing argument %d of %qE "
				    "with different width due to prototype",
				    argnum, rname);
		      else if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type) == TYPE_UNSIGNED (type1))
			;
		      /* Don't complain if the formal parameter type
			 is an enum, because we can't tell now whether
			 the value was an enum--even the same enum.  */
		      else if (TREE_CODE (type) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
			;
		      else if (TREE_CODE (val) == INTEGER_CST
			       && int_fits_type_p (val, type))
			/* Change in signedness doesn't matter
			   if a constant value is unaffected.  */
			;
		      /* If the value is extended from a narrower
			 unsigned type, it doesn't matter whether we
			 pass it as signed or unsigned; the value
			 certainly is the same either way.  */
		      else if (TYPE_PRECISION (valtype) < TYPE_PRECISION (type)
			       && TYPE_UNSIGNED (valtype))
			;
		      else if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type))
			warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				    "passing argument %d of %qE "
				    "as unsigned due to prototype",
				    argnum, rname);
		      else
			warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wtraditional_conversion,
				    "passing argument %d of %qE "
				    "as signed due to prototype",
				    argnum, rname);
		    }
		}

	      /* Possibly restore an EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR for the
		 sake of better warnings from convert_and_check.  */
	      if (excess_precision)
		val = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, valtype, val);
	      origtype = (!origtypes) ? NULL_TREE : (*origtypes)[parmnum];
	      parmval = convert_for_assignment (loc, ploc, type,
						val, origtype, ic_argpass,
						npc, fundecl, function,
						parmnum + 1);

	      if (targetm.calls.promote_prototypes (fundecl ? TREE_TYPE (fundecl) : 0)
		  && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type)
		  && (TYPE_PRECISION (type) < TYPE_PRECISION (integer_type_node)))
		parmval = default_conversion (parmval);
	    }
	}
      else if (promote_float_arg)
        {
	  if (type_generic)
	    parmval = val;
	  else
	    {
	      /* Convert `float' to `double'.  */
	      if (warn_double_promotion && !c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings)
		warning_at (ploc, OPT_Wdouble_promotion,
			    "implicit conversion from %qT to %qT when passing "
			    "argument to function",
			    valtype, double_type_node);
	      parmval = convert (double_type_node, val);
	    }
	}
      else if ((excess_precision && !type_generic)
	       || (type_generic_overflow_p && parmnum == 2))
	/* A "double" argument with excess precision being passed
	   without a prototype or in variable arguments.
	   The last argument of __builtin_*_overflow_p should not be
	   promoted.  */
	parmval = convert (valtype, val);
      else if ((invalid_func_diag =
		targetm.calls.invalid_arg_for_unprototyped_fn (typelist, fundecl, val)))
	{
	  error (invalid_func_diag);
	  return -1;
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (val) == ADDR_EXPR && reject_gcc_builtin (val))
	{
	  return -1;
	}
      else
	/* Convert `short' and `char' to full-size `int'.  */
	parmval = default_conversion (val);

      (*values)[parmnum] = parmval;
      if (parmval == error_mark_node)
	error_args = true;

      if (typetail)
	typetail = TREE_CHAIN (typetail);
    }

  gcc_assert (parmnum == vec_safe_length (values));

  if (typetail != NULL_TREE && TREE_VALUE (typetail) != void_type_node)
    {
      error_at (loc, "too few arguments to function %qE", function);
      inform_declaration (fundecl);
      return -1;
    }

  return error_args ? -1 : (int) parmnum;
}

/* This is the entry point used by the parser to build unary operators
   in the input.  CODE, a tree_code, specifies the unary operator, and
   ARG is the operand.  For unary plus, the C parser currently uses
   CONVERT_EXPR for code.

   LOC is the location to use for the tree generated.
*/

struct c_expr
parser_build_unary_op (location_t loc, enum tree_code code, struct c_expr arg)
{
  struct c_expr result;

  result.original_code = code;
  result.original_type = NULL;

  if (reject_gcc_builtin (arg.value))
    {
      result.value = error_mark_node;
    }
  else
    {
      result.value = build_unary_op (loc, code, arg.value, false);

      if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (result.value) && !TREE_OVERFLOW_P (arg.value))
	overflow_warning (loc, result.value, arg.value);
    }

  /* We are typically called when parsing a prefix token at LOC acting on
     ARG.  Reflect this by updating the source range of the result to
     start at LOC and end at the end of ARG.  */
  set_c_expr_source_range (&result,
			   loc, arg.get_finish ());

  return result;
}

/* Returns true if TYPE is a character type, *not* including wchar_t.  */

static bool
char_type_p (tree type)
{
  return (type == char_type_node
	  || type == unsigned_char_type_node
	  || type == signed_char_type_node
	  || type == char16_type_node
	  || type == char32_type_node);
}

/* This is the entry point used by the parser to build binary operators
   in the input.  CODE, a tree_code, specifies the binary operator, and
   ARG1 and ARG2 are the operands.  In addition to constructing the
   expression, we check for operands that were written with other binary
   operators in a way that is likely to confuse the user.

   LOCATION is the location of the binary operator.  */

struct c_expr
parser_build_binary_op (location_t location, enum tree_code code,
			struct c_expr arg1, struct c_expr arg2)
{
  struct c_expr result;

  enum tree_code code1 = arg1.original_code;
  enum tree_code code2 = arg2.original_code;
  tree type1 = (arg1.original_type
                ? arg1.original_type
                : TREE_TYPE (arg1.value));
  tree type2 = (arg2.original_type
                ? arg2.original_type
                : TREE_TYPE (arg2.value));

  result.value = build_binary_op (location, code,
				  arg1.value, arg2.value, true);
  result.original_code = code;
  result.original_type = NULL;

  if (TREE_CODE (result.value) == ERROR_MARK)
    {
      set_c_expr_source_range (&result,
			       arg1.get_start (),
			       arg2.get_finish ());
      return result;
    }

  if (location != UNKNOWN_LOCATION)
    protected_set_expr_location (result.value, location);

  set_c_expr_source_range (&result,
			   arg1.get_start (),
			   arg2.get_finish ());

  /* Check for cases such as x+y<<z which users are likely
     to misinterpret.  */
  if (warn_parentheses)
    warn_about_parentheses (location, code, code1, arg1.value, code2,
			    arg2.value);

  if (warn_logical_op)
    warn_logical_operator (location, code, TREE_TYPE (result.value),
			   code1, arg1.value, code2, arg2.value);

  if (warn_tautological_compare)
    {
      tree lhs = arg1.value;
      tree rhs = arg2.value;
      if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
	{
	  if (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (lhs) != NULL_TREE
	      && TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (lhs)))
	    lhs = NULL_TREE;
	  else
	    lhs = C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (lhs);
	}
      if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
	{
	  if (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (rhs) != NULL_TREE
	      && TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (rhs)))
	    rhs = NULL_TREE;
	  else
	    rhs = C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (rhs);
	}
      if (lhs != NULL_TREE && rhs != NULL_TREE)
	warn_tautological_cmp (location, code, lhs, rhs);
    }

  if (warn_logical_not_paren
      && TREE_CODE_CLASS (code) == tcc_comparison
      && code1 == TRUTH_NOT_EXPR
      && code2 != TRUTH_NOT_EXPR
      /* Avoid warning for !!x == y.  */
      && (TREE_CODE (arg1.value) != NE_EXPR
	  || !integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (arg1.value, 1))))
    {
      /* Avoid warning for !b == y where b has _Bool type.  */
      tree t = integer_zero_node;
      if (TREE_CODE (arg1.value) == EQ_EXPR
	  && integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (arg1.value, 1))
	  && TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (arg1.value, 0)) == integer_type_node)
	{
	  t = TREE_OPERAND (arg1.value, 0);
	  do
	    {
	      if (TREE_TYPE (t) != integer_type_node)
		break;
	      if (TREE_CODE (t) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
		t = C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (t);
	      else if (CONVERT_EXPR_P (t))
		t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	      else
		break;
	    }
	  while (1);
	}
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) != BOOLEAN_TYPE)
	warn_logical_not_parentheses (location, code, arg1.value, arg2.value);
    }

  /* Warn about comparisons against string literals, with the exception
     of testing for equality or inequality of a string literal with NULL.  */
  if (code == EQ_EXPR || code == NE_EXPR)
    {
      if ((code1 == STRING_CST
	   && !integer_zerop (tree_strip_nop_conversions (arg2.value)))
	  || (code2 == STRING_CST
	      && !integer_zerop (tree_strip_nop_conversions (arg1.value))))
	warning_at (location, OPT_Waddress,
		    "comparison with string literal results in unspecified behavior");
      /* Warn for ptr == '\0', it's likely that it should've been ptr[0].  */
      if (POINTER_TYPE_P (type1)
	   && null_pointer_constant_p (arg2.value)
	   && char_type_p (type2)
	   && warning_at (location, OPT_Wpointer_compare,
			  "comparison between pointer and zero character "
			  "constant"))
	inform (arg1.get_start (), "did you mean to dereference the pointer?");
      else if (POINTER_TYPE_P (type2)
	       && null_pointer_constant_p (arg1.value)
	       && char_type_p (type1)
	       && warning_at (location, OPT_Wpointer_compare,
			      "comparison between pointer and zero character "
			      "constant"))
	inform (arg2.get_start (), "did you mean to dereference the pointer?");
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE_CLASS (code) == tcc_comparison
	   && (code1 == STRING_CST || code2 == STRING_CST))
    warning_at (location, OPT_Waddress,
		"comparison with string literal results in unspecified behavior");

  if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (result.value)
      && !TREE_OVERFLOW_P (arg1.value)
      && !TREE_OVERFLOW_P (arg2.value))
    overflow_warning (location, result.value);

  /* Warn about comparisons of different enum types.  */
  if (warn_enum_compare
      && TREE_CODE_CLASS (code) == tcc_comparison
      && TREE_CODE (type1) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (type2) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
      && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type1) != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type2))
    warning_at (location, OPT_Wenum_compare,
		"comparison between %qT and %qT",
		type1, type2);

  return result;
}

/* Return a tree for the difference of pointers OP0 and OP1.
   The resulting tree has type int.  */

static tree
pointer_diff (location_t loc, tree op0, tree op1)
{
  tree restype = ptrdiff_type_node;
  tree result, inttype;

  addr_space_t as0 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op0)));
  addr_space_t as1 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op1)));
  tree target_type = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op0));
  tree orig_op1 = op1;

  /* If the operands point into different address spaces, we need to
     explicitly convert them to pointers into the common address space
     before we can subtract the numerical address values.  */
  if (as0 != as1)
    {
      addr_space_t as_common;
      tree common_type;

      /* Determine the common superset address space.  This is guaranteed
	 to exist because the caller verified that comp_target_types
	 returned non-zero.  */
      if (!addr_space_superset (as0, as1, &as_common))
	gcc_unreachable ();

      common_type = common_pointer_type (TREE_TYPE (op0), TREE_TYPE (op1));
      op0 = convert (common_type, op0);
      op1 = convert (common_type, op1);
    }

  /* Determine integer type to perform computations in.  This will usually
     be the same as the result type (ptrdiff_t), but may need to be a wider
     type if pointers for the address space are wider than ptrdiff_t.  */
  if (TYPE_PRECISION (restype) < TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (op0)))
    inttype = c_common_type_for_size (TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (op0)), 0);
  else
    inttype = restype;

  if (TREE_CODE (target_type) == VOID_TYPE)
    pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpointer_arith,
	     "pointer of type %<void *%> used in subtraction");
  if (TREE_CODE (target_type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpointer_arith,
	     "pointer to a function used in subtraction");

  /* First do the subtraction as integers;
     then drop through to build the divide operator.
     Do not do default conversions on the minus operator
     in case restype is a short type.  */

  op0 = build_binary_op (loc,
			 MINUS_EXPR, convert (inttype, op0),
			 convert (inttype, op1), false);
  /* This generates an error if op1 is pointer to incomplete type.  */
  if (!COMPLETE_OR_VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (orig_op1))))
    error_at (loc, "arithmetic on pointer to an incomplete type");

  op1 = c_size_in_bytes (target_type);

  if (pointer_to_zero_sized_aggr_p (TREE_TYPE (orig_op1)))
    error_at (loc, "arithmetic on pointer to an empty aggregate");

  /* Divide by the size, in easiest possible way.  */
  result = fold_build2_loc (loc, EXACT_DIV_EXPR, inttype,
			    op0, convert (inttype, op1));

  /* Convert to final result type if necessary.  */
  return convert (restype, result);
}

/* Expand atomic compound assignments into an appropriate sequence as
   specified by the C11 standard section 6.5.16.2.

       _Atomic T1 E1
       T2 E2
       E1 op= E2

  This sequence is used for all types for which these operations are
  supported.

  In addition, built-in versions of the 'fe' prefixed routines may
  need to be invoked for floating point (real, complex or vector) when
  floating-point exceptions are supported.  See 6.5.16.2 footnote 113.

  T1 newval;
  T1 old;
  T1 *addr
  T2 val
  fenv_t fenv

  addr = &E1;
  val = (E2);
  __atomic_load (addr, &old, SEQ_CST);
  feholdexcept (&fenv);
loop:
    newval = old op val;
    if (__atomic_compare_exchange_strong (addr, &old, &newval, SEQ_CST,
					  SEQ_CST))
      goto done;
    feclearexcept (FE_ALL_EXCEPT);
    goto loop:
done:
  feupdateenv (&fenv);

  The compiler will issue the __atomic_fetch_* built-in when possible,
  otherwise it will generate the generic form of the atomic operations.
  This requires temp(s) and has their address taken.  The atomic processing
  is smart enough to figure out when the size of an object can utilize
  a lock-free version, and convert the built-in call to the appropriate
  lock-free routine.  The optimizers will then dispose of any temps that
  are no longer required, and lock-free implementations are utilized as
  long as there is target support for the required size.

  If the operator is NOP_EXPR, then this is a simple assignment, and
  an __atomic_store is issued to perform the assignment rather than
  the above loop.  */

/* Build an atomic assignment at LOC, expanding into the proper
   sequence to store LHS MODIFYCODE= RHS.  Return a value representing
   the result of the operation, unless RETURN_OLD_P, in which case
   return the old value of LHS (this is only for postincrement and
   postdecrement).  */

static tree
build_atomic_assign (location_t loc, tree lhs, enum tree_code modifycode,
		     tree rhs, bool return_old_p)
{
  tree fndecl, func_call;
  vec<tree, va_gc> *params;
  tree val, nonatomic_lhs_type, nonatomic_rhs_type, newval, newval_addr;
  tree old, old_addr;
  tree compound_stmt;
  tree stmt, goto_stmt;
  tree loop_label, loop_decl, done_label, done_decl;

  tree lhs_type = TREE_TYPE (lhs);
  tree lhs_addr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, lhs, false);
  tree seq_cst = build_int_cst (integer_type_node, MEMMODEL_SEQ_CST);
  tree rhs_semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (rhs);
  tree nonatomic_rhs_semantic_type;
  tree rhs_type;

  gcc_assert (TYPE_ATOMIC (lhs_type));

  if (return_old_p)
    gcc_assert (modifycode == PLUS_EXPR || modifycode == MINUS_EXPR);

  /* Allocate enough vector items for a compare_exchange.  */
  vec_alloc (params, 6);

  /* Create a compound statement to hold the sequence of statements
     with a loop.  */
  compound_stmt = c_begin_compound_stmt (false);

  /* Remove any excess precision (which is only present here in the
     case of compound assignments).  */
  if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      gcc_assert (modifycode != NOP_EXPR);
      rhs = TREE_OPERAND (rhs, 0);
    }
  rhs_type = TREE_TYPE (rhs);

  /* Fold the RHS if it hasn't already been folded.  */
  if (modifycode != NOP_EXPR)
    rhs = c_fully_fold (rhs, false, NULL);

  /* Remove the qualifiers for the rest of the expressions and create
     the VAL temp variable to hold the RHS.  */
  nonatomic_lhs_type = build_qualified_type (lhs_type, TYPE_UNQUALIFIED);
  nonatomic_rhs_type = build_qualified_type (rhs_type, TYPE_UNQUALIFIED);
  nonatomic_rhs_semantic_type = build_qualified_type (rhs_semantic_type,
						      TYPE_UNQUALIFIED);
  val = create_tmp_var_raw (nonatomic_rhs_type);
  TREE_ADDRESSABLE (val) = 1;
  TREE_NO_WARNING (val) = 1;
  rhs = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, nonatomic_rhs_type, val, rhs, NULL_TREE,
		NULL_TREE);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (rhs, loc);
  add_stmt (rhs);

  /* NOP_EXPR indicates it's a straight store of the RHS. Simply issue
     an atomic_store.  */
  if (modifycode == NOP_EXPR)
    {
      /* Build __atomic_store (&lhs, &val, SEQ_CST)  */
      rhs = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, val, false);
      fndecl = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_STORE);
      params->quick_push (lhs_addr);
      params->quick_push (rhs);
      params->quick_push (seq_cst);
      func_call = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, fndecl, params, NULL);
      add_stmt (func_call);

      /* Finish the compound statement.  */
      compound_stmt = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, compound_stmt, false);

      /* VAL is the value which was stored, return a COMPOUND_STMT of
	 the statement and that value.  */
      return build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, compound_stmt, val);
    }

  /* Attempt to implement the atomic operation as an __atomic_fetch_* or
     __atomic_*_fetch built-in rather than a CAS loop.  atomic_bool type
     isn't applicable for such builtins.  ??? Do we want to handle enums?  */
  if ((TREE_CODE (lhs_type) == INTEGER_TYPE || POINTER_TYPE_P (lhs_type))
      && TREE_CODE (rhs_type) == INTEGER_TYPE)
    {
      built_in_function fncode;
      switch (modifycode)
	{
	case PLUS_EXPR:
	case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
	  fncode = (return_old_p
		    ? BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_FETCH_ADD_N
		    : BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_ADD_FETCH_N);
	  break;
	case MINUS_EXPR:
	  fncode = (return_old_p
		    ? BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_FETCH_SUB_N
		    : BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_SUB_FETCH_N);
	  break;
	case BIT_AND_EXPR:
	  fncode = (return_old_p
		    ? BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_FETCH_AND_N
		    : BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_AND_FETCH_N);
	  break;
	case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
	  fncode = (return_old_p
		    ? BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_FETCH_OR_N
		    : BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_OR_FETCH_N);
	  break;
	case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
	  fncode = (return_old_p
		    ? BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_FETCH_XOR_N
		    : BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_XOR_FETCH_N);
	  break;
	default:
	  goto cas_loop;
	}

      /* We can only use "_1" through "_16" variants of the atomic fetch
	 built-ins.  */
      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT size = tree_to_uhwi (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (lhs_type));
      if (size != 1 && size != 2 && size != 4 && size != 8 && size != 16)
	goto cas_loop;

      /* If this is a pointer type, we need to multiply by the size of
	 the pointer target type.  */
      if (POINTER_TYPE_P (lhs_type))
	{
	  if (!COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (lhs_type))
	      /* ??? This would introduce -Wdiscarded-qualifiers
		 warning: __atomic_fetch_* expect volatile void *
		 type as the first argument.  (Assignments between
		 atomic and non-atomic objects are OK.) */
	      || TYPE_RESTRICT (lhs_type))
	    goto cas_loop;
	  tree sz = TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (lhs_type));
	  rhs = fold_build2_loc (loc, MULT_EXPR, ptrdiff_type_node,
				 convert (ptrdiff_type_node, rhs),
				 convert (ptrdiff_type_node, sz));
	}

      /* Build __atomic_fetch_* (&lhs, &val, SEQ_CST), or
	 __atomic_*_fetch (&lhs, &val, SEQ_CST).  */
      fndecl = builtin_decl_explicit (fncode);
      params->quick_push (lhs_addr);
      params->quick_push (rhs);
      params->quick_push (seq_cst);
      func_call = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, fndecl, params, NULL);

      newval = create_tmp_var_raw (nonatomic_lhs_type);
      TREE_ADDRESSABLE (newval) = 1;
      TREE_NO_WARNING (newval) = 1;
      rhs = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, newval, func_call,
		    NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (rhs, loc);
      add_stmt (rhs);

      /* Finish the compound statement.  */
      compound_stmt = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, compound_stmt, false);

      /* NEWVAL is the value which was stored, return a COMPOUND_STMT of
	 the statement and that value.  */
      return build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, compound_stmt, newval);
    }

cas_loop:
  /* Create the variables and labels required for the op= form.  */
  old = create_tmp_var_raw (nonatomic_lhs_type);
  old_addr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, old, false);
  TREE_ADDRESSABLE (old) = 1;
  TREE_NO_WARNING (old) = 1;

  newval = create_tmp_var_raw (nonatomic_lhs_type);
  newval_addr = build_unary_op (loc, ADDR_EXPR, newval, false);
  TREE_ADDRESSABLE (newval) = 1;
  TREE_NO_WARNING (newval) = 1;

  loop_decl = create_artificial_label (loc);
  loop_label = build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, loop_decl);

  done_decl = create_artificial_label (loc);
  done_label = build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, done_decl);

  /* __atomic_load (addr, &old, SEQ_CST).  */
  fndecl = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_LOAD);
  params->quick_push (lhs_addr);
  params->quick_push (old_addr);
  params->quick_push (seq_cst);
  func_call = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, fndecl, params, NULL);
  old = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, old, func_call, NULL_TREE,
		NULL_TREE);
  add_stmt (old);
  params->truncate (0);

  /* Create the expressions for floating-point environment
     manipulation, if required.  */
  bool need_fenv = (flag_trapping_math
		    && (FLOAT_TYPE_P (lhs_type) || FLOAT_TYPE_P (rhs_type)));
  tree hold_call = NULL_TREE, clear_call = NULL_TREE, update_call = NULL_TREE;
  if (need_fenv)
    targetm.atomic_assign_expand_fenv (&hold_call, &clear_call, &update_call);

  if (hold_call)
    add_stmt (hold_call);

  /* loop:  */
  add_stmt (loop_label);

  /* newval = old + val;  */
  if (rhs_type != rhs_semantic_type)
    val = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, nonatomic_rhs_semantic_type, val);
  rhs = build_binary_op (loc, modifycode, old, val, true);
  if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      tree eptype = TREE_TYPE (rhs);
      rhs = c_fully_fold (TREE_OPERAND (rhs, 0), false, NULL);
      rhs = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, eptype, rhs);
    }
  else
    rhs = c_fully_fold (rhs, false, NULL);
  rhs = convert_for_assignment (loc, UNKNOWN_LOCATION, nonatomic_lhs_type,
				rhs, NULL_TREE, ic_assign, false, NULL_TREE,
				NULL_TREE, 0);
  if (rhs != error_mark_node)
    {
      rhs = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, newval, rhs, NULL_TREE,
		    NULL_TREE);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (rhs, loc);
      add_stmt (rhs);
    }

  /* if (__atomic_compare_exchange (addr, &old, &new, false, SEQ_CST, SEQ_CST))
       goto done;  */
  fndecl = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_ATOMIC_COMPARE_EXCHANGE);
  params->quick_push (lhs_addr);
  params->quick_push (old_addr);
  params->quick_push (newval_addr);
  params->quick_push (integer_zero_node);
  params->quick_push (seq_cst);
  params->quick_push (seq_cst);
  func_call = c_build_function_call_vec (loc, vNULL, fndecl, params, NULL);

  goto_stmt = build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, done_decl);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (goto_stmt, loc);

  stmt = build3 (COND_EXPR, void_type_node, func_call, goto_stmt, NULL_TREE);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);
  add_stmt (stmt);

  if (clear_call)
    add_stmt (clear_call);

  /* goto loop;  */
  goto_stmt  = build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, loop_decl);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (goto_stmt, loc);
  add_stmt (goto_stmt);

  /* done:  */
  add_stmt (done_label);

  if (update_call)
    add_stmt (update_call);

  /* Finish the compound statement.  */
  compound_stmt = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, compound_stmt, false);

  /* NEWVAL is the value that was successfully stored, return a
     COMPOUND_EXPR of the statement and the appropriate value.  */
  return build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, nonatomic_lhs_type, compound_stmt,
		 return_old_p ? old : newval);
}

/* Construct and perhaps optimize a tree representation
   for a unary operation.  CODE, a tree_code, specifies the operation
   and XARG is the operand.
   For any CODE other than ADDR_EXPR, NOCONVERT suppresses the default
   promotions (such as from short to int).
   For ADDR_EXPR, the default promotions are not applied; NOCONVERT allows
   non-lvalues; this is only used to handle conversion of non-lvalue arrays
   to pointers in C99.

   LOCATION is the location of the operator.  */

tree
build_unary_op (location_t location, enum tree_code code, tree xarg,
		bool noconvert)
{
  /* No default_conversion here.  It causes trouble for ADDR_EXPR.  */
  tree arg = xarg;
  tree argtype = NULL_TREE;
  enum tree_code typecode;
  tree val;
  tree ret = error_mark_node;
  tree eptype = NULL_TREE;
  const char *invalid_op_diag;
  bool int_operands;

  int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (xarg);
  if (int_operands)
    arg = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (arg);

  if (code != ADDR_EXPR)
    arg = require_complete_type (location, arg);

  typecode = TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg));
  if (typecode == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;
  if (typecode == ENUMERAL_TYPE || typecode == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
    typecode = INTEGER_TYPE;

  if ((invalid_op_diag
       = targetm.invalid_unary_op (code, TREE_TYPE (xarg))))
    {
      error_at (location, invalid_op_diag);
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (arg) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      eptype = TREE_TYPE (arg);
      arg = TREE_OPERAND (arg, 0);
    }

  switch (code)
    {
    case CONVERT_EXPR:
      /* This is used for unary plus, because a CONVERT_EXPR
	 is enough to prevent anybody from looking inside for
	 associativity, but won't generate any code.  */
      if (!(typecode == INTEGER_TYPE || typecode == REAL_TYPE
	    || typecode == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || typecode == COMPLEX_TYPE
	    || typecode == VECTOR_TYPE))
	{
	  error_at (location, "wrong type argument to unary plus");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (!noconvert)
	arg = default_conversion (arg);
      arg = non_lvalue_loc (location, arg);
      break;

    case NEGATE_EXPR:
      if (!(typecode == INTEGER_TYPE || typecode == REAL_TYPE
	    || typecode == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || typecode == COMPLEX_TYPE
	    || typecode == VECTOR_TYPE))
	{
	  error_at (location, "wrong type argument to unary minus");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (!noconvert)
	arg = default_conversion (arg);
      break;

    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
      /* ~ works on integer types and non float vectors. */
      if (typecode == INTEGER_TYPE
	  || (typecode == VECTOR_TYPE
	      && !VECTOR_FLOAT_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (arg))))
	{
	  tree e = arg;

	  /* Warn if the expression has boolean value.  */
	  while (TREE_CODE (e) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
	    e = TREE_OPERAND (e, 1);

	  if ((TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	       || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (e)))
	      && warning_at (location, OPT_Wbool_operation,
			     "%<~%> on a boolean expression"))
	    {
	      gcc_rich_location richloc (location);
	      richloc.add_fixit_insert_before (location, "!");
	      inform_at_rich_loc (&richloc, "did you mean to use logical "
				  "not?");
	    }
	  if (!noconvert)
	    arg = default_conversion (arg);
	}
      else if (typecode == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	{
	  code = CONJ_EXPR;
	  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		   "ISO C does not support %<~%> for complex conjugation");
	  if (!noconvert)
	    arg = default_conversion (arg);
	}
      else
	{
	  error_at (location, "wrong type argument to bit-complement");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      break;

    case ABS_EXPR:
      if (!(typecode == INTEGER_TYPE || typecode == REAL_TYPE))
	{
	  error_at (location, "wrong type argument to abs");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (!noconvert)
	arg = default_conversion (arg);
      break;

    case CONJ_EXPR:
      /* Conjugating a real value is a no-op, but allow it anyway.  */
      if (!(typecode == INTEGER_TYPE || typecode == REAL_TYPE
	    || typecode == COMPLEX_TYPE))
	{
	  error_at (location, "wrong type argument to conjugation");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (!noconvert)
	arg = default_conversion (arg);
      break;

    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
      if (typecode != INTEGER_TYPE && typecode != FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	  && typecode != REAL_TYPE && typecode != POINTER_TYPE
	  && typecode != COMPLEX_TYPE)
	{
	  error_at (location,
		    "wrong type argument to unary exclamation mark");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (int_operands)
	{
	  arg = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, xarg);
	  arg = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (arg);
	}
      else
	arg = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, arg);
      ret = invert_truthvalue_loc (location, arg);
      /* If the TRUTH_NOT_EXPR has been folded, reset the location.  */
      if (EXPR_P (ret) && EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (ret))
	location = EXPR_LOCATION (ret);
      goto return_build_unary_op;

    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
      ret = build_real_imag_expr (location, code, arg);
      if (ret == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;
      if (eptype && TREE_CODE (eptype) == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	eptype = TREE_TYPE (eptype);
      goto return_build_unary_op;

    case PREINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case PREDECREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTDECREMENT_EXPR:

      if (TREE_CODE (arg) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
	{
	  tree inner = build_unary_op (location, code,
				       C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (arg),
				       noconvert);
	  if (inner == error_mark_node)
	    return error_mark_node;
	  ret = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (inner),
			C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (arg), inner);
	  gcc_assert (!C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_INT_OPERANDS (arg));
	  C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (ret) = 1;
	  goto return_build_unary_op;
	}

      /* Complain about anything that is not a true lvalue.  In
	 Objective-C, skip this check for property_refs.  */
      if (!objc_is_property_ref (arg)
	  && !lvalue_or_else (location,
			      arg, ((code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR
				     || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
				    ? lv_increment
				    : lv_decrement)))
	return error_mark_node;

      if (warn_cxx_compat && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
	{
	  if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wc___compat,
			"increment of enumeration value is invalid in C++");
	  else
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wc___compat,
			"decrement of enumeration value is invalid in C++");
	}

      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
	{
	  if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wbool_operation,
			"increment of a boolean expression");
	  else
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wbool_operation,
			"decrement of a boolean expression");
	}

      /* Ensure the argument is fully folded inside any SAVE_EXPR.  */
      arg = c_fully_fold (arg, false, NULL);

      bool atomic_op;
      atomic_op = really_atomic_lvalue (arg);

      /* Increment or decrement the real part of the value,
	 and don't change the imaginary part.  */
      if (typecode == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	{
	  tree real, imag;

	  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		   "ISO C does not support %<++%> and %<--%> on complex types");

	  if (!atomic_op)
	    {
	      arg = stabilize_reference (arg);
	      real = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (arg), REALPART_EXPR, arg,
				     true);
	      imag = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (arg), IMAGPART_EXPR, arg,
				     true);
	      real = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (arg), code, real, true);
	      if (real == error_mark_node || imag == error_mark_node)
		return error_mark_node;
	      ret = build2 (COMPLEX_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (arg),
			    real, imag);
	      goto return_build_unary_op;
	    }
	}

      /* Report invalid types.  */

      if (typecode != POINTER_TYPE && typecode != FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	  && typecode != INTEGER_TYPE && typecode != REAL_TYPE
	  && typecode != COMPLEX_TYPE && typecode != VECTOR_TYPE)
	{
	  if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
	    error_at (location, "wrong type argument to increment");
	  else
	    error_at (location, "wrong type argument to decrement");

	  return error_mark_node;
	}

      {
	tree inc;

	argtype = TREE_TYPE (arg);

	/* Compute the increment.  */

	if (typecode == POINTER_TYPE)
	  {
	    /* If pointer target is an incomplete type,
	       we just cannot know how to do the arithmetic.  */
	    if (!COMPLETE_OR_VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (argtype)))
	      {
		if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
		  error_at (location,
			    "increment of pointer to an incomplete type %qT",
			    TREE_TYPE (argtype));
		else
		  error_at (location,
			    "decrement of pointer to an incomplete type %qT",
			    TREE_TYPE (argtype));
	      }
	    else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (argtype)) == FUNCTION_TYPE
		     || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (argtype)) == VOID_TYPE)
	      {
		if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
		  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpointer_arith,
			   "wrong type argument to increment");
		else
		  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpointer_arith,
			   "wrong type argument to decrement");
	      }

	    inc = c_size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (argtype));
	    inc = convert_to_ptrofftype_loc (location, inc);
	  }
	else if (FRACT_MODE_P (TYPE_MODE (argtype)))
	  {
	    /* For signed fract types, we invert ++ to -- or
	       -- to ++, and change inc from 1 to -1, because
	       it is not possible to represent 1 in signed fract constants.
	       For unsigned fract types, the result always overflows and
	       we get an undefined (original) or the maximum value.  */
	    if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR)
	      code = PREDECREMENT_EXPR;
	    else if (code == PREDECREMENT_EXPR)
	      code = PREINCREMENT_EXPR;
	    else if (code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
	      code = POSTDECREMENT_EXPR;
	    else /* code == POSTDECREMENT_EXPR  */
	      code = POSTINCREMENT_EXPR;

	    inc = integer_minus_one_node;
	    inc = convert (argtype, inc);
	  }
	else
	  {
	    inc = VECTOR_TYPE_P (argtype)
	      ? build_one_cst (argtype)
	      : integer_one_node;
	    inc = convert (argtype, inc);
	  }

	/* If 'arg' is an Objective-C PROPERTY_REF expression, then we
	   need to ask Objective-C to build the increment or decrement
	   expression for it.  */
	if (objc_is_property_ref (arg))
	  return objc_build_incr_expr_for_property_ref (location, code,
							arg, inc);

	/* Report a read-only lvalue.  */
	if (TYPE_READONLY (argtype))
	  {
	    readonly_error (location, arg,
			    ((code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR
			      || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
			     ? lv_increment : lv_decrement));
	    return error_mark_node;
	  }
	else if (TREE_READONLY (arg))
	  readonly_warning (arg,
			    ((code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR
			      || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
			     ? lv_increment : lv_decrement));

	/* If the argument is atomic, use the special code sequences for
	   atomic compound assignment.  */
	if (atomic_op)
	  {
	    arg = stabilize_reference (arg);
	    ret = build_atomic_assign (location, arg,
				       ((code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR
					 || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR)
					? PLUS_EXPR
					: MINUS_EXPR),
				       (FRACT_MODE_P (TYPE_MODE (argtype))
					? inc
					: integer_one_node),
				       (code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR
					|| code == POSTDECREMENT_EXPR));
	    goto return_build_unary_op;
	  }

	if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
	  val = boolean_increment (code, arg);
	else
	  val = build2 (code, TREE_TYPE (arg), arg, inc);
	TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (val) = 1;
	if (TREE_CODE (val) != code)
	  TREE_NO_WARNING (val) = 1;
	ret = val;
	goto return_build_unary_op;
      }

    case ADDR_EXPR:
      /* Note that this operation never does default_conversion.  */

      /* The operand of unary '&' must be an lvalue (which excludes
	 expressions of type void), or, in C99, the result of a [] or
	 unary '*' operator.  */
      if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (arg))
	  && TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == TYPE_UNQUALIFIED
	  && (!INDIRECT_REF_P (arg) || !flag_isoc99))
	pedwarn (location, 0, "taking address of expression of type %<void%>");

      /* Let &* cancel out to simplify resulting code.  */
      if (INDIRECT_REF_P (arg))
	{
	  /* Don't let this be an lvalue.  */
	  if (lvalue_p (TREE_OPERAND (arg, 0)))
	    return non_lvalue_loc (location, TREE_OPERAND (arg, 0));
	  ret = TREE_OPERAND (arg, 0);
	  goto return_build_unary_op;
	}

      /* Anything not already handled and not a true memory reference
	 or a non-lvalue array is an error.  */
      if (typecode != FUNCTION_TYPE && !noconvert
	  && !lvalue_or_else (location, arg, lv_addressof))
	return error_mark_node;

      /* Move address operations inside C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR to simplify
	 folding later.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (arg) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
	{
	  tree inner = build_unary_op (location, code,
				       C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (arg),
				       noconvert);
	  ret = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (inner),
			C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (arg), inner);
	  gcc_assert (!C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_INT_OPERANDS (arg));
	  C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (ret)
	    = C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (arg);
	  goto return_build_unary_op;
	}

      /* Ordinary case; arg is a COMPONENT_REF or a decl.  */
      argtype = TREE_TYPE (arg);

      /* If the lvalue is const or volatile, merge that into the type
	 to which the address will point.  This is only needed
	 for function types.  */
      if ((DECL_P (arg) || REFERENCE_CLASS_P (arg))
	  && (TREE_READONLY (arg) || TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (arg))
	  && TREE_CODE (argtype) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	{
	  int orig_quals = TYPE_QUALS (strip_array_types (argtype));
	  int quals = orig_quals;

	  if (TREE_READONLY (arg))
	    quals |= TYPE_QUAL_CONST;
	  if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (arg))
	    quals |= TYPE_QUAL_VOLATILE;

	  argtype = c_build_qualified_type (argtype, quals);
	}

      switch (TREE_CODE (arg))
	{
	case COMPONENT_REF:
	  if (DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (TREE_OPERAND (arg, 1)))
	    {
	      error_at (location, "cannot take address of bit-field %qD",
			TREE_OPERAND (arg, 1));
	      return error_mark_node;
	    }

	  /* fall through */

	case ARRAY_REF:
	  if (TYPE_REVERSE_STORAGE_ORDER (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (arg, 0))))
	    {
	      if (!AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (arg))
		  && !VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (arg)))
		{
		  error_at (location, "cannot take address of scalar with "
			    "reverse storage order");
		  return error_mark_node;
		}

	      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == ARRAY_TYPE
		  && TYPE_REVERSE_STORAGE_ORDER (TREE_TYPE (arg)))
		warning_at (location, OPT_Wscalar_storage_order,
			    "address of array with reverse scalar storage "
			    "order requested");
	    }

	default:
	  break;
	}

      if (!c_mark_addressable (arg))
	return error_mark_node;

      gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (arg) != COMPONENT_REF
		  || !DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (TREE_OPERAND (arg, 1)));

      argtype = build_pointer_type (argtype);

      /* ??? Cope with user tricks that amount to offsetof.  Delete this
	 when we have proper support for integer constant expressions.  */
      val = get_base_address (arg);
      if (val && INDIRECT_REF_P (val)
          && TREE_CONSTANT (TREE_OPERAND (val, 0)))
	{
	  ret = fold_convert_loc (location, argtype, fold_offsetof_1 (arg));
	  goto return_build_unary_op;
	}

      val = build1 (ADDR_EXPR, argtype, arg);

      ret = val;
      goto return_build_unary_op;

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }

  if (argtype == NULL_TREE)
    argtype = TREE_TYPE (arg);
  if (TREE_CODE (arg) == INTEGER_CST)
    ret = (require_constant_value
	   ? fold_build1_initializer_loc (location, code, argtype, arg)
	   : fold_build1_loc (location, code, argtype, arg));
  else
    ret = build1 (code, argtype, arg);
 return_build_unary_op:
  gcc_assert (ret != error_mark_node);
  if (TREE_CODE (ret) == INTEGER_CST && !TREE_OVERFLOW (ret)
      && !(TREE_CODE (xarg) == INTEGER_CST && !TREE_OVERFLOW (xarg)))
    ret = build1 (NOP_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret), ret);
  else if (TREE_CODE (ret) != INTEGER_CST && int_operands)
    ret = note_integer_operands (ret);
  if (eptype)
    ret = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, eptype, ret);
  protected_set_expr_location (ret, location);
  return ret;
}

/* Return nonzero if REF is an lvalue valid for this language.
   Lvalues can be assigned, unless their type has TYPE_READONLY.
   Lvalues can have their address taken, unless they have C_DECL_REGISTER.  */

bool
lvalue_p (const_tree ref)
{
  const enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (ref);

  switch (code)
    {
    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
    case COMPONENT_REF:
      return lvalue_p (TREE_OPERAND (ref, 0));

    case C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR:
      return lvalue_p (TREE_OPERAND (ref, 1));

    case COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR:
    case STRING_CST:
      return true;

    case INDIRECT_REF:
    case ARRAY_REF:
    case ARRAY_NOTATION_REF:
    case VAR_DECL:
    case PARM_DECL:
    case RESULT_DECL:
    case ERROR_MARK:
      return (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ref)) != FUNCTION_TYPE
	      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ref)) != METHOD_TYPE);

    case BIND_EXPR:
      return TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ref)) == ARRAY_TYPE;

    default:
      return false;
    }
}

/* Give a warning for storing in something that is read-only in GCC
   terms but not const in ISO C terms.  */

static void
readonly_warning (tree arg, enum lvalue_use use)
{
  switch (use)
    {
    case lv_assign:
      warning (0, "assignment of read-only location %qE", arg);
      break;
    case lv_increment:
      warning (0, "increment of read-only location %qE", arg);
      break;
    case lv_decrement:
      warning (0, "decrement of read-only location %qE", arg);
      break;
    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }
  return;
}


/* Return nonzero if REF is an lvalue valid for this language;
   otherwise, print an error message and return zero.  USE says
   how the lvalue is being used and so selects the error message.
   LOCATION is the location at which any error should be reported.  */

static int
lvalue_or_else (location_t loc, const_tree ref, enum lvalue_use use)
{
  int win = lvalue_p (ref);

  if (!win)
    lvalue_error (loc, use);

  return win;
}

/* Mark EXP saying that we need to be able to take the
   address of it; it should not be allocated in a register.
   Returns true if successful.  ARRAY_REF_P is true if this
   is for ARRAY_REF construction - in that case we don't want
   to look through VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR from VECTOR_TYPE to ARRAY_TYPE,
   it is fine to use ARRAY_REFs for vector subscripts on vector
   register variables.  */

bool
c_mark_addressable (tree exp, bool array_ref_p)
{
  tree x = exp;

  while (1)
    switch (TREE_CODE (x))
      {
      case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
	if (array_ref_p
	    && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (x)) == ARRAY_TYPE
	    && VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (x, 0))))
	  return true;
	/* FALLTHRU */
      case COMPONENT_REF:
      case ADDR_EXPR:
      case ARRAY_REF:
      case REALPART_EXPR:
      case IMAGPART_EXPR:
	x = TREE_OPERAND (x, 0);
	break;

      case COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR:
      case CONSTRUCTOR:
	TREE_ADDRESSABLE (x) = 1;
	return true;

      case VAR_DECL:
      case CONST_DECL:
      case PARM_DECL:
      case RESULT_DECL:
	if (C_DECL_REGISTER (x)
	    && DECL_NONLOCAL (x))
	  {
	    if (TREE_PUBLIC (x) || is_global_var (x))
	      {
		error
		  ("global register variable %qD used in nested function", x);
		return false;
	      }
	    pedwarn (input_location, 0, "register variable %qD used in nested function", x);
	  }
	else if (C_DECL_REGISTER (x))
	  {
	    if (TREE_PUBLIC (x) || is_global_var (x))
	      error ("address of global register variable %qD requested", x);
	    else
	      error ("address of register variable %qD requested", x);
	    return false;
	  }

	/* FALLTHRU */
      case FUNCTION_DECL:
	TREE_ADDRESSABLE (x) = 1;
	/* FALLTHRU */
      default:
	return true;
    }
}

/* Convert EXPR to TYPE, warning about conversion problems with
   constants.  SEMANTIC_TYPE is the type this conversion would use
   without excess precision. If SEMANTIC_TYPE is NULL, this function
   is equivalent to convert_and_check. This function is a wrapper that
   handles conversions that may be different than
   the usual ones because of excess precision.  */

static tree
ep_convert_and_check (location_t loc, tree type, tree expr,
		      tree semantic_type)
{
  if (TREE_TYPE (expr) == type)
    return expr;

  /* For C11, integer conversions may have results with excess
     precision.  */
  if (flag_isoc11 || !semantic_type)
    return convert_and_check (loc, type, expr);

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (expr)) == INTEGER_TYPE
      && TREE_TYPE (expr) != semantic_type)
    {
      /* For integers, we need to check the real conversion, not
	 the conversion to the excess precision type.  */
      expr = convert_and_check (loc, semantic_type, expr);
    }
  /* Result type is the excess precision type, which should be
     large enough, so do not check.  */
  return convert (type, expr);
}

/* Build and return a conditional expression IFEXP ? OP1 : OP2.  If
   IFEXP_BCP then the condition is a call to __builtin_constant_p, and
   if folded to an integer constant then the unselected half may
   contain arbitrary operations not normally permitted in constant
   expressions.  Set the location of the expression to LOC.  */

tree
build_conditional_expr (location_t colon_loc, tree ifexp, bool ifexp_bcp,
			tree op1, tree op1_original_type, location_t op1_loc,
			tree op2, tree op2_original_type, location_t op2_loc)
{
  tree type1;
  tree type2;
  enum tree_code code1;
  enum tree_code code2;
  tree result_type = NULL;
  tree semantic_result_type = NULL;
  tree orig_op1 = op1, orig_op2 = op2;
  bool int_const, op1_int_operands, op2_int_operands, int_operands;
  bool ifexp_int_operands;
  tree ret;

  op1_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (orig_op1);
  if (op1_int_operands)
    op1 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op1);
  op2_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (orig_op2);
  if (op2_int_operands)
    op2 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op2);
  ifexp_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (ifexp);
  if (ifexp_int_operands)
    ifexp = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (ifexp);

  /* Promote both alternatives.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (op1)) != VOID_TYPE)
    op1 = default_conversion (op1);
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (op2)) != VOID_TYPE)
    op2 = default_conversion (op2);

  if (TREE_CODE (ifexp) == ERROR_MARK
      || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (op1)) == ERROR_MARK
      || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (op2)) == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  type1 = TREE_TYPE (op1);
  code1 = TREE_CODE (type1);
  type2 = TREE_TYPE (op2);
  code2 = TREE_CODE (type2);

  if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && reject_gcc_builtin (op1))
    return error_mark_node;

  if (code2 == POINTER_TYPE && reject_gcc_builtin (op2))
    return error_mark_node;

  /* C90 does not permit non-lvalue arrays in conditional expressions.
     In C99 they will be pointers by now.  */
  if (code1 == ARRAY_TYPE || code2 == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (colon_loc, "non-lvalue array in conditional expression");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if ((TREE_CODE (op1) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR
       || TREE_CODE (op2) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
      && (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	  || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE)
      && (code2 == INTEGER_TYPE || code2 == REAL_TYPE
	  || code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE))
    {
      semantic_result_type = c_common_type (type1, type2);
      if (TREE_CODE (op1) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	{
	  op1 = TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0);
	  type1 = TREE_TYPE (op1);
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type1) == code1);
	}
      if (TREE_CODE (op2) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	{
	  op2 = TREE_OPERAND (op2, 0);
	  type2 = TREE_TYPE (op2);
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type2) == code2);
	}
    }

  if (warn_cxx_compat)
    {
      tree t1 = op1_original_type ? op1_original_type : TREE_TYPE (orig_op1);
      tree t2 = op2_original_type ? op2_original_type : TREE_TYPE (orig_op2);

      if (TREE_CODE (t1) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (t2) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
	  && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t1) != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (t2))
	warning_at (colon_loc, OPT_Wc___compat,
		    ("different enum types in conditional is "
		     "invalid in C++: %qT vs %qT"),
		    t1, t2);
    }

  /* Quickly detect the usual case where op1 and op2 have the same type
     after promotion.  */
  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type1) == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type2))
    {
      if (type1 == type2)
	result_type = type1;
      else
	result_type = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type1);
    }
  else if ((code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	    || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	   && (code2 == INTEGER_TYPE || code2 == REAL_TYPE
	       || code2 == COMPLEX_TYPE))
    {
      /* In C11, a conditional expression between a floating-point
	 type and an integer type should convert the integer type to
	 the evaluation format of the floating-point type, with
	 possible excess precision.  */
      tree eptype1 = type1;
      tree eptype2 = type2;
      if (flag_isoc11)
	{
	  tree eptype;
	  if (ANY_INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type1)
	      && (eptype = excess_precision_type (type2)) != NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      eptype2 = eptype;
	      if (!semantic_result_type)
		semantic_result_type = c_common_type (type1, type2);
	    }
	  else if (ANY_INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (type2)
		   && (eptype = excess_precision_type (type1)) != NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      eptype1 = eptype;
	      if (!semantic_result_type)
		semantic_result_type = c_common_type (type1, type2);
	    }
	}
      result_type = c_common_type (eptype1, eptype2);
      if (result_type == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;
      do_warn_double_promotion (result_type, type1, type2,
				"implicit conversion from %qT to %qT to "
				"match other result of conditional",
				colon_loc);

      /* If -Wsign-compare, warn here if type1 and type2 have
	 different signedness.  We'll promote the signed to unsigned
	 and later code won't know it used to be different.
	 Do this check on the original types, so that explicit casts
	 will be considered, but default promotions won't.  */
      if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
	{
	  int unsigned_op1 = TYPE_UNSIGNED (TREE_TYPE (orig_op1));
	  int unsigned_op2 = TYPE_UNSIGNED (TREE_TYPE (orig_op2));

	  if (unsigned_op1 ^ unsigned_op2)
	    {
	      bool ovf;

	      /* Do not warn if the result type is signed, since the
		 signed type will only be chosen if it can represent
		 all the values of the unsigned type.  */
	      if (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (result_type))
		/* OK */;
	      else
		{
		  bool op1_maybe_const = true;
		  bool op2_maybe_const = true;

		  /* Do not warn if the signed quantity is an
		     unsuffixed integer literal (or some static
		     constant expression involving such literals) and
		     it is non-negative.  This warning requires the
		     operands to be folded for best results, so do
		     that folding in this case even without
		     warn_sign_compare to avoid warning options
		     possibly affecting code generation.  */
		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings
		    += (ifexp == truthvalue_false_node);
		  op1 = c_fully_fold (op1, require_constant_value,
				      &op1_maybe_const);
		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings
		    -= (ifexp == truthvalue_false_node);

		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings
		    += (ifexp == truthvalue_true_node);
		  op2 = c_fully_fold (op2, require_constant_value,
				      &op2_maybe_const);
		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings
		    -= (ifexp == truthvalue_true_node);

		  if (warn_sign_compare)
		    {
		      if ((unsigned_op2
			   && tree_expr_nonnegative_warnv_p (op1, &ovf))
			  || (unsigned_op1
			      && tree_expr_nonnegative_warnv_p (op2, &ovf)))
			/* OK */;
		      else if (unsigned_op2)
			warning_at (op1_loc, OPT_Wsign_compare,
				    "operand of ?: changes signedness from "
				    "%qT to %qT due to unsignedness of other "
				    "operand", TREE_TYPE (orig_op1),
				    TREE_TYPE (orig_op2));
		      else
			warning_at (op2_loc, OPT_Wsign_compare,
				    "operand of ?: changes signedness from "
				    "%qT to %qT due to unsignedness of other "
				    "operand", TREE_TYPE (orig_op2),
				    TREE_TYPE (orig_op1));
		    }
		  if (!op1_maybe_const || TREE_CODE (op1) != INTEGER_CST)
		    op1 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op1, !op1_maybe_const);
		  if (!op2_maybe_const || TREE_CODE (op2) != INTEGER_CST)
		    op2 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op2, !op2_maybe_const);
		}
	    }
	}
    }
  else if (code1 == VOID_TYPE || code2 == VOID_TYPE)
    {
      if (code1 != VOID_TYPE || code2 != VOID_TYPE)
	pedwarn (colon_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		 "ISO C forbids conditional expr with only one void side");
      result_type = void_type_node;
    }
  else if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && code2 == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      addr_space_t as1 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (type1));
      addr_space_t as2 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (type2));
      addr_space_t as_common;

      if (comp_target_types (colon_loc, type1, type2))
	result_type = common_pointer_type (type1, type2);
      else if (null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op1))
	result_type = type2;
      else if (null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op2))
	result_type = type1;
      else if (!addr_space_superset (as1, as2, &as_common))
	{
	  error_at (colon_loc, "pointers to disjoint address spaces "
		    "used in conditional expression");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type1))
	       && !TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (type1)))
	{
	  if ((TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type2)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	      && (TYPE_QUALS (strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (type2)))
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (type1))))
	    warning_at (colon_loc, OPT_Wdiscarded_array_qualifiers,
			"pointer to array loses qualifier "
			"in conditional expression");

	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type2)) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	    pedwarn (colon_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ISO C forbids conditional expr between "
		     "%<void *%> and function pointer");
	  result_type = build_pointer_type (qualify_type (TREE_TYPE (type1),
							  TREE_TYPE (type2)));
	}
      else if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type2))
	       && !TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (type2)))
	{
	  if ((TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type1)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	      && (TYPE_QUALS (strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (type1)))
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS (TREE_TYPE (type2))))
	    warning_at (colon_loc, OPT_Wdiscarded_array_qualifiers,
			"pointer to array loses qualifier "
			"in conditional expression");

	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type1)) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	    pedwarn (colon_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ISO C forbids conditional expr between "
		     "%<void *%> and function pointer");
	  result_type = build_pointer_type (qualify_type (TREE_TYPE (type2),
							  TREE_TYPE (type1)));
	}
      /* Objective-C pointer comparisons are a bit more lenient.  */
      else if (objc_have_common_type (type1, type2, -3, NULL_TREE))
	result_type = objc_common_type (type1, type2);
      else
	{
	  int qual = ENCODE_QUAL_ADDR_SPACE (as_common);

	  pedwarn (colon_loc, 0,
		   "pointer type mismatch in conditional expression");
	  result_type = build_pointer_type
			  (build_qualified_type (void_type_node, qual));
	}
    }
  else if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && code2 == INTEGER_TYPE)
    {
      if (!null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op2))
	pedwarn (colon_loc, 0,
		 "pointer/integer type mismatch in conditional expression");
      else
	{
	  op2 = null_pointer_node;
	}
      result_type = type1;
    }
  else if (code2 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
    {
      if (!null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op1))
	pedwarn (colon_loc, 0,
		 "pointer/integer type mismatch in conditional expression");
      else
	{
	  op1 = null_pointer_node;
	}
      result_type = type2;
    }

  if (!result_type)
    {
      if (flag_cond_mismatch)
	result_type = void_type_node;
      else
	{
	  error_at (colon_loc, "type mismatch in conditional expression");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }

  /* Merge const and volatile flags of the incoming types.  */
  result_type
    = build_type_variant (result_type,
			  TYPE_READONLY (type1) || TYPE_READONLY (type2),
			  TYPE_VOLATILE (type1) || TYPE_VOLATILE (type2));

  op1 = ep_convert_and_check (colon_loc, result_type, op1,
			      semantic_result_type);
  op2 = ep_convert_and_check (colon_loc, result_type, op2,
			      semantic_result_type);

  if (ifexp_bcp && ifexp == truthvalue_true_node)
    {
      op2_int_operands = true;
      op1 = c_fully_fold (op1, require_constant_value, NULL);
    }
  if (ifexp_bcp && ifexp == truthvalue_false_node)
    {
      op1_int_operands = true;
      op2 = c_fully_fold (op2, require_constant_value, NULL);
    }
  int_const = int_operands = (ifexp_int_operands
			      && op1_int_operands
			      && op2_int_operands);
  if (int_operands)
    {
      int_const = ((ifexp == truthvalue_true_node
		    && TREE_CODE (orig_op1) == INTEGER_CST
		    && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op1))
		   || (ifexp == truthvalue_false_node
		       && TREE_CODE (orig_op2) == INTEGER_CST
		       && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op2)));
    }

  /* Need to convert condition operand into a vector mask.  */
  if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (ifexp)))
    {
      tree vectype = TREE_TYPE (ifexp);
      tree elem_type = TREE_TYPE (vectype);
      tree zero = build_int_cst (elem_type, 0);
      tree zero_vec = build_vector_from_val (vectype, zero);
      tree cmp_type = build_same_sized_truth_vector_type (vectype);
      ifexp = build2 (NE_EXPR, cmp_type, ifexp, zero_vec);
    }

  if (int_const || (ifexp_bcp && TREE_CODE (ifexp) == INTEGER_CST))
    ret = fold_build3_loc (colon_loc, COND_EXPR, result_type, ifexp, op1, op2);
  else
    {
      if (int_operands)
	{
	  /* Use c_fully_fold here, since C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR might be
	     nested inside of the expression.  */
	  op1 = c_fully_fold (op1, false, NULL);
	  op2 = c_fully_fold (op2, false, NULL);
	}
      ret = build3 (COND_EXPR, result_type, ifexp, op1, op2);
      if (int_operands)
	ret = note_integer_operands (ret);
    }
  if (semantic_result_type)
    ret = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, semantic_result_type, ret);

  protected_set_expr_location (ret, colon_loc);

  /* If the OP1 and OP2 are the same and don't have side-effects,
     warn here, because the COND_EXPR will be turned into OP1.  */
  if (warn_duplicated_branches
      && TREE_CODE (ret) == COND_EXPR
      && (op1 == op2 || operand_equal_p (op1, op2, 0)))
    warning_at (EXPR_LOCATION (ret), OPT_Wduplicated_branches,
		"this condition has identical branches");

  return ret;
}

/* Return a compound expression that performs two expressions and
   returns the value of the second of them.

   LOC is the location of the COMPOUND_EXPR.  */

tree
build_compound_expr (location_t loc, tree expr1, tree expr2)
{
  bool expr1_int_operands, expr2_int_operands;
  tree eptype = NULL_TREE;
  tree ret;

  if (flag_cilkplus
      && (TREE_CODE (expr1) == CILK_SPAWN_STMT
	  || TREE_CODE (expr2) == CILK_SPAWN_STMT))
    {
      error_at (loc,
		"spawned function call cannot be part of a comma expression");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  expr1_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (expr1);
  if (expr1_int_operands)
    expr1 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (expr1);
  expr2_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (expr2);
  if (expr2_int_operands)
    expr2 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (expr2);

  if (TREE_CODE (expr1) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    expr1 = TREE_OPERAND (expr1, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (expr2) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      eptype = TREE_TYPE (expr2);
      expr2 = TREE_OPERAND (expr2, 0);
    }

  if (!TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (expr1))
    {
      /* The left-hand operand of a comma expression is like an expression
	 statement: with -Wunused, we should warn if it doesn't have
	 any side-effects, unless it was explicitly cast to (void).  */
      if (warn_unused_value)
	{
	  if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (expr1))
	      && CONVERT_EXPR_P (expr1))
	    ; /* (void) a, b */
	  else if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (expr1))
		   && TREE_CODE (expr1) == COMPOUND_EXPR
		   && CONVERT_EXPR_P (TREE_OPERAND (expr1, 1)))
	    ; /* (void) a, (void) b, c */
	  else
	    warning_at (loc, OPT_Wunused_value,
			"left-hand operand of comma expression has no effect");
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (expr1) == COMPOUND_EXPR
	   && warn_unused_value)
    {
      tree r = expr1;
      location_t cloc = loc;
      while (TREE_CODE (r) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
        {
	  if (EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (r))
	    cloc = EXPR_LOCATION (r);
	  r = TREE_OPERAND (r, 1);
	}
      if (!TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (r)
	  && !VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r))
	  && !CONVERT_EXPR_P (r))
	warning_at (cloc, OPT_Wunused_value,
	            "right-hand operand of comma expression has no effect");
    }

  /* With -Wunused, we should also warn if the left-hand operand does have
     side-effects, but computes a value which is not used.  For example, in
     `foo() + bar(), baz()' the result of the `+' operator is not used,
     so we should issue a warning.  */
  else if (warn_unused_value)
    warn_if_unused_value (expr1, loc);

  if (expr2 == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  ret = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (expr2), expr1, expr2);

  if (flag_isoc99
      && expr1_int_operands
      && expr2_int_operands)
    ret = note_integer_operands (ret);

  if (eptype)
    ret = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, eptype, ret);

  protected_set_expr_location (ret, loc);
  return ret;
}

/* Issue -Wcast-qual warnings when appropriate.  TYPE is the type to
   which we are casting.  OTYPE is the type of the expression being
   cast.  Both TYPE and OTYPE are pointer types.  LOC is the location
   of the cast.  -Wcast-qual appeared on the command line.  Named
   address space qualifiers are not handled here, because they result
   in different warnings.  */

static void
handle_warn_cast_qual (location_t loc, tree type, tree otype)
{
  tree in_type = type;
  tree in_otype = otype;
  int added = 0;
  int discarded = 0;
  bool is_const;

  /* Check that the qualifiers on IN_TYPE are a superset of the
     qualifiers of IN_OTYPE.  The outermost level of POINTER_TYPE
     nodes is uninteresting and we stop as soon as we hit a
     non-POINTER_TYPE node on either type.  */
  do
    {
      in_otype = TREE_TYPE (in_otype);
      in_type = TREE_TYPE (in_type);

      /* GNU C allows cv-qualified function types.  'const' means the
	 function is very pure, 'volatile' means it can't return.  We
	 need to warn when such qualifiers are added, not when they're
	 taken away.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (in_otype) == FUNCTION_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (in_type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	added |= (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (in_type)
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (in_otype));
      else
	discarded |= (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (in_otype)
		      & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (in_type));
    }
  while (TREE_CODE (in_type) == POINTER_TYPE
	 && TREE_CODE (in_otype) == POINTER_TYPE);

  if (added)
    warning_at (loc, OPT_Wcast_qual,
		"cast adds %q#v qualifier to function type", added);

  if (discarded)
    /* There are qualifiers present in IN_OTYPE that are not present
       in IN_TYPE.  */
    warning_at (loc, OPT_Wcast_qual,
		"cast discards %qv qualifier from pointer target type",
		discarded);

  if (added || discarded)
    return;

  /* A cast from **T to const **T is unsafe, because it can cause a
     const value to be changed with no additional warning.  We only
     issue this warning if T is the same on both sides, and we only
     issue the warning if there are the same number of pointers on
     both sides, as otherwise the cast is clearly unsafe anyhow.  A
     cast is unsafe when a qualifier is added at one level and const
     is not present at all outer levels.

     To issue this warning, we check at each level whether the cast
     adds new qualifiers not already seen.  We don't need to special
     case function types, as they won't have the same
     TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT.  */

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (in_type) != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (in_otype))
    return;
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) != POINTER_TYPE)
    return;

  in_type = type;
  in_otype = otype;
  is_const = TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (in_type));
  do
    {
      in_type = TREE_TYPE (in_type);
      in_otype = TREE_TYPE (in_otype);
      if ((TYPE_QUALS (in_type) &~ TYPE_QUALS (in_otype)) != 0
	  && !is_const)
	{
	  warning_at (loc, OPT_Wcast_qual,
		      "to be safe all intermediate pointers in cast from "
                      "%qT to %qT must be %<const%> qualified",
		      otype, type);
	  break;
	}
      if (is_const)
	is_const = TYPE_READONLY (in_type);
    }
  while (TREE_CODE (in_type) == POINTER_TYPE);
}

/* Build an expression representing a cast to type TYPE of expression EXPR.
   LOC is the location of the cast-- typically the open paren of the cast.  */

tree
build_c_cast (location_t loc, tree type, tree expr)
{
  tree value;

  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    expr = TREE_OPERAND (expr, 0);

  value = expr;

  if (type == error_mark_node || expr == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  /* The ObjC front-end uses TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT to tie together types differing
     only in <protocol> qualifications.  But when constructing cast expressions,
     the protocols do matter and must be kept around.  */
  if (objc_is_object_ptr (type) && objc_is_object_ptr (TREE_TYPE (expr)))
    return build1 (NOP_EXPR, type, expr);

  type = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type);

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (loc, "cast specifies array type");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (type) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (loc, "cast specifies function type");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (!VOID_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      value = require_complete_type (loc, value);
      if (value == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (type == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value)))
    {
      if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (type))
	pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		 "ISO C forbids casting nonscalar to the same type");

      /* Convert to remove any qualifiers from VALUE's type.  */
      value = convert (type, value);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == UNION_TYPE)
    {
      tree field;

      for (field = TYPE_FIELDS (type); field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
	if (TREE_TYPE (field) != error_mark_node
	    && comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (field)),
			  TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value))))
	  break;

      if (field)
	{
	  tree t;
	  bool maybe_const = true;

	  pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids casts to union type");
	  t = c_fully_fold (value, false, &maybe_const);
	  t = build_constructor_single (type, field, t);
	  if (!maybe_const)
	    t = c_wrap_maybe_const (t, true);
	  t = digest_init (loc, type, t,
			   NULL_TREE, false, true, 0);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (t) = TREE_CONSTANT (value);
	  return t;
	}
      error_at (loc, "cast to union type from type not present in union");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  else
    {
      tree otype, ovalue;

      if (type == void_type_node)
	{
	  tree t = build1 (CONVERT_EXPR, type, value);
	  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, loc);
	  return t;
	}

      otype = TREE_TYPE (value);

      /* Optionally warn about potentially worrisome casts.  */
      if (warn_cast_qual
	  && TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE)
	handle_warn_cast_qual (loc, type, otype);

      /* Warn about conversions between pointers to disjoint
	 address spaces.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && !null_pointer_constant_p (value))
	{
	  addr_space_t as_to = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (type));
	  addr_space_t as_from = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (otype));
	  addr_space_t as_common;

	  if (!addr_space_superset (as_to, as_from, &as_common))
	    {
	      if (ADDR_SPACE_GENERIC_P (as_from))
		warning_at (loc, 0, "cast to %s address space pointer "
			    "from disjoint generic address space pointer",
			    c_addr_space_name (as_to));

	      else if (ADDR_SPACE_GENERIC_P (as_to))
		warning_at (loc, 0, "cast to generic address space pointer "
			    "from disjoint %s address space pointer",
			    c_addr_space_name (as_from));

	      else
		warning_at (loc, 0, "cast to %s address space pointer "
			    "from disjoint %s address space pointer",
			    c_addr_space_name (as_to),
			    c_addr_space_name (as_from));
	    }
	}

      /* Warn about possible alignment problems.  */
      if ((STRICT_ALIGNMENT || warn_cast_align == 2)
	  && TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (otype)) != VOID_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (otype)) != FUNCTION_TYPE
	  /* Don't warn about opaque types, where the actual alignment
	     restriction is unknown.  */
	  && !(RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (otype))
	       && TYPE_MODE (TREE_TYPE (otype)) == VOIDmode)
	  && min_align_of_type (TREE_TYPE (type))
	     > min_align_of_type (TREE_TYPE (otype)))
	warning_at (loc, OPT_Wcast_align,
		    "cast increases required alignment of target type");

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TYPE_PRECISION (type) != TYPE_PRECISION (otype))
      /* Unlike conversion of integers to pointers, where the
         warning is disabled for converting constants because
         of cases such as SIG_*, warn about converting constant
         pointers to integers. In some cases it may cause unwanted
         sign extension, and a warning is appropriate.  */
	warning_at (loc, OPT_Wpointer_to_int_cast,
		    "cast from pointer to integer of different size");

      if (TREE_CODE (value) == CALL_EXPR
	  && TREE_CODE (type) != TREE_CODE (otype))
	warning_at (loc, OPT_Wbad_function_cast,
		    "cast from function call of type %qT "
		    "to non-matching type %qT", otype, type);

      if (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TYPE_PRECISION (type) != TYPE_PRECISION (otype)
	  /* Don't warn about converting any constant.  */
	  && !TREE_CONSTANT (value))
	warning_at (loc,
		    OPT_Wint_to_pointer_cast, "cast to pointer from integer "
		    "of different size");

      if (warn_strict_aliasing <= 2)
        strict_aliasing_warning (otype, type, expr);

      /* If pedantic, warn for conversions between function and object
	 pointer types, except for converting a null pointer constant
	 to function pointer type.  */
      if (pedantic
	  && TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (otype)) == FUNCTION_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) != FUNCTION_TYPE)
	pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
		 "conversion of function pointer to object pointer type");

      if (pedantic
	  && TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (otype) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) == FUNCTION_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (otype)) != FUNCTION_TYPE
	  && !null_pointer_constant_p (value))
	pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
		 "conversion of object pointer to function pointer type");

      ovalue = value;
      value = convert (type, value);

      /* Ignore any integer overflow caused by the cast.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (value) == INTEGER_CST && !FLOAT_TYPE_P (otype))
	{
	  if (CONSTANT_CLASS_P (ovalue) && TREE_OVERFLOW (ovalue))
	    {
	      if (!TREE_OVERFLOW (value))
		{
		  /* Avoid clobbering a shared constant.  */
		  value = copy_node (value);
		  TREE_OVERFLOW (value) = TREE_OVERFLOW (ovalue);
		}
	    }
	  else if (TREE_OVERFLOW (value))
	    /* Reset VALUE's overflow flags, ensuring constant sharing.  */
	    value = wide_int_to_tree (TREE_TYPE (value), wi::to_wide (value));
	}
    }

  /* Don't let a cast be an lvalue.  */
  if (lvalue_p (value))
    value = non_lvalue_loc (loc, value);

  /* Don't allow the results of casting to floating-point or complex
     types be confused with actual constants, or casts involving
     integer and pointer types other than direct integer-to-integer
     and integer-to-pointer be confused with integer constant
     expressions and null pointer constants.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (value) == REAL_CST
      || TREE_CODE (value) == COMPLEX_CST
      || (TREE_CODE (value) == INTEGER_CST
	  && !((TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST
		&& INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (expr)))
	       || TREE_CODE (expr) == REAL_CST
	       || TREE_CODE (expr) == COMPLEX_CST)))
      value = build1 (NOP_EXPR, type, value);

  protected_set_expr_location (value, loc);
  return value;
}

/* Interpret a cast of expression EXPR to type TYPE.  LOC is the
   location of the open paren of the cast, or the position of the cast
   expr.  */
tree
c_cast_expr (location_t loc, struct c_type_name *type_name, tree expr)
{
  tree type;
  tree type_expr = NULL_TREE;
  bool type_expr_const = true;
  tree ret;
  int saved_wsp = warn_strict_prototypes;

  /* This avoids warnings about unprototyped casts on
     integers.  E.g. "#define SIG_DFL (void(*)())0".  */
  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST)
    warn_strict_prototypes = 0;
  type = groktypename (type_name, &type_expr, &type_expr_const);
  warn_strict_prototypes = saved_wsp;

  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == ADDR_EXPR && !VOID_TYPE_P (type)
      && reject_gcc_builtin (expr))
    return error_mark_node;

  ret = build_c_cast (loc, type, expr);
  if (type_expr)
    {
      bool inner_expr_const = true;
      ret = c_fully_fold (ret, require_constant_value, &inner_expr_const);
      ret = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret), type_expr, ret);
      C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (ret) = !(type_expr_const
					     && inner_expr_const);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (ret, loc);
    }

  if (!EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (ret))
    protected_set_expr_location (ret, loc);

  /* C++ does not permits types to be defined in a cast, but it
     allows references to incomplete types.  */
  if (warn_cxx_compat && type_name->specs->typespec_kind == ctsk_tagdef)
    warning_at (loc, OPT_Wc___compat,
		"defining a type in a cast is invalid in C++");

  return ret;
}

/* Build an assignment expression of lvalue LHS from value RHS.
   If LHS_ORIGTYPE is not NULL, it is the original type of LHS, which
   may differ from TREE_TYPE (LHS) for an enum bitfield.
   MODIFYCODE is the code for a binary operator that we use
   to combine the old value of LHS with RHS to get the new value.
   Or else MODIFYCODE is NOP_EXPR meaning do a simple assignment.
   If RHS_ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it is the original type of RHS,
   which may differ from TREE_TYPE (RHS) for an enum value.

   LOCATION is the location of the MODIFYCODE operator.
   RHS_LOC is the location of the RHS.  */

tree
build_modify_expr (location_t location, tree lhs, tree lhs_origtype,
		   enum tree_code modifycode,
		   location_t rhs_loc, tree rhs, tree rhs_origtype)
{
  tree result;
  tree newrhs;
  tree rhseval = NULL_TREE;
  tree lhstype = TREE_TYPE (lhs);
  tree olhstype = lhstype;
  bool npc;
  bool is_atomic_op;

  /* Types that aren't fully specified cannot be used in assignments.  */
  lhs = require_complete_type (location, lhs);

  /* Avoid duplicate error messages from operands that had errors.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == ERROR_MARK || TREE_CODE (rhs) == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  /* Ensure an error for assigning a non-lvalue array to an array in
     C90.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (lhstype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      error_at (location, "assignment to expression with array type");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  /* For ObjC properties, defer this check.  */
  if (!objc_is_property_ref (lhs) && !lvalue_or_else (location, lhs, lv_assign))
    return error_mark_node;

  is_atomic_op = really_atomic_lvalue (lhs);

  newrhs = rhs;

  if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
    {
      tree inner = build_modify_expr (location, C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_EXPR (lhs),
				      lhs_origtype, modifycode, rhs_loc, rhs,
				      rhs_origtype);
      if (inner == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;
      result = build2 (C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (inner),
		       C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_PRE (lhs), inner);
      gcc_assert (!C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_INT_OPERANDS (lhs));
      C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR_NON_CONST (result) = 1;
      protected_set_expr_location (result, location);
      return result;
    }

  /* If a binary op has been requested, combine the old LHS value with the RHS
     producing the value we should actually store into the LHS.  */

  if (modifycode != NOP_EXPR)
    {
      lhs = c_fully_fold (lhs, false, NULL);
      lhs = stabilize_reference (lhs);

      /* Construct the RHS for any non-atomic compound assignemnt. */
      if (!is_atomic_op)
        {
	  /* If in LHS op= RHS the RHS has side-effects, ensure they
	     are preevaluated before the rest of the assignment expression's
	     side-effects, because RHS could contain e.g. function calls
	     that modify LHS.  */
	  if (TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (rhs))
	    {
	      if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
		newrhs = save_expr (TREE_OPERAND (rhs, 0));
	      else
		newrhs = save_expr (rhs);
	      rhseval = newrhs;
	      if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
		newrhs = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (rhs),
				 newrhs);
	    }
	  newrhs = build_binary_op (location,
				    modifycode, lhs, newrhs, true);

	  /* The original type of the right hand side is no longer
	     meaningful.  */
	  rhs_origtype = NULL_TREE;
	}
    }

  if (c_dialect_objc ())
    {
      /* Check if we are modifying an Objective-C property reference;
	 if so, we need to generate setter calls.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (newrhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	result = objc_maybe_build_modify_expr (lhs, TREE_OPERAND (newrhs, 0));
      else
	result = objc_maybe_build_modify_expr (lhs, newrhs);
      if (result)
	goto return_result;

      /* Else, do the check that we postponed for Objective-C.  */
      if (!lvalue_or_else (location, lhs, lv_assign))
	return error_mark_node;
    }

  /* Give an error for storing in something that is 'const'.  */

  if (TYPE_READONLY (lhstype)
      || (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (lhstype)
	  && C_TYPE_FIELDS_READONLY (lhstype)))
    {
      readonly_error (location, lhs, lv_assign);
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  else if (TREE_READONLY (lhs))
    readonly_warning (lhs, lv_assign);

  /* If storing into a structure or union member,
     it has probably been given type `int'.
     Compute the type that would go with
     the actual amount of storage the member occupies.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == COMPONENT_REF
      && (TREE_CODE (lhstype) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  || TREE_CODE (lhstype) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	  || TREE_CODE (lhstype) == REAL_TYPE
	  || TREE_CODE (lhstype) == ENUMERAL_TYPE))
    lhstype = TREE_TYPE (get_unwidened (lhs, 0));

  /* If storing in a field that is in actuality a short or narrower than one,
     we must store in the field in its actual type.  */

  if (lhstype != TREE_TYPE (lhs))
    {
      lhs = copy_node (lhs);
      TREE_TYPE (lhs) = lhstype;
    }

  /* Issue -Wc++-compat warnings about an assignment to an enum type
     when LHS does not have its original type.  This happens for,
     e.g., an enum bitfield in a struct.  */
  if (warn_cxx_compat
      && lhs_origtype != NULL_TREE
      && lhs_origtype != lhstype
      && TREE_CODE (lhs_origtype) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    {
      tree checktype = (rhs_origtype != NULL_TREE
			? rhs_origtype
			: TREE_TYPE (rhs));
      if (checktype != error_mark_node
	  && (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (checktype) != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (lhs_origtype)
	      || (is_atomic_op && modifycode != NOP_EXPR)))
	warning_at (location, OPT_Wc___compat,
		    "enum conversion in assignment is invalid in C++");
    }

  /* If the lhs is atomic, remove that qualifier.  */
  if (is_atomic_op)
    {
      lhstype = build_qualified_type (lhstype, 
				      (TYPE_QUALS (lhstype)
				       & ~TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC));
      olhstype = build_qualified_type (olhstype, 
				       (TYPE_QUALS (lhstype)
					& ~TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC));
    }

  /* Convert new value to destination type.  Fold it first, then
     restore any excess precision information, for the sake of
     conversion warnings.  */

  if (!(is_atomic_op && modifycode != NOP_EXPR))
    {
      tree rhs_semantic_type = NULL_TREE;
      if (TREE_CODE (newrhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	{
	  rhs_semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (newrhs);
	  newrhs = TREE_OPERAND (newrhs, 0);
	}
      npc = null_pointer_constant_p (newrhs);
      newrhs = c_fully_fold (newrhs, false, NULL);
      if (rhs_semantic_type)
	newrhs = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, rhs_semantic_type, newrhs);
      newrhs = convert_for_assignment (location, rhs_loc, lhstype, newrhs,
				       rhs_origtype, ic_assign, npc,
				       NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (newrhs) == ERROR_MARK)
	return error_mark_node;
    }

  /* Emit ObjC write barrier, if necessary.  */
  if (c_dialect_objc () && flag_objc_gc)
    {
      result = objc_generate_write_barrier (lhs, modifycode, newrhs);
      if (result)
	{
	  protected_set_expr_location (result, location);
	  goto return_result;
	}
    }

  /* Scan operands.  */

  if (is_atomic_op)
    result = build_atomic_assign (location, lhs, modifycode, newrhs, false);
  else
    {
      result = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, lhstype, lhs, newrhs);
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (result) = 1;
      protected_set_expr_location (result, location);
    }

  /* If we got the LHS in a different type for storing in,
     convert the result back to the nominal type of LHS
     so that the value we return always has the same type
     as the LHS argument.  */

  if (olhstype == TREE_TYPE (result))
    goto return_result;

  result = convert_for_assignment (location, rhs_loc, olhstype, result,
				   rhs_origtype, ic_assign, false, NULL_TREE,
				   NULL_TREE, 0);
  protected_set_expr_location (result, location);

return_result:
  if (rhseval)
    result = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (result), rhseval, result);
  return result;
}

/* Return whether STRUCT_TYPE has an anonymous field with type TYPE.
   This is used to implement -fplan9-extensions.  */

static bool
find_anonymous_field_with_type (tree struct_type, tree type)
{
  tree field;
  bool found;

  gcc_assert (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (struct_type));
  found = false;
  for (field = TYPE_FIELDS (struct_type);
       field != NULL_TREE;
       field = TREE_CHAIN (field))
    {
      tree fieldtype = (TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (field))
			? c_build_qualified_type (TREE_TYPE (field),
						  TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
			: TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (field)));
      if (DECL_NAME (field) == NULL
	  && comptypes (type, fieldtype))
	{
	  if (found)
	    return false;
	  found = true;
	}
      else if (DECL_NAME (field) == NULL
	       && RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field))
	       && find_anonymous_field_with_type (TREE_TYPE (field), type))
	{
	  if (found)
	    return false;
	  found = true;
	}
    }
  return found;
}

/* RHS is an expression whose type is pointer to struct.  If there is
   an anonymous field in RHS with type TYPE, then return a pointer to
   that field in RHS.  This is used with -fplan9-extensions.  This
   returns NULL if no conversion could be found.  */

static tree
convert_to_anonymous_field (location_t location, tree type, tree rhs)
{
  tree rhs_struct_type, lhs_main_type;
  tree field, found_field;
  bool found_sub_field;
  tree ret;

  gcc_assert (POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (rhs)));
  rhs_struct_type = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (rhs));
  gcc_assert (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (rhs_struct_type));

  gcc_assert (POINTER_TYPE_P (type));
  lhs_main_type = (TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (type))
		   ? c_build_qualified_type (TREE_TYPE (type),
					     TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
		   : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (type)));

  found_field = NULL_TREE;
  found_sub_field = false;
  for (field = TYPE_FIELDS (rhs_struct_type);
       field != NULL_TREE;
       field = TREE_CHAIN (field))
    {
      if (DECL_NAME (field) != NULL_TREE
	  || !RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
	continue;
      tree fieldtype = (TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (field))
			? c_build_qualified_type (TREE_TYPE (field),
						  TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
			: TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (field)));
      if (comptypes (lhs_main_type, fieldtype))
	{
	  if (found_field != NULL_TREE)
	    return NULL_TREE;
	  found_field = field;
	}
      else if (find_anonymous_field_with_type (TREE_TYPE (field),
					       lhs_main_type))
	{
	  if (found_field != NULL_TREE)
	    return NULL_TREE;
	  found_field = field;
	  found_sub_field = true;
	}
    }

  if (found_field == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;

  ret = fold_build3_loc (location, COMPONENT_REF, TREE_TYPE (found_field),
			 build_fold_indirect_ref (rhs), found_field,
			 NULL_TREE);
  ret = build_fold_addr_expr_loc (location, ret);

  if (found_sub_field)
    {
      ret = convert_to_anonymous_field (location, type, ret);
      gcc_assert (ret != NULL_TREE);
    }

  return ret;
}

/* Issue an error message for a bad initializer component.
   GMSGID identifies the message.
   The component name is taken from the spelling stack.  */

static void
error_init (location_t loc, const char *gmsgid)
{
  char *ofwhat;

  /* The gmsgid may be a format string with %< and %>. */
  error_at (loc, gmsgid);
  ofwhat = print_spelling ((char *) alloca (spelling_length () + 1));
  if (*ofwhat)
    inform (loc, "(near initialization for %qs)", ofwhat);
}

/* Issue a pedantic warning for a bad initializer component.  OPT is
   the option OPT_* (from options.h) controlling this warning or 0 if
   it is unconditionally given.  GMSGID identifies the message.  The
   component name is taken from the spelling stack.  */

static void ATTRIBUTE_GCC_DIAG (3,0)
pedwarn_init (location_t loc, int opt, const char *gmsgid, ...)
{
  /* Use the location where a macro was expanded rather than where
     it was defined to make sure macros defined in system headers
     but used incorrectly elsewhere are diagnosed.  */
  source_location exploc = expansion_point_location_if_in_system_header (loc);

  va_list ap;
  va_start (ap, gmsgid);
  bool warned = emit_diagnostic_valist (DK_PEDWARN, exploc, opt, gmsgid, &ap);
  va_end (ap);
  char *ofwhat = print_spelling ((char *) alloca (spelling_length () + 1));
  if (*ofwhat && warned)
    inform (exploc, "(near initialization for %qs)", ofwhat);
}

/* Issue a warning for a bad initializer component.

   OPT is the OPT_W* value corresponding to the warning option that
   controls this warning.  GMSGID identifies the message.  The
   component name is taken from the spelling stack.  */

static void
warning_init (location_t loc, int opt, const char *gmsgid)
{
  char *ofwhat;
  bool warned;

  /* Use the location where a macro was expanded rather than where
     it was defined to make sure macros defined in system headers
     but used incorrectly elsewhere are diagnosed.  */
  source_location exploc = expansion_point_location_if_in_system_header (loc);

  /* The gmsgid may be a format string with %< and %>. */
  warned = warning_at (exploc, opt, gmsgid);
  ofwhat = print_spelling ((char *) alloca (spelling_length () + 1));
  if (*ofwhat && warned)
    inform (exploc, "(near initialization for %qs)", ofwhat);
}

/* If TYPE is an array type and EXPR is a parenthesized string
   constant, warn if pedantic that EXPR is being used to initialize an
   object of type TYPE.  */

void
maybe_warn_string_init (location_t loc, tree type, struct c_expr expr)
{
  if (pedantic
      && TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (expr.value) == STRING_CST
      && expr.original_code != STRING_CST)
    pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		  "array initialized from parenthesized string constant");
}

/* Attempt to locate the parameter with the given index within FNDECL,
   returning DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (FNDECL) if it can't be found.  */

static location_t
get_fndecl_argument_location (tree fndecl, int argnum)
{
  int i;
  tree param;

  /* Locate param by index within DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl).  */
  for (i = 0, param = DECL_ARGUMENTS (fndecl);
       i < argnum && param;
       i++, param = TREE_CHAIN (param))
    ;

  /* If something went wrong (e.g. if we have a builtin and thus no arguments),
     return DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (FNDECL).  */
  if (param == NULL)
    return DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fndecl);

  return DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (param);
}

/* Issue a note about a mismatching argument for parameter PARMNUM
   to FUNDECL, for types EXPECTED_TYPE and ACTUAL_TYPE.
   Attempt to issue the note at the pertinent parameter of the decl;
   failing that issue it at the location of FUNDECL; failing that
   issue it at PLOC.  */

static void
inform_for_arg (tree fundecl, location_t ploc, int parmnum,
		tree expected_type, tree actual_type)
{
  location_t loc;
  if (fundecl && !DECL_IS_BUILTIN (fundecl))
    loc = get_fndecl_argument_location (fundecl, parmnum - 1);
  else
    loc = ploc;

  inform (loc,
	  "expected %qT but argument is of type %qT",
	  expected_type, actual_type);
}

/* Convert value RHS to type TYPE as preparation for an assignment to
   an lvalue of type TYPE.  If ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it is the
   original type of RHS; this differs from TREE_TYPE (RHS) for enum
   types.  NULL_POINTER_CONSTANT says whether RHS was a null pointer
   constant before any folding.
   The real work of conversion is done by `convert'.
   The purpose of this function is to generate error messages
   for assignments that are not allowed in C.
   ERRTYPE says whether it is argument passing, assignment,
   initialization or return.

   In the following example, '~' denotes where EXPR_LOC and '^' where
   LOCATION point to:

     f (var);      [ic_argpass]
     ^  ~~~
     x = var;      [ic_assign]
       ^ ~~~;
     int x = var;  [ic_init]
	     ^^^
     return x;     [ic_return]
	    ^

   FUNCTION is a tree for the function being called.
   PARMNUM is the number of the argument, for printing in error messages.  */

static tree
convert_for_assignment (location_t location, location_t expr_loc, tree type,
			tree rhs, tree origtype, enum impl_conv errtype,
			bool null_pointer_constant, tree fundecl,
			tree function, int parmnum)
{
  enum tree_code codel = TREE_CODE (type);
  tree orig_rhs = rhs;
  tree rhstype;
  enum tree_code coder;
  tree rname = NULL_TREE;
  bool objc_ok = false;

  /* Use the expansion point location to handle cases such as user's
     function returning a wrong-type macro defined in a system header.  */
  location = expansion_point_location_if_in_system_header (location);

  if (errtype == ic_argpass)
    {
      tree selector;
      /* Change pointer to function to the function itself for
	 diagnostics.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (function) == ADDR_EXPR
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (function, 0)) == FUNCTION_DECL)
	function = TREE_OPERAND (function, 0);

      /* Handle an ObjC selector specially for diagnostics.  */
      selector = objc_message_selector ();
      rname = function;
      if (selector && parmnum > 2)
	{
	  rname = selector;
	  parmnum -= 2;
	}
    }

  /* This macro is used to emit diagnostics to ensure that all format
     strings are complete sentences, visible to gettext and checked at
     compile time.  */
#define PEDWARN_FOR_ASSIGNMENT(LOCATION, PLOC, OPT, AR, AS, IN, RE)	 \
  do {                                                                   \
    switch (errtype)                                                     \
      {                                                                  \
      case ic_argpass:                                                   \
        if (pedwarn (PLOC, OPT, AR, parmnum, rname))			 \
          inform_for_arg (fundecl, (PLOC), parmnum, type, rhstype);	\
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_assign:                                                    \
        pedwarn (LOCATION, OPT, AS);                                     \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_init:                                                      \
        pedwarn_init (LOCATION, OPT, IN);                                \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_return:                                                    \
        pedwarn (LOCATION, OPT, RE);					 \
        break;                                                           \
      default:                                                           \
        gcc_unreachable ();                                              \
      }                                                                  \
  } while (0)

  /* This macro is used to emit diagnostics to ensure that all format
     strings are complete sentences, visible to gettext and checked at
     compile time.  It is the same as PEDWARN_FOR_ASSIGNMENT but with an
     extra parameter to enumerate qualifiers.  */
#define PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS(LOCATION, PLOC, OPT, AR, AS, IN, RE, QUALS) \
  do {                                                                   \
    switch (errtype)                                                     \
      {                                                                  \
      case ic_argpass:                                                   \
        if (pedwarn (PLOC, OPT, AR, parmnum, rname, QUALS))		 \
          inform_for_arg (fundecl, (PLOC), parmnum, type, rhstype);	\
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_assign:                                                    \
        pedwarn (LOCATION, OPT, AS, QUALS);				 \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_init:                                                      \
        pedwarn (LOCATION, OPT, IN, QUALS);				 \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_return:                                                    \
        pedwarn (LOCATION, OPT, RE, QUALS);				 \
        break;                                                           \
      default:                                                           \
        gcc_unreachable ();                                              \
      }                                                                  \
  } while (0)

  /* This macro is used to emit diagnostics to ensure that all format
     strings are complete sentences, visible to gettext and checked at
     compile time.  It is the same as PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS but uses
     warning_at instead of pedwarn.  */
#define WARNING_FOR_QUALIFIERS(LOCATION, PLOC, OPT, AR, AS, IN, RE, QUALS) \
  do {                                                                   \
    switch (errtype)                                                     \
      {                                                                  \
      case ic_argpass:                                                   \
        if (warning_at (PLOC, OPT, AR, parmnum, rname, QUALS))           \
          inform_for_arg (fundecl, (PLOC), parmnum, type, rhstype);      \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_assign:                                                    \
        warning_at (LOCATION, OPT, AS, QUALS);                           \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_init:                                                      \
        warning_at (LOCATION, OPT, IN, QUALS);                           \
        break;                                                           \
      case ic_return:                                                    \
        warning_at (LOCATION, OPT, RE, QUALS);                           \
        break;                                                           \
      default:                                                           \
        gcc_unreachable ();                                              \
      }                                                                  \
  } while (0)

  if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    rhs = TREE_OPERAND (rhs, 0);

  rhstype = TREE_TYPE (rhs);
  coder = TREE_CODE (rhstype);

  if (coder == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (c_dialect_objc ())
    {
      int parmno;

      switch (errtype)
	{
	case ic_return:
	  parmno = 0;
	  break;

	case ic_assign:
	  parmno = -1;
	  break;

	case ic_init:
	  parmno = -2;
	  break;

	default:
	  parmno = parmnum;
	  break;
	}

      objc_ok = objc_compare_types (type, rhstype, parmno, rname);
    }

  if (warn_cxx_compat)
    {
      tree checktype = origtype != NULL_TREE ? origtype : rhstype;
      if (checktype != error_mark_node
	  && TREE_CODE (type) == ENUMERAL_TYPE
	  && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (checktype) != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type))
	switch (errtype)
	  {
	  case ic_argpass:
	    if (pedwarn (expr_loc, OPT_Wc___compat, "enum conversion when "
			 "passing argument %d of %qE is invalid in C++",
			 parmnum, rname))
	      inform ((fundecl && !DECL_IS_BUILTIN (fundecl))
		      ? DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fundecl) : expr_loc,
		      "expected %qT but argument is of type %qT",
		      type, rhstype);
	    break;
	  case ic_assign:
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wc___compat, "enum conversion from %qT to "
		     "%qT in assignment is invalid in C++", rhstype, type);
	    break;
	  case ic_init:
	    pedwarn_init (location, OPT_Wc___compat, "enum conversion from "
			  "%qT to %qT in initialization is invalid in C++",
			  rhstype, type);
	    break;
	  case ic_return:
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wc___compat, "enum conversion from %qT to "
		     "%qT in return is invalid in C++", rhstype, type);
	    break;
	  default:
	    gcc_unreachable ();
	  }
    }

  if (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type) == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (rhstype))
    return rhs;

  if (coder == VOID_TYPE)
    {
      /* Except for passing an argument to an unprototyped function,
	 this is a constraint violation.  When passing an argument to
	 an unprototyped function, it is compile-time undefined;
	 making it a constraint in that case was rejected in
	 DR#252.  */
      error_at (location, "void value not ignored as it ought to be");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  rhs = require_complete_type (location, rhs);
  if (rhs == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (coder == POINTER_TYPE && reject_gcc_builtin (rhs))
    return error_mark_node;

  /* A non-reference type can convert to a reference.  This handles
     va_start, va_copy and possibly port built-ins.  */
  if (codel == REFERENCE_TYPE && coder != REFERENCE_TYPE)
    {
      if (!lvalue_p (rhs))
	{
	  error_at (location, "cannot pass rvalue to reference parameter");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (!c_mark_addressable (rhs))
	return error_mark_node;
      rhs = build1 (ADDR_EXPR, build_pointer_type (TREE_TYPE (rhs)), rhs);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (rhs, location);

      rhs = convert_for_assignment (location, expr_loc,
				    build_pointer_type (TREE_TYPE (type)),
				    rhs, origtype, errtype,
				    null_pointer_constant, fundecl, function,
				    parmnum);
      if (rhs == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;

      rhs = build1 (NOP_EXPR, type, rhs);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (rhs, location);
      return rhs;
    }
  /* Some types can interconvert without explicit casts.  */
  else if (codel == VECTOR_TYPE && coder == VECTOR_TYPE
	   && vector_types_convertible_p (type, TREE_TYPE (rhs), true))
    return convert (type, rhs);
  /* Arithmetic types all interconvert, and enum is treated like int.  */
  else if ((codel == INTEGER_TYPE || codel == REAL_TYPE
	    || codel == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	    || codel == ENUMERAL_TYPE || codel == COMPLEX_TYPE
	    || codel == BOOLEAN_TYPE)
	   && (coder == INTEGER_TYPE || coder == REAL_TYPE
	       || coder == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	       || coder == ENUMERAL_TYPE || coder == COMPLEX_TYPE
	       || coder == BOOLEAN_TYPE))
    {
      tree ret;
      bool save = in_late_binary_op;
      if (codel == BOOLEAN_TYPE || codel == COMPLEX_TYPE
	  || (coder == REAL_TYPE
	      && (codel == INTEGER_TYPE || codel == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
	      && sanitize_flags_p (SANITIZE_FLOAT_CAST)))
	in_late_binary_op = true;
      ret = convert_and_check (expr_loc != UNKNOWN_LOCATION
			       ? expr_loc : location, type, orig_rhs);
      in_late_binary_op = save;
      return ret;
    }

  /* Aggregates in different TUs might need conversion.  */
  if ((codel == RECORD_TYPE || codel == UNION_TYPE)
      && codel == coder
      && comptypes (type, rhstype))
    return convert_and_check (expr_loc != UNKNOWN_LOCATION
			      ? expr_loc : location, type, rhs);

  /* Conversion to a transparent union or record from its member types.
     This applies only to function arguments.  */
  if (((codel == UNION_TYPE || codel == RECORD_TYPE)
      && TYPE_TRANSPARENT_AGGR (type))
      && errtype == ic_argpass)
    {
      tree memb, marginal_memb = NULL_TREE;

      for (memb = TYPE_FIELDS (type); memb ; memb = DECL_CHAIN (memb))
	{
	  tree memb_type = TREE_TYPE (memb);

	  if (comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (memb_type),
			 TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (rhstype)))
	    break;

	  if (TREE_CODE (memb_type) != POINTER_TYPE)
	    continue;

	  if (coder == POINTER_TYPE)
	    {
	      tree ttl = TREE_TYPE (memb_type);
	      tree ttr = TREE_TYPE (rhstype);

	      /* Any non-function converts to a [const][volatile] void *
		 and vice versa; otherwise, targets must be the same.
		 Meanwhile, the lhs target must have all the qualifiers of
		 the rhs.  */
	      if ((VOID_TYPE_P (ttl) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (ttl))
		  || (VOID_TYPE_P (ttr) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (ttr))
		  || comp_target_types (location, memb_type, rhstype))
		{
		  int lquals = TYPE_QUALS (ttl) & ~TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC;
		  int rquals = TYPE_QUALS (ttr) & ~TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC;
		  /* If this type won't generate any warnings, use it.  */
		  if (lquals == rquals
		      || ((TREE_CODE (ttr) == FUNCTION_TYPE
			   && TREE_CODE (ttl) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
			  ? ((lquals | rquals) == rquals)
			  : ((lquals | rquals) == lquals)))
		    break;

		  /* Keep looking for a better type, but remember this one.  */
		  if (!marginal_memb)
		    marginal_memb = memb;
		}
	    }

	  /* Can convert integer zero to any pointer type.  */
	  if (null_pointer_constant)
	    {
	      rhs = null_pointer_node;
	      break;
	    }
	}

      if (memb || marginal_memb)
	{
	  if (!memb)
	    {
	      /* We have only a marginally acceptable member type;
		 it needs a warning.  */
	      tree ttl = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (marginal_memb));
	      tree ttr = TREE_TYPE (rhstype);

	      /* Const and volatile mean something different for function
		 types, so the usual warnings are not appropriate.  */
	      if (TREE_CODE (ttr) == FUNCTION_TYPE
		  && TREE_CODE (ttl) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
		{
		  /* Because const and volatile on functions are
		     restrictions that say the function will not do
		     certain things, it is okay to use a const or volatile
		     function where an ordinary one is wanted, but not
		     vice-versa.  */
		  if (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttl)
		      & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttr))
		    PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS (location, expr_loc,
					    OPT_Wdiscarded_qualifiers,
					    G_("passing argument %d of %qE "
					       "makes %q#v qualified function "
					       "pointer from unqualified"),
					    G_("assignment makes %q#v qualified "
					       "function pointer from "
					       "unqualified"),
					    G_("initialization makes %q#v qualified "
					       "function pointer from "
					       "unqualified"),
					    G_("return makes %q#v qualified function "
					       "pointer from unqualified"),
					    TYPE_QUALS (ttl) & ~TYPE_QUALS (ttr));
		}
	      else if (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttr)
		       & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttl))
		PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS (location, expr_loc,
				        OPT_Wdiscarded_qualifiers,
				        G_("passing argument %d of %qE discards "
					   "%qv qualifier from pointer target type"),
				        G_("assignment discards %qv qualifier "
					   "from pointer target type"),
				        G_("initialization discards %qv qualifier "
					   "from pointer target type"),
				        G_("return discards %qv qualifier from "
					   "pointer target type"),
				        TYPE_QUALS (ttr) & ~TYPE_QUALS (ttl));

	      memb = marginal_memb;
	    }

	  if (!fundecl || !DECL_IN_SYSTEM_HEADER (fundecl))
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ISO C prohibits argument conversion to union type");

	  rhs = fold_convert_loc (location, TREE_TYPE (memb), rhs);
	  return build_constructor_single (type, memb, rhs);
	}
    }

  /* Conversions among pointers */
  else if ((codel == POINTER_TYPE || codel == REFERENCE_TYPE)
	   && (coder == codel))
    {
      tree ttl = TREE_TYPE (type);
      tree ttr = TREE_TYPE (rhstype);
      tree mvl = ttl;
      tree mvr = ttr;
      bool is_opaque_pointer;
      int target_cmp = 0;   /* Cache comp_target_types () result.  */
      addr_space_t asl;
      addr_space_t asr;

      if (TREE_CODE (mvl) != ARRAY_TYPE)
	mvl = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mvl)
	       ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvl),
					 TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	       : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvl));
      if (TREE_CODE (mvr) != ARRAY_TYPE)
	mvr = (TYPE_ATOMIC (mvr)
	       ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvr),
					 TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	       : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (mvr));
      /* Opaque pointers are treated like void pointers.  */
      is_opaque_pointer = vector_targets_convertible_p (ttl, ttr);

      /* The Plan 9 compiler permits a pointer to a struct to be
	 automatically converted into a pointer to an anonymous field
	 within the struct.  */
      if (flag_plan9_extensions
	  && RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (mvl)
	  && RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (mvr)
	  && mvl != mvr)
	{
	  tree new_rhs = convert_to_anonymous_field (location, type, rhs);
	  if (new_rhs != NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      rhs = new_rhs;
	      rhstype = TREE_TYPE (rhs);
	      coder = TREE_CODE (rhstype);
	      ttr = TREE_TYPE (rhstype);
	      mvr = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (ttr);
	    }
	}

      /* C++ does not allow the implicit conversion void* -> T*.  However,
	 for the purpose of reducing the number of false positives, we
	 tolerate the special case of

		int *p = NULL;

	 where NULL is typically defined in C to be '(void *) 0'.  */
      if (VOID_TYPE_P (ttr) && rhs != null_pointer_node && !VOID_TYPE_P (ttl))
	warning_at (errtype == ic_argpass ? expr_loc : location,
		    OPT_Wc___compat,
		    "request for implicit conversion "
		    "from %qT to %qT not permitted in C++", rhstype, type);

      /* See if the pointers point to incompatible address spaces.  */
      asl = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (ttl);
      asr = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (ttr);
      if (!null_pointer_constant_p (rhs)
	  && asr != asl && !targetm.addr_space.subset_p (asr, asl))
	{
	  switch (errtype)
	    {
	    case ic_argpass:
	      error_at (expr_loc, "passing argument %d of %qE from pointer to "
			"non-enclosed address space", parmnum, rname);
	      break;
	    case ic_assign:
	      error_at (location, "assignment from pointer to "
			"non-enclosed address space");
	      break;
	    case ic_init:
	      error_at (location, "initialization from pointer to "
			"non-enclosed address space");
	      break;
	    case ic_return:
	      error_at (location, "return from pointer to "
			"non-enclosed address space");
	      break;
	    default:
	      gcc_unreachable ();
	    }
	  return error_mark_node;
	}

      /* Check if the right-hand side has a format attribute but the
	 left-hand side doesn't.  */
      if (warn_suggest_attribute_format
	  && check_missing_format_attribute (type, rhstype))
	{
	  switch (errtype)
	  {
	  case ic_argpass:
	    warning_at (expr_loc, OPT_Wsuggest_attribute_format,
			"argument %d of %qE might be "
			"a candidate for a format attribute",
			parmnum, rname);
	    break;
	  case ic_assign:
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wsuggest_attribute_format,
			"assignment left-hand side might be "
			"a candidate for a format attribute");
	    break;
	  case ic_init:
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wsuggest_attribute_format,
			"initialization left-hand side might be "
			"a candidate for a format attribute");
	    break;
	  case ic_return:
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wsuggest_attribute_format,
			"return type might be "
			"a candidate for a format attribute");
	    break;
	  default:
	    gcc_unreachable ();
	  }
	}

      /* Any non-function converts to a [const][volatile] void *
	 and vice versa; otherwise, targets must be the same.
	 Meanwhile, the lhs target must have all the qualifiers of the rhs.  */
      if ((VOID_TYPE_P (ttl) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (ttl))
	  || (VOID_TYPE_P (ttr) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (ttr))
	  || (target_cmp = comp_target_types (location, type, rhstype))
	  || is_opaque_pointer
	  || ((c_common_unsigned_type (mvl)
	       == c_common_unsigned_type (mvr))
	      && (c_common_signed_type (mvl)
		  == c_common_signed_type (mvr))
	      && TYPE_ATOMIC (mvl) == TYPE_ATOMIC (mvr)))
	{
	  /* Warn about loss of qualifers from pointers to arrays with
	     qualifiers on the element type. */
	  if (TREE_CODE (ttr) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    {
	      ttr = strip_array_types (ttr);
	      ttl = strip_array_types (ttl);

	      if (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE_NO_ATOMIC (ttr)
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE_NO_ATOMIC (ttl))
		WARNING_FOR_QUALIFIERS (location, expr_loc,
				        OPT_Wdiscarded_array_qualifiers,
				        G_("passing argument %d of %qE discards "
					   "%qv qualifier from pointer target type"),
				        G_("assignment discards %qv qualifier "
					   "from pointer target type"),
				        G_("initialization discards %qv qualifier "
					   "from pointer target type"),
				        G_("return discards %qv qualifier from "
					   "pointer target type"),
                                        TYPE_QUALS (ttr) & ~TYPE_QUALS (ttl));
            }
          else if (pedantic
	      && ((VOID_TYPE_P (ttl) && TREE_CODE (ttr) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
		  ||
		  (VOID_TYPE_P (ttr)
		   && !null_pointer_constant
		   && TREE_CODE (ttl) == FUNCTION_TYPE)))
	    PEDWARN_FOR_ASSIGNMENT (location, expr_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
				    G_("ISO C forbids passing argument %d of "
				       "%qE between function pointer "
				       "and %<void *%>"),
				    G_("ISO C forbids assignment between "
				       "function pointer and %<void *%>"),
				    G_("ISO C forbids initialization between "
				       "function pointer and %<void *%>"),
				    G_("ISO C forbids return between function "
				       "pointer and %<void *%>"));
	  /* Const and volatile mean something different for function types,
	     so the usual warnings are not appropriate.  */
	  else if (TREE_CODE (ttr) != FUNCTION_TYPE
		   && TREE_CODE (ttl) != FUNCTION_TYPE)
	    {
	      /* Don't warn about loss of qualifier for conversions from
		 qualified void* to pointers to arrays with corresponding
		 qualifier on the element type. */
	      if (!pedantic)
	        ttl = strip_array_types (ttl);

	      /* Assignments between atomic and non-atomic objects are OK.  */
	      if (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE_NO_ATOMIC (ttr)
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE_NO_ATOMIC (ttl))
		{
		  PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS (location, expr_loc,
				          OPT_Wdiscarded_qualifiers,
				          G_("passing argument %d of %qE discards "
					     "%qv qualifier from pointer target type"),
				          G_("assignment discards %qv qualifier "
					     "from pointer target type"),
				          G_("initialization discards %qv qualifier "
					     "from pointer target type"),
				          G_("return discards %qv qualifier from "
					     "pointer target type"),
				          TYPE_QUALS (ttr) & ~TYPE_QUALS (ttl));
		}
	      /* If this is not a case of ignoring a mismatch in signedness,
		 no warning.  */
	      else if (VOID_TYPE_P (ttl) || VOID_TYPE_P (ttr)
		       || target_cmp)
		;
	      /* If there is a mismatch, do warn.  */
	      else if (warn_pointer_sign)
		switch (errtype)
		  {
		  case ic_argpass:
		    if (pedwarn (expr_loc, OPT_Wpointer_sign,
				 "pointer targets in passing argument %d of "
				 "%qE differ in signedness", parmnum, rname))
		      inform ((fundecl && !DECL_IS_BUILTIN (fundecl))
			      ? DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fundecl) : expr_loc,
			      "expected %qT but argument is of type %qT",
			      type, rhstype);
		    break;
		  case ic_assign:
		    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpointer_sign,
			     "pointer targets in assignment from %qT to %qT "
			     "differ in signedness", rhstype, type);
		    break;
		  case ic_init:
		    pedwarn_init (location, OPT_Wpointer_sign,
				  "pointer targets in initialization of %qT "
				  "from %qT differ in signedness", type,
				  rhstype);
		    break;
		  case ic_return:
		    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpointer_sign, "pointer targets in "
			     "returning %qT from a function with return type "
			     "%qT differ in signedness", rhstype, type);
		    break;
		  default:
		    gcc_unreachable ();
		  }
	    }
	  else if (TREE_CODE (ttl) == FUNCTION_TYPE
		   && TREE_CODE (ttr) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
	    {
	      /* Because const and volatile on functions are restrictions
		 that say the function will not do certain things,
		 it is okay to use a const or volatile function
		 where an ordinary one is wanted, but not vice-versa.  */
	      if (TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttl)
		  & ~TYPE_QUALS_NO_ADDR_SPACE (ttr))
		PEDWARN_FOR_QUALIFIERS (location, expr_loc,
				        OPT_Wdiscarded_qualifiers,
				        G_("passing argument %d of %qE makes "
					   "%q#v qualified function pointer "
					   "from unqualified"),
				        G_("assignment makes %q#v qualified function "
					   "pointer from unqualified"),
				        G_("initialization makes %q#v qualified "
					   "function pointer from unqualified"),
				        G_("return makes %q#v qualified function "
					   "pointer from unqualified"),
				        TYPE_QUALS (ttl) & ~TYPE_QUALS (ttr));
	    }
	}
      /* Avoid warning about the volatile ObjC EH puts on decls.  */
      else if (!objc_ok)
	{
	  switch (errtype)
	    {
	    case ic_argpass:
	      if (pedwarn (expr_loc, OPT_Wincompatible_pointer_types,
			   "passing argument %d of %qE from incompatible "
			   "pointer type", parmnum, rname))
		inform_for_arg (fundecl, expr_loc, parmnum, type, rhstype);
	      break;
	    case ic_assign:
	      pedwarn (location, OPT_Wincompatible_pointer_types,
		       "assignment to %qT from incompatible pointer type %qT",
		       type, rhstype);
	      break;
	    case ic_init:
	      pedwarn_init (location, OPT_Wincompatible_pointer_types,
			    "initialization of %qT from incompatible pointer "
			    "type %qT", type, rhstype);
	      break;
	    case ic_return:
	      pedwarn (location, OPT_Wincompatible_pointer_types,
		       "returning %qT from a function with incompatible "
		       "return type %qT", rhstype, type);
	      break;
	    default:
	      gcc_unreachable ();
	    }
	}

      return convert (type, rhs);
    }
  else if (codel == POINTER_TYPE && coder == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      /* ??? This should not be an error when inlining calls to
	 unprototyped functions.  */
      error_at (location, "invalid use of non-lvalue array");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  else if (codel == POINTER_TYPE && coder == INTEGER_TYPE)
    {
      /* An explicit constant 0 can convert to a pointer,
	 or one that results from arithmetic, even including
	 a cast to integer type.  */
      if (!null_pointer_constant)
	switch (errtype)
	  {
	  case ic_argpass:
	    if (pedwarn (expr_loc, OPT_Wint_conversion,
			 "passing argument %d of %qE makes pointer from "
			 "integer without a cast", parmnum, rname))
	      inform_for_arg (fundecl, expr_loc, parmnum, type, rhstype);
	    break;
	  case ic_assign:
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wint_conversion,
		     "assignment to %qT from %qT makes pointer from integer "
		     "without a cast", type, rhstype);
	    break;
	  case ic_init:
	    pedwarn_init (location, OPT_Wint_conversion,
			  "initialization of %qT from %qT makes pointer from "
			  "integer without a cast", type, rhstype);
	    break;
	  case ic_return:
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wint_conversion, "returning %qT from a "
		     "function with return type %qT makes pointer from "
		     "integer without a cast", rhstype, type);
	    break;
	  default:
	    gcc_unreachable ();
	  }

      return convert (type, rhs);
    }
  else if (codel == INTEGER_TYPE && coder == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      switch (errtype)
	{
	case ic_argpass:
	  if (pedwarn (expr_loc, OPT_Wint_conversion,
		       "passing argument %d of %qE makes integer from "
		       "pointer without a cast", parmnum, rname))
	    inform_for_arg (fundecl, expr_loc, parmnum, type, rhstype);
	  break;
	case ic_assign:
	  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wint_conversion,
		   "assignment to %qT from %qT makes integer from pointer "
		   "without a cast", type, rhstype);
	  break;
	case ic_init:
	  pedwarn_init (location, OPT_Wint_conversion,
			"initialization of %qT from %qT makes integer from "
			"pointer without a cast", type, rhstype);
	  break;
	case ic_return:
	  pedwarn (location, OPT_Wint_conversion, "returning %qT from a "
		   "function with return type %qT makes integer from "
		   "pointer without a cast", rhstype, type);
	  break;
	default:
	  gcc_unreachable ();
	}

      return convert (type, rhs);
    }
  else if (codel == BOOLEAN_TYPE && coder == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      tree ret;
      bool save = in_late_binary_op;
      in_late_binary_op = true;
      ret = convert (type, rhs);
      in_late_binary_op = save;
      return ret;
    }

  switch (errtype)
    {
    case ic_argpass:
      error_at (expr_loc, "incompatible type for argument %d of %qE", parmnum,
		rname);
      inform_for_arg (fundecl, expr_loc, parmnum, type, rhstype);
      break;
    case ic_assign:
      error_at (location, "incompatible types when assigning to type %qT from "
		"type %qT", type, rhstype);
      break;
    case ic_init:
      error_at (location,
		"incompatible types when initializing type %qT using type %qT",
		type, rhstype);
      break;
    case ic_return:
      error_at (location,
		"incompatible types when returning type %qT but %qT was "
		"expected", rhstype, type);
      break;
    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }

  return error_mark_node;
}

/* If VALUE is a compound expr all of whose expressions are constant, then
   return its value.  Otherwise, return error_mark_node.

   This is for handling COMPOUND_EXPRs as initializer elements
   which is allowed with a warning when -pedantic is specified.  */

static tree
valid_compound_expr_initializer (tree value, tree endtype)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (value) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
    {
      if (valid_compound_expr_initializer (TREE_OPERAND (value, 0), endtype)
	  == error_mark_node)
	return error_mark_node;
      return valid_compound_expr_initializer (TREE_OPERAND (value, 1),
					      endtype);
    }
  else if (!initializer_constant_valid_p (value, endtype))
    return error_mark_node;
  else
    return value;
}

/* Perform appropriate conversions on the initial value of a variable,
   store it in the declaration DECL,
   and print any error messages that are appropriate.
   If ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it is the original type of INIT.
   If the init is invalid, store an ERROR_MARK.

   INIT_LOC is the location of the initial value.  */

void
store_init_value (location_t init_loc, tree decl, tree init, tree origtype)
{
  tree value, type;
  bool npc = false;

  /* If variable's type was invalidly declared, just ignore it.  */

  type = TREE_TYPE (decl);
  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ERROR_MARK)
    return;

  /* Digest the specified initializer into an expression.  */

  if (init)
    npc = null_pointer_constant_p (init);
  value = digest_init (init_loc, type, init, origtype, npc,
      		       true, TREE_STATIC (decl));

  /* Store the expression if valid; else report error.  */

  if (!in_system_header_at (input_location)
      && AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (decl)) && !TREE_STATIC (decl))
    warning (OPT_Wtraditional, "traditional C rejects automatic "
	     "aggregate initialization");

  if (value != error_mark_node || TREE_CODE (decl) != FUNCTION_DECL)
    DECL_INITIAL (decl) = value;

  /* ANSI wants warnings about out-of-range constant initializers.  */
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (value);
  if (TREE_STATIC (decl))
    constant_expression_warning (value);

  /* Check if we need to set array size from compound literal size.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE
      && value != error_mark_node)
    {
      tree inside_init = init;

      STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (inside_init);
      inside_init = fold (inside_init);

      if (TREE_CODE (inside_init) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
	{
	  tree cldecl = COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR_DECL (inside_init);

	  if (TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (cldecl)))
	    {
	      /* For int foo[] = (int [3]){1}; we need to set array size
		 now since later on array initializer will be just the
		 brace enclosed list of the compound literal.  */
	      tree etype = strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (decl));
	      type = build_distinct_type_copy (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type));
	      TYPE_DOMAIN (type) = TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (cldecl));
	      layout_type (type);
	      layout_decl (cldecl, 0);
	      TREE_TYPE (decl)
		= c_build_qualified_type (type, TYPE_QUALS (etype));
	    }
	}
    }
}

/* Methods for storing and printing names for error messages.  */

/* Implement a spelling stack that allows components of a name to be pushed
   and popped.  Each element on the stack is this structure.  */

struct spelling
{
  int kind;
  union
    {
      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i;
      const char *s;
    } u;
};

#define SPELLING_STRING 1
#define SPELLING_MEMBER 2
#define SPELLING_BOUNDS 3

static struct spelling *spelling;	/* Next stack element (unused).  */
static struct spelling *spelling_base;	/* Spelling stack base.  */
static int spelling_size;		/* Size of the spelling stack.  */

/* Macros to save and restore the spelling stack around push_... functions.
   Alternative to SAVE_SPELLING_STACK.  */

#define SPELLING_DEPTH() (spelling - spelling_base)
#define RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH(DEPTH) (spelling = spelling_base + (DEPTH))

/* Push an element on the spelling stack with type KIND and assign VALUE
   to MEMBER.  */

#define PUSH_SPELLING(KIND, VALUE, MEMBER)				\
{									\
  int depth = SPELLING_DEPTH ();					\
									\
  if (depth >= spelling_size)						\
    {									\
      spelling_size += 10;						\
      spelling_base = XRESIZEVEC (struct spelling, spelling_base,	\
				  spelling_size);			\
      RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (depth);					\
    }									\
									\
  spelling->kind = (KIND);						\
  spelling->MEMBER = (VALUE);						\
  spelling++;								\
}

/* Push STRING on the stack.  Printed literally.  */

static void
push_string (const char *string)
{
  PUSH_SPELLING (SPELLING_STRING, string, u.s);
}

/* Push a member name on the stack.  Printed as '.' STRING.  */

static void
push_member_name (tree decl)
{
  const char *const string
    = (DECL_NAME (decl)
       ? identifier_to_locale (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (DECL_NAME (decl)))
       : _("<anonymous>"));
  PUSH_SPELLING (SPELLING_MEMBER, string, u.s);
}

/* Push an array bounds on the stack.  Printed as [BOUNDS].  */

static void
push_array_bounds (unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT bounds)
{
  PUSH_SPELLING (SPELLING_BOUNDS, bounds, u.i);
}

/* Compute the maximum size in bytes of the printed spelling.  */

static int
spelling_length (void)
{
  int size = 0;
  struct spelling *p;

  for (p = spelling_base; p < spelling; p++)
    {
      if (p->kind == SPELLING_BOUNDS)
	size += 25;
      else
	size += strlen (p->u.s) + 1;
    }

  return size;
}

/* Print the spelling to BUFFER and return it.  */

static char *
print_spelling (char *buffer)
{
  char *d = buffer;
  struct spelling *p;

  for (p = spelling_base; p < spelling; p++)
    if (p->kind == SPELLING_BOUNDS)
      {
	sprintf (d, "[" HOST_WIDE_INT_PRINT_UNSIGNED "]", p->u.i);
	d += strlen (d);
      }
    else
      {
	const char *s;
	if (p->kind == SPELLING_MEMBER)
	  *d++ = '.';
	for (s = p->u.s; (*d = *s++); d++)
	  ;
      }
  *d++ = '\0';
  return buffer;
}

/* Digest the parser output INIT as an initializer for type TYPE.
   Return a C expression of type TYPE to represent the initial value.

   If ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it is the original type of INIT.

   NULL_POINTER_CONSTANT is true if INIT is a null pointer constant.

   If INIT is a string constant, STRICT_STRING is true if it is
   unparenthesized or we should not warn here for it being parenthesized.
   For other types of INIT, STRICT_STRING is not used.

   INIT_LOC is the location of the INIT.

   REQUIRE_CONSTANT requests an error if non-constant initializers or
   elements are seen.  */

static tree
digest_init (location_t init_loc, tree type, tree init, tree origtype,
    	     bool null_pointer_constant, bool strict_string,
	     int require_constant)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);
  tree inside_init = init;
  tree semantic_type = NULL_TREE;
  bool maybe_const = true;

  if (type == error_mark_node
      || !init
      || error_operand_p (init))
    return error_mark_node;

  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (inside_init);

  if (TREE_CODE (inside_init) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (inside_init);
      inside_init = TREE_OPERAND (inside_init, 0);
    }
  inside_init = c_fully_fold (inside_init, require_constant, &maybe_const);
  inside_init = decl_constant_value_for_optimization (inside_init);

  /* Initialization of an array of chars from a string constant
     optionally enclosed in braces.  */

  if (code == ARRAY_TYPE && inside_init
      && TREE_CODE (inside_init) == STRING_CST)
    {
      tree typ1
	= (TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (type))
	   ? c_build_qualified_type (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (type)),
				     TYPE_QUAL_ATOMIC)
	   : TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (type)));
      /* Note that an array could be both an array of character type
	 and an array of wchar_t if wchar_t is signed char or unsigned
	 char.  */
      bool char_array = (typ1 == char_type_node
			 || typ1 == signed_char_type_node
			 || typ1 == unsigned_char_type_node);
      bool wchar_array = !!comptypes (typ1, wchar_type_node);
      bool char16_array = !!comptypes (typ1, char16_type_node);
      bool char32_array = !!comptypes (typ1, char32_type_node);

      if (char_array || wchar_array || char16_array || char32_array)
	{
	  struct c_expr expr;
	  tree typ2 = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)));
	  expr.value = inside_init;
	  expr.original_code = (strict_string ? STRING_CST : ERROR_MARK);
	  expr.original_type = NULL;
	  maybe_warn_string_init (init_loc, type, expr);

	  if (TYPE_DOMAIN (type) && !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)))
	    pedwarn_init (init_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
			  "initialization of a flexible array member");

	  if (comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)),
			 TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)))
	    return inside_init;

	  if (char_array)
	    {
	      if (typ2 != char_type_node)
		{
		  error_init (init_loc, "char-array initialized from wide "
			      "string");
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      if (typ2 == char_type_node)
		{
		  error_init (init_loc, "wide character array initialized "
			      "from non-wide string");
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	      else if (!comptypes(typ1, typ2))
		{
		  error_init (init_loc, "wide character array initialized "
			      "from incompatible wide string");
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	    }

	  TREE_TYPE (inside_init) = type;
	  if (TYPE_DOMAIN (type) != NULL_TREE
	      && TYPE_SIZE (type) != NULL_TREE
	      && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE (type)) == INTEGER_CST)
	    {
	      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT len = TREE_STRING_LENGTH (inside_init);

	      /* Subtract the size of a single (possibly wide) character
		 because it's ok to ignore the terminating null char
		 that is counted in the length of the constant.  */
	      if (0 > compare_tree_int (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type),
					(len
					 - (TYPE_PRECISION (typ1)
					    / BITS_PER_UNIT))))
		pedwarn_init (init_loc, 0,
			      ("initializer-string for array of chars "
			       "is too long"));
	      else if (warn_cxx_compat
		       && 0 > compare_tree_int (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type), len))
		warning_at (init_loc, OPT_Wc___compat,
			    ("initializer-string for array chars "
			     "is too long for C++"));
	    }

	  return inside_init;
	}
      else if (INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (typ1))
	{
	  error_init (init_loc, "array of inappropriate type initialized "
		      "from string constant");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }

  /* Build a VECTOR_CST from a *constant* vector constructor.  If the
     vector constructor is not constant (e.g. {1,2,3,foo()}) then punt
     below and handle as a constructor.  */
  if (code == VECTOR_TYPE
      && VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (inside_init))
      && vector_types_convertible_p (TREE_TYPE (inside_init), type, true)
      && TREE_CONSTANT (inside_init))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (inside_init) == VECTOR_CST
	  && comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)),
			TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)))
	return inside_init;

      if (TREE_CODE (inside_init) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	{
	  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT ix;
	  tree value;
	  bool constant_p = true;

	  /* Iterate through elements and check if all constructor
	     elements are *_CSTs.  */
	  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_VALUE (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (inside_init), ix, value)
	    if (!CONSTANT_CLASS_P (value))
	      {
		constant_p = false;
		break;
	      }

	  if (constant_p)
	    return build_vector_from_ctor (type,
					   CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (inside_init));
	}
    }

  if (warn_sequence_point)
    verify_sequence_points (inside_init);

  /* Any type can be initialized
     from an expression of the same type, optionally with braces.  */

  if (inside_init && TREE_TYPE (inside_init) != NULL_TREE
      && (comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)),
		     TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type))
	  || (code == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && comptypes (TREE_TYPE (inside_init), type))
	  || (code == VECTOR_TYPE
	      && comptypes (TREE_TYPE (inside_init), type))
	  || (code == POINTER_TYPE
	      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)) == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && comptypes (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)),
			    TREE_TYPE (type)))))
    {
      if (code == POINTER_TYPE)
	{
	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    {
	      if (TREE_CODE (inside_init) == STRING_CST
		  || TREE_CODE (inside_init) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
		inside_init = array_to_pointer_conversion
		  (init_loc, inside_init);
	      else
		{
		  error_init (init_loc, "invalid use of non-lvalue array");
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	    }
	}

      if (code == VECTOR_TYPE)
	/* Although the types are compatible, we may require a
	   conversion.  */
	inside_init = convert (type, inside_init);

      if (require_constant
	  && TREE_CODE (inside_init) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
	{
	  /* As an extension, allow initializing objects with static storage
	     duration with compound literals (which are then treated just as
	     the brace enclosed list they contain).  Also allow this for
	     vectors, as we can only assign them with compound literals.  */
	  if (flag_isoc99 && code != VECTOR_TYPE)
	    pedwarn_init (init_loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "initializer element "
			  "is not constant");
	  tree decl = COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR_DECL (inside_init);
	  inside_init = DECL_INITIAL (decl);
	}

      if (code == ARRAY_TYPE && TREE_CODE (inside_init) != STRING_CST
	  && TREE_CODE (inside_init) != CONSTRUCTOR)
	{
	  error_init (init_loc, "array initialized from non-constant array "
		      "expression");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}

      /* Compound expressions can only occur here if -Wpedantic or
	 -pedantic-errors is specified.  In the later case, we always want
	 an error.  In the former case, we simply want a warning.  */
      if (require_constant && pedantic
	  && TREE_CODE (inside_init) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
	{
	  inside_init
	    = valid_compound_expr_initializer (inside_init,
					       TREE_TYPE (inside_init));
	  if (inside_init == error_mark_node)
	    error_init (init_loc, "initializer element is not constant");
	  else
	    pedwarn_init (init_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
			  "initializer element is not constant");
	  if (flag_pedantic_errors)
	    inside_init = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (require_constant
	       && !initializer_constant_valid_p (inside_init,
						 TREE_TYPE (inside_init)))
	{
	  error_init (init_loc, "initializer element is not constant");
	  inside_init = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (require_constant && !maybe_const)
	pedwarn_init (init_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		      "initializer element is not a constant expression");

      /* Added to enable additional -Wsuggest-attribute=format warnings.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (inside_init)) == POINTER_TYPE)
	inside_init = convert_for_assignment (init_loc, UNKNOWN_LOCATION,
					      type, inside_init, origtype,
					      ic_init, null_pointer_constant,
					      NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, 0);
      return inside_init;
    }

  /* Handle scalar types, including conversions.  */

  if (code == INTEGER_TYPE || code == REAL_TYPE || code == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
      || code == POINTER_TYPE || code == ENUMERAL_TYPE || code == BOOLEAN_TYPE
      || code == COMPLEX_TYPE || code == VECTOR_TYPE)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (init)) == ARRAY_TYPE
	  && (TREE_CODE (init) == STRING_CST
	      || TREE_CODE (init) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR))
	inside_init = init = array_to_pointer_conversion (init_loc, init);
      if (semantic_type)
	inside_init = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, semantic_type,
			      inside_init);
      inside_init
	= convert_for_assignment (init_loc, UNKNOWN_LOCATION, type,
				  inside_init, origtype, ic_init,
				  null_pointer_constant, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE,
				  0);

      /* Check to see if we have already given an error message.  */
      if (inside_init == error_mark_node)
	;
      else if (require_constant && !TREE_CONSTANT (inside_init))
	{
	  error_init (init_loc, "initializer element is not constant");
	  inside_init = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (require_constant
	       && !initializer_constant_valid_p (inside_init,
						 TREE_TYPE (inside_init)))
	{
	  error_init (init_loc, "initializer element is not computable at "
		      "load time");
	  inside_init = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (require_constant && !maybe_const)
	pedwarn_init (init_loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		      "initializer element is not a constant expression");

      return inside_init;
    }

  /* Come here only for records and arrays.  */

  if (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (type) && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE (type)) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      error_init (init_loc, "variable-sized object may not be initialized");
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  error_init (init_loc, "invalid initializer");
  return error_mark_node;
}

/* Handle initializers that use braces.  */

/* Type of object we are accumulating a constructor for.
   This type is always a RECORD_TYPE, UNION_TYPE or ARRAY_TYPE.  */
static tree constructor_type;

/* For a RECORD_TYPE or UNION_TYPE, this is the chain of fields
   left to fill.  */
static tree constructor_fields;

/* For an ARRAY_TYPE, this is the specified index
   at which to store the next element we get.  */
static tree constructor_index;

/* For an ARRAY_TYPE, this is the maximum index.  */
static tree constructor_max_index;

/* For a RECORD_TYPE, this is the first field not yet written out.  */
static tree constructor_unfilled_fields;

/* For an ARRAY_TYPE, this is the index of the first element
   not yet written out.  */
static tree constructor_unfilled_index;

/* In a RECORD_TYPE, the byte index of the next consecutive field.
   This is so we can generate gaps between fields, when appropriate.  */
static tree constructor_bit_index;

/* If we are saving up the elements rather than allocating them,
   this is the list of elements so far (in reverse order,
   most recent first).  */
static vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *constructor_elements;

/* 1 if constructor should be incrementally stored into a constructor chain,
   0 if all the elements should be kept in AVL tree.  */
static int constructor_incremental;

/* 1 if so far this constructor's elements are all compile-time constants.  */
static int constructor_constant;

/* 1 if so far this constructor's elements are all valid address constants.  */
static int constructor_simple;

/* 1 if this constructor has an element that cannot be part of a
   constant expression.  */
static int constructor_nonconst;

/* 1 if this constructor is erroneous so far.  */
static int constructor_erroneous;

/* 1 if this constructor is the universal zero initializer { 0 }.  */
static int constructor_zeroinit;

/* Structure for managing pending initializer elements, organized as an
   AVL tree.  */

struct init_node
{
  struct init_node *left, *right;
  struct init_node *parent;
  int balance;
  tree purpose;
  tree value;
  tree origtype;
};

/* Tree of pending elements at this constructor level.
   These are elements encountered out of order
   which belong at places we haven't reached yet in actually
   writing the output.
   Will never hold tree nodes across GC runs.  */
static struct init_node *constructor_pending_elts;

/* The SPELLING_DEPTH of this constructor.  */
static int constructor_depth;

/* DECL node for which an initializer is being read.
   0 means we are reading a constructor expression
   such as (struct foo) {...}.  */
static tree constructor_decl;

/* Nonzero if this is an initializer for a top-level decl.  */
static int constructor_top_level;

/* Nonzero if there were any member designators in this initializer.  */
static int constructor_designated;

/* Nesting depth of designator list.  */
static int designator_depth;

/* Nonzero if there were diagnosed errors in this designator list.  */
static int designator_erroneous;


/* This stack has a level for each implicit or explicit level of
   structuring in the initializer, including the outermost one.  It
   saves the values of most of the variables above.  */

struct constructor_range_stack;

struct constructor_stack
{
  struct constructor_stack *next;
  tree type;
  tree fields;
  tree index;
  tree max_index;
  tree unfilled_index;
  tree unfilled_fields;
  tree bit_index;
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *elements;
  struct init_node *pending_elts;
  int offset;
  int depth;
  /* If value nonzero, this value should replace the entire
     constructor at this level.  */
  struct c_expr replacement_value;
  struct constructor_range_stack *range_stack;
  char constant;
  char simple;
  char nonconst;
  char implicit;
  char erroneous;
  char outer;
  char incremental;
  char designated;
  int designator_depth;
};

static struct constructor_stack *constructor_stack;

/* This stack represents designators from some range designator up to
   the last designator in the list.  */

struct constructor_range_stack
{
  struct constructor_range_stack *next, *prev;
  struct constructor_stack *stack;
  tree range_start;
  tree index;
  tree range_end;
  tree fields;
};

static struct constructor_range_stack *constructor_range_stack;

/* This stack records separate initializers that are nested.
   Nested initializers can't happen in ANSI C, but GNU C allows them
   in cases like { ... (struct foo) { ... } ... }.  */

struct initializer_stack
{
  struct initializer_stack *next;
  tree decl;
  struct constructor_stack *constructor_stack;
  struct constructor_range_stack *constructor_range_stack;
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *elements;
  struct spelling *spelling;
  struct spelling *spelling_base;
  int spelling_size;
  char top_level;
  char require_constant_value;
  char require_constant_elements;
  rich_location *missing_brace_richloc;
};

static struct initializer_stack *initializer_stack;

/* Prepare to parse and output the initializer for variable DECL.  */

void
start_init (tree decl, tree asmspec_tree ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED, int top_level,
	    rich_location *richloc)
{
  const char *locus;
  struct initializer_stack *p = XNEW (struct initializer_stack);

  p->decl = constructor_decl;
  p->require_constant_value = require_constant_value;
  p->require_constant_elements = require_constant_elements;
  p->constructor_stack = constructor_stack;
  p->constructor_range_stack = constructor_range_stack;
  p->elements = constructor_elements;
  p->spelling = spelling;
  p->spelling_base = spelling_base;
  p->spelling_size = spelling_size;
  p->top_level = constructor_top_level;
  p->next = initializer_stack;
  p->missing_brace_richloc = richloc;
  initializer_stack = p;

  constructor_decl = decl;
  constructor_designated = 0;
  constructor_top_level = top_level;

  if (decl != NULL_TREE && decl != error_mark_node)
    {
      require_constant_value = TREE_STATIC (decl);
      require_constant_elements
	= ((TREE_STATIC (decl) || (pedantic && !flag_isoc99))
	   /* For a scalar, you can always use any value to initialize,
	      even within braces.  */
	   && AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (decl)));
      locus = identifier_to_locale (IDENTIFIER_POINTER (DECL_NAME (decl)));
    }
  else
    {
      require_constant_value = 0;
      require_constant_elements = 0;
      locus = _("(anonymous)");
    }

  constructor_stack = 0;
  constructor_range_stack = 0;

  found_missing_braces = 0;

  spelling_base = 0;
  spelling_size = 0;
  RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (0);

  if (locus)
    push_string (locus);
}

void
finish_init (void)
{
  struct initializer_stack *p = initializer_stack;

  /* Free the whole constructor stack of this initializer.  */
  while (constructor_stack)
    {
      struct constructor_stack *q = constructor_stack;
      constructor_stack = q->next;
      free (q);
    }

  gcc_assert (!constructor_range_stack);

  /* Pop back to the data of the outer initializer (if any).  */
  free (spelling_base);

  constructor_decl = p->decl;
  require_constant_value = p->require_constant_value;
  require_constant_elements = p->require_constant_elements;
  constructor_stack = p->constructor_stack;
  constructor_range_stack = p->constructor_range_stack;
  constructor_elements = p->elements;
  spelling = p->spelling;
  spelling_base = p->spelling_base;
  spelling_size = p->spelling_size;
  constructor_top_level = p->top_level;
  initializer_stack = p->next;
  free (p);
}

/* Call here when we see the initializer is surrounded by braces.
   This is instead of a call to push_init_level;
   it is matched by a call to pop_init_level.

   TYPE is the type to initialize, for a constructor expression.
   For an initializer for a decl, TYPE is zero.  */

void
really_start_incremental_init (tree type)
{
  struct constructor_stack *p = XNEW (struct constructor_stack);

  if (type == NULL_TREE)
    type = TREE_TYPE (constructor_decl);

  if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (type)
      && TYPE_VECTOR_OPAQUE (type))
    error ("opaque vector types cannot be initialized");

  p->type = constructor_type;
  p->fields = constructor_fields;
  p->index = constructor_index;
  p->max_index = constructor_max_index;
  p->unfilled_index = constructor_unfilled_index;
  p->unfilled_fields = constructor_unfilled_fields;
  p->bit_index = constructor_bit_index;
  p->elements = constructor_elements;
  p->constant = constructor_constant;
  p->simple = constructor_simple;
  p->nonconst = constructor_nonconst;
  p->erroneous = constructor_erroneous;
  p->pending_elts = constructor_pending_elts;
  p->depth = constructor_depth;
  p->replacement_value.value = 0;
  p->replacement_value.original_code = ERROR_MARK;
  p->replacement_value.original_type = NULL;
  p->implicit = 0;
  p->range_stack = 0;
  p->outer = 0;
  p->incremental = constructor_incremental;
  p->designated = constructor_designated;
  p->designator_depth = designator_depth;
  p->next = 0;
  constructor_stack = p;

  constructor_constant = 1;
  constructor_simple = 1;
  constructor_nonconst = 0;
  constructor_depth = SPELLING_DEPTH ();
  constructor_elements = NULL;
  constructor_pending_elts = 0;
  constructor_type = type;
  constructor_incremental = 1;
  constructor_designated = 0;
  constructor_zeroinit = 1;
  designator_depth = 0;
  designator_erroneous = 0;

  if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      constructor_fields = TYPE_FIELDS (constructor_type);
      /* Skip any nameless bit fields at the beginning.  */
      while (constructor_fields != NULL_TREE
	     && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_fields)
	     && DECL_NAME (constructor_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	constructor_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);

      constructor_unfilled_fields = constructor_fields;
      constructor_bit_index = bitsize_zero_node;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      if (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type))
	{
	  constructor_max_index
	    = TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type));

	  /* Detect non-empty initializations of zero-length arrays.  */
	  if (constructor_max_index == NULL_TREE
	      && TYPE_SIZE (constructor_type))
	    constructor_max_index = integer_minus_one_node;

	  /* constructor_max_index needs to be an INTEGER_CST.  Attempts
	     to initialize VLAs will cause a proper error; avoid tree
	     checking errors as well by setting a safe value.  */
	  if (constructor_max_index
	      && TREE_CODE (constructor_max_index) != INTEGER_CST)
	    constructor_max_index = integer_minus_one_node;

	  constructor_index
	    = convert (bitsizetype,
		       TYPE_MIN_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type)));
	}
      else
	{
	  constructor_index = bitsize_zero_node;
	  constructor_max_index = NULL_TREE;
	}

      constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
    }
  else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      /* Vectors are like simple fixed-size arrays.  */
      constructor_max_index =
	bitsize_int (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (constructor_type) - 1);
      constructor_index = bitsize_zero_node;
      constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
    }
  else
    {
      /* Handle the case of int x = {5}; */
      constructor_fields = constructor_type;
      constructor_unfilled_fields = constructor_type;
    }
}

extern location_t last_init_list_comma;

/* Called when we see an open brace for a nested initializer.  Finish
   off any pending levels with implicit braces.  */
void
finish_implicit_inits (location_t loc, struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  while (constructor_stack->implicit)
    {
      if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type)
	  && constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	process_init_element (input_location,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      last_init_list_comma),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
	       && constructor_max_index
	       && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index,
				   constructor_index))
	process_init_element (input_location,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      last_init_list_comma),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      else
	break;
    }
}

/* Push down into a subobject, for initialization.
   If this is for an explicit set of braces, IMPLICIT is 0.
   If it is because the next element belongs at a lower level,
   IMPLICIT is 1 (or 2 if the push is because of designator list).  */

void
push_init_level (location_t loc, int implicit,
		 struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  struct constructor_stack *p;
  tree value = NULL_TREE;

  /* Unless this is an explicit brace, we need to preserve previous
     content if any.  */
  if (implicit)
    {
      if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type) && constructor_fields)
	value = find_init_member (constructor_fields, braced_init_obstack);
      else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	value = find_init_member (constructor_index, braced_init_obstack);
    }

  p = XNEW (struct constructor_stack);
  p->type = constructor_type;
  p->fields = constructor_fields;
  p->index = constructor_index;
  p->max_index = constructor_max_index;
  p->unfilled_index = constructor_unfilled_index;
  p->unfilled_fields = constructor_unfilled_fields;
  p->bit_index = constructor_bit_index;
  p->elements = constructor_elements;
  p->constant = constructor_constant;
  p->simple = constructor_simple;
  p->nonconst = constructor_nonconst;
  p->erroneous = constructor_erroneous;
  p->pending_elts = constructor_pending_elts;
  p->depth = constructor_depth;
  p->replacement_value.value = NULL_TREE;
  p->replacement_value.original_code = ERROR_MARK;
  p->replacement_value.original_type = NULL;
  p->implicit = implicit;
  p->outer = 0;
  p->incremental = constructor_incremental;
  p->designated = constructor_designated;
  p->designator_depth = designator_depth;
  p->next = constructor_stack;
  p->range_stack = 0;
  constructor_stack = p;

  constructor_constant = 1;
  constructor_simple = 1;
  constructor_nonconst = 0;
  constructor_depth = SPELLING_DEPTH ();
  constructor_elements = NULL;
  constructor_incremental = 1;
  constructor_designated = 0;
  constructor_pending_elts = 0;
  if (!implicit)
    {
      p->range_stack = constructor_range_stack;
      constructor_range_stack = 0;
      designator_depth = 0;
      designator_erroneous = 0;
    }

  /* Don't die if an entire brace-pair level is superfluous
     in the containing level.  */
  if (constructor_type == NULL_TREE)
    ;
  else if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      /* Don't die if there are extra init elts at the end.  */
      if (constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	constructor_type = NULL_TREE;
      else
	{
	  constructor_type = TREE_TYPE (constructor_fields);
	  push_member_name (constructor_fields);
	  constructor_depth++;
	}
      /* If upper initializer is designated, then mark this as
	 designated too to prevent bogus warnings.  */
      constructor_designated = p->designated;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      constructor_type = TREE_TYPE (constructor_type);
      push_array_bounds (tree_to_uhwi (constructor_index));
      constructor_depth++;
    }

  if (constructor_type == NULL_TREE)
    {
      error_init (loc, "extra brace group at end of initializer");
      constructor_fields = NULL_TREE;
      constructor_unfilled_fields = NULL_TREE;
      return;
    }

  if (value && TREE_CODE (value) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      constructor_constant = TREE_CONSTANT (value);
      constructor_simple = TREE_STATIC (value);
      constructor_nonconst = CONSTRUCTOR_NON_CONST (value);
      constructor_elements = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (value);
      if (!vec_safe_is_empty (constructor_elements)
	  && (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE
	      || TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE))
	set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);
    }

  if (implicit == 1)
    {
      found_missing_braces = 1;
      if (initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc)
	initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc->add_fixit_insert_before
	  (loc, "{");
    }

  if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      constructor_fields = TYPE_FIELDS (constructor_type);
      /* Skip any nameless bit fields at the beginning.  */
      while (constructor_fields != NULL_TREE
	     && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_fields)
	     && DECL_NAME (constructor_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	constructor_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);

      constructor_unfilled_fields = constructor_fields;
      constructor_bit_index = bitsize_zero_node;
    }
  else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      /* Vectors are like simple fixed-size arrays.  */
      constructor_max_index =
	bitsize_int (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (constructor_type) - 1);
      constructor_index = bitsize_int (0);
      constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      if (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type))
	{
	  constructor_max_index
	    = TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type));

	  /* Detect non-empty initializations of zero-length arrays.  */
	  if (constructor_max_index == NULL_TREE
	      && TYPE_SIZE (constructor_type))
	    constructor_max_index = integer_minus_one_node;

	  /* constructor_max_index needs to be an INTEGER_CST.  Attempts
	     to initialize VLAs will cause a proper error; avoid tree
	     checking errors as well by setting a safe value.  */
	  if (constructor_max_index
	      && TREE_CODE (constructor_max_index) != INTEGER_CST)
	    constructor_max_index = integer_minus_one_node;

	  constructor_index
	    = convert (bitsizetype,
		       TYPE_MIN_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type)));
	}
      else
	constructor_index = bitsize_zero_node;

      constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
      if (value && TREE_CODE (value) == STRING_CST)
	{
	  /* We need to split the char/wchar array into individual
	     characters, so that we don't have to special case it
	     everywhere.  */
	  set_nonincremental_init_from_string (value, braced_init_obstack);
	}
    }
  else
    {
      if (constructor_type != error_mark_node)
	warning_init (input_location, 0, "braces around scalar initializer");
      constructor_fields = constructor_type;
      constructor_unfilled_fields = constructor_type;
    }
}

/* At the end of an implicit or explicit brace level,
   finish up that level of constructor.  If a single expression
   with redundant braces initialized that level, return the
   c_expr structure for that expression.  Otherwise, the original_code
   element is set to ERROR_MARK.
   If we were outputting the elements as they are read, return 0 as the value
   from inner levels (process_init_element ignores that),
   but return error_mark_node as the value from the outermost level
   (that's what we want to put in DECL_INITIAL).
   Otherwise, return a CONSTRUCTOR expression as the value.  */

struct c_expr
pop_init_level (location_t loc, int implicit,
		struct obstack *braced_init_obstack,
		location_t insert_before)
{
  struct constructor_stack *p;
  struct c_expr ret;
  ret.value = NULL_TREE;
  ret.original_code = ERROR_MARK;
  ret.original_type = NULL;

  if (implicit == 0)
    {
      /* When we come to an explicit close brace,
	 pop any inner levels that didn't have explicit braces.  */
      while (constructor_stack->implicit)
	process_init_element (input_location,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      insert_before),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      gcc_assert (!constructor_range_stack);
    }
  else
    if (initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc)
      initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc->add_fixit_insert_before
	(insert_before, "}");

  /* Now output all pending elements.  */
  constructor_incremental = 1;
  output_pending_init_elements (1, braced_init_obstack);

  p = constructor_stack;

  /* Error for initializing a flexible array member, or a zero-length
     array member in an inappropriate context.  */
  if (constructor_type && constructor_fields
      && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type)
      && !TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type)))
    {
      /* Silently discard empty initializations.  The parser will
	 already have pedwarned for empty brackets.  */
      if (integer_zerop (constructor_unfilled_index))
	constructor_type = NULL_TREE;
      else
	{
	  gcc_assert (!TYPE_SIZE (constructor_type));

	  if (constructor_depth > 2)
	    error_init (loc, "initialization of flexible array member in a nested context");
	  else
	    pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
			  "initialization of a flexible array member");

	  /* We have already issued an error message for the existence
	     of a flexible array member not at the end of the structure.
	     Discard the initializer so that we do not die later.  */
	  if (DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields) != NULL_TREE)
	    constructor_type = NULL_TREE;
	}
    }

  switch (vec_safe_length (constructor_elements))
    {
    case 0:
      /* Initialization with { } counts as zeroinit.  */
      constructor_zeroinit = 1;
      break;
    case 1:
      /* This might be zeroinit as well.  */
      if (integer_zerop ((*constructor_elements)[0].value))
	constructor_zeroinit = 1;
      break;
    default:
      /* If the constructor has more than one element, it can't be { 0 }.  */
      constructor_zeroinit = 0;
      break;
    }

  /* Warn when some structs are initialized with direct aggregation.  */
  if (!implicit && found_missing_braces && warn_missing_braces
      && !constructor_zeroinit)
    {
      gcc_assert (initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc);
      warning_at_rich_loc (initializer_stack->missing_brace_richloc,
			   OPT_Wmissing_braces,
			   "missing braces around initializer");
    }

  /* Warn when some struct elements are implicitly initialized to zero.  */
  if (warn_missing_field_initializers
      && constructor_type
      && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE
      && constructor_unfilled_fields)
    {
	/* Do not warn for flexible array members or zero-length arrays.  */
	while (constructor_unfilled_fields
	       && (!DECL_SIZE (constructor_unfilled_fields)
		   || integer_zerop (DECL_SIZE (constructor_unfilled_fields))))
	  constructor_unfilled_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_unfilled_fields);

	if (constructor_unfilled_fields
	    /* Do not warn if this level of the initializer uses member
	       designators; it is likely to be deliberate.  */
	    && !constructor_designated
	    /* Do not warn about initializing with { 0 } or with { }.  */
	    && !constructor_zeroinit)
	  {
	    if (warning_at (input_location, OPT_Wmissing_field_initializers,
			    "missing initializer for field %qD of %qT",
			    constructor_unfilled_fields,
			    constructor_type))
	      inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (constructor_unfilled_fields),
		      "%qD declared here", constructor_unfilled_fields);
	  }
    }

  /* Pad out the end of the structure.  */
  if (p->replacement_value.value)
    /* If this closes a superfluous brace pair,
       just pass out the element between them.  */
    ret = p->replacement_value;
  else if (constructor_type == NULL_TREE)
    ;
  else if (!RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type)
	   && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) != ARRAY_TYPE
	   && !VECTOR_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      /* A nonincremental scalar initializer--just return
	 the element, after verifying there is just one.  */
      if (vec_safe_is_empty (constructor_elements))
	{
	  if (!constructor_erroneous)
	    error_init (loc, "empty scalar initializer");
	  ret.value = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (vec_safe_length (constructor_elements) != 1)
	{
	  error_init (loc, "extra elements in scalar initializer");
	  ret.value = (*constructor_elements)[0].value;
	}
      else
	ret.value = (*constructor_elements)[0].value;
    }
  else
    {
      if (constructor_erroneous)
	ret.value = error_mark_node;
      else
	{
	  ret.value = build_constructor (constructor_type,
					 constructor_elements);
	  if (constructor_constant)
	    TREE_CONSTANT (ret.value) = 1;
	  if (constructor_constant && constructor_simple)
	    TREE_STATIC (ret.value) = 1;
	  if (constructor_nonconst)
	    CONSTRUCTOR_NON_CONST (ret.value) = 1;
	}
    }

  if (ret.value && TREE_CODE (ret.value) != CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      if (constructor_nonconst)
	ret.original_code = C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR;
      else if (ret.original_code == C_MAYBE_CONST_EXPR)
	ret.original_code = ERROR_MARK;
    }

  constructor_type = p->type;
  constructor_fields = p->fields;
  constructor_index = p->index;
  constructor_max_index = p->max_index;
  constructor_unfilled_index = p->unfilled_index;
  constructor_unfilled_fields = p->unfilled_fields;
  constructor_bit_index = p->bit_index;
  constructor_elements = p->elements;
  constructor_constant = p->constant;
  constructor_simple = p->simple;
  constructor_nonconst = p->nonconst;
  constructor_erroneous = p->erroneous;
  constructor_incremental = p->incremental;
  constructor_designated = p->designated;
  designator_depth = p->designator_depth;
  constructor_pending_elts = p->pending_elts;
  constructor_depth = p->depth;
  if (!p->implicit)
    constructor_range_stack = p->range_stack;
  RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (constructor_depth);

  constructor_stack = p->next;
  free (p);

  if (ret.value == NULL_TREE && constructor_stack == 0)
    ret.value = error_mark_node;
  return ret;
}

/* Common handling for both array range and field name designators.
   ARRAY argument is nonzero for array ranges.  Returns false for success.  */

static bool
set_designator (location_t loc, bool array,
		struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  tree subtype;
  enum tree_code subcode;

  /* Don't die if an entire brace-pair level is superfluous
     in the containing level.  */
  if (constructor_type == NULL_TREE)
    return true;

  /* If there were errors in this designator list already, bail out
     silently.  */
  if (designator_erroneous)
    return true;

  if (!designator_depth)
    {
      gcc_assert (!constructor_range_stack);

      /* Designator list starts at the level of closest explicit
	 braces.  */
      while (constructor_stack->implicit)
	process_init_element (input_location,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      last_init_list_comma),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      constructor_designated = 1;
      return false;
    }

  switch (TREE_CODE (constructor_type))
    {
    case  RECORD_TYPE:
    case  UNION_TYPE:
      subtype = TREE_TYPE (constructor_fields);
      if (subtype != error_mark_node)
	subtype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (subtype);
      break;
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      subtype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (constructor_type));
      break;
    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }

  subcode = TREE_CODE (subtype);
  if (array && subcode != ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      error_init (loc, "array index in non-array initializer");
      return true;
    }
  else if (!array && subcode != RECORD_TYPE && subcode != UNION_TYPE)
    {
      error_init (loc, "field name not in record or union initializer");
      return true;
    }

  constructor_designated = 1;
  finish_implicit_inits (loc, braced_init_obstack);
  push_init_level (loc, 2, braced_init_obstack);
  return false;
}

/* If there are range designators in designator list, push a new designator
   to constructor_range_stack.  RANGE_END is end of such stack range or
   NULL_TREE if there is no range designator at this level.  */

static void
push_range_stack (tree range_end, struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  struct constructor_range_stack *p;

  p = (struct constructor_range_stack *)
    obstack_alloc (braced_init_obstack,
		   sizeof (struct constructor_range_stack));
  p->prev = constructor_range_stack;
  p->next = 0;
  p->fields = constructor_fields;
  p->range_start = constructor_index;
  p->index = constructor_index;
  p->stack = constructor_stack;
  p->range_end = range_end;
  if (constructor_range_stack)
    constructor_range_stack->next = p;
  constructor_range_stack = p;
}

/* Within an array initializer, specify the next index to be initialized.
   FIRST is that index.  If LAST is nonzero, then initialize a range
   of indices, running from FIRST through LAST.  */

void
set_init_index (location_t loc, tree first, tree last,
		struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  if (set_designator (loc, true, braced_init_obstack))
    return;

  designator_erroneous = 1;

  if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (first))
      || (last && !INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (last))))
    {
      error_init (loc, "array index in initializer not of integer type");
      return;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (first) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      first = c_fully_fold (first, false, NULL);
      if (TREE_CODE (first) == INTEGER_CST)
	pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		      "array index in initializer is not "
		      "an integer constant expression");
    }

  if (last && TREE_CODE (last) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      last = c_fully_fold (last, false, NULL);
      if (TREE_CODE (last) == INTEGER_CST)
	pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		      "array index in initializer is not "
		      "an integer constant expression");
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (first) != INTEGER_CST)
    error_init (loc, "nonconstant array index in initializer");
  else if (last != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (last) != INTEGER_CST)
    error_init (loc, "nonconstant array index in initializer");
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) != ARRAY_TYPE)
    error_init (loc, "array index in non-array initializer");
  else if (tree_int_cst_sgn (first) == -1)
    error_init (loc, "array index in initializer exceeds array bounds");
  else if (constructor_max_index
	   && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index, first))
    error_init (loc, "array index in initializer exceeds array bounds");
  else
    {
      constant_expression_warning (first);
      if (last)
	constant_expression_warning (last);
      constructor_index = convert (bitsizetype, first);
      if (tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_index, first))
	{
	  constructor_index = copy_node (constructor_index);
	  TREE_OVERFLOW (constructor_index) = 1;
	}

      if (last)
	{
	  if (tree_int_cst_equal (first, last))
	    last = NULL_TREE;
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (last, first))
	    {
	      error_init (loc, "empty index range in initializer");
	      last = NULL_TREE;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      last = convert (bitsizetype, last);
	      if (constructor_max_index != NULL_TREE
		  && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index, last))
		{
		  error_init (loc, "array index range in initializer exceeds "
			      "array bounds");
		  last = NULL_TREE;
		}
	    }
	}

      designator_depth++;
      designator_erroneous = 0;
      if (constructor_range_stack || last)
	push_range_stack (last, braced_init_obstack);
    }
}

/* Within a struct initializer, specify the next field to be initialized.  */

void
set_init_label (location_t loc, tree fieldname, location_t fieldname_loc,
		struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  tree field;

  if (set_designator (loc, false, braced_init_obstack))
    return;

  designator_erroneous = 1;

  if (!RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    {
      error_init (loc, "field name not in record or union initializer");
      return;
    }

  field = lookup_field (constructor_type, fieldname);

  if (field == NULL_TREE)
    {
      tree guessed_id = lookup_field_fuzzy (constructor_type, fieldname);
      if (guessed_id)
	{
	  gcc_rich_location rich_loc (fieldname_loc);
	  rich_loc.add_fixit_misspelled_id (fieldname_loc, guessed_id);
	  error_at_rich_loc
	    (&rich_loc,
	     "%qT has no member named %qE; did you mean %qE?",
	     constructor_type, fieldname, guessed_id);
	}
      else
	error_at (fieldname_loc, "%qT has no member named %qE",
		  constructor_type, fieldname);
    }
  else
    do
      {
	constructor_fields = TREE_VALUE (field);
	designator_depth++;
	designator_erroneous = 0;
	if (constructor_range_stack)
	  push_range_stack (NULL_TREE, braced_init_obstack);
	field = TREE_CHAIN (field);
	if (field)
	  {
	    if (set_designator (loc, false, braced_init_obstack))
	      return;
	  }
      }
    while (field != NULL_TREE);
}

/* Add a new initializer to the tree of pending initializers.  PURPOSE
   identifies the initializer, either array index or field in a structure.
   VALUE is the value of that index or field.  If ORIGTYPE is not
   NULL_TREE, it is the original type of VALUE.

   IMPLICIT is true if value comes from pop_init_level (1),
   the new initializer has been merged with the existing one
   and thus no warnings should be emitted about overriding an
   existing initializer.  */

static void
add_pending_init (location_t loc, tree purpose, tree value, tree origtype,
		  bool implicit, struct obstack *braced_init_obstack)
{
  struct init_node *p, **q, *r;

  q = &constructor_pending_elts;
  p = 0;

  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      while (*q != 0)
	{
	  p = *q;
	  if (tree_int_cst_lt (purpose, p->purpose))
	    q = &p->left;
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (p->purpose, purpose))
	    q = &p->right;
	  else
	    {
	      if (!implicit)
		{
		  if (TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (p->value))
		    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init_side_effects,
				  "initialized field with side-effects "
				  "overwritten");
		  else if (warn_override_init)
		    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init,
				  "initialized field overwritten");
		}
	      p->value = value;
	      p->origtype = origtype;
	      return;
	    }
	}
    }
  else
    {
      tree bitpos;

      bitpos = bit_position (purpose);
      while (*q != NULL)
	{
	  p = *q;
	  if (tree_int_cst_lt (bitpos, bit_position (p->purpose)))
	    q = &p->left;
	  else if (p->purpose != purpose)
	    q = &p->right;
	  else
	    {
	      if (!implicit)
		{
		  if (TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (p->value))
		    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init_side_effects,
				  "initialized field with side-effects "
				  "overwritten");
		  else if (warn_override_init)
		    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init,
				  "initialized field overwritten");
		}
	      p->value = value;
	      p->origtype = origtype;
	      return;
	    }
	}
    }

  r = (struct init_node *) obstack_alloc (braced_init_obstack,
					  sizeof (struct init_node));
  r->purpose = purpose;
  r->value = value;
  r->origtype = origtype;

  *q = r;
  r->parent = p;
  r->left = 0;
  r->right = 0;
  r->balance = 0;

  while (p)
    {
      struct init_node *s;

      if (r == p->left)
	{
	  if (p->balance == 0)
	    p->balance = -1;
	  else if (p->balance < 0)
	    {
	      if (r->balance < 0)
		{
		  /* L rotation.  */
		  p->left = r->right;
		  if (p->left)
		    p->left->parent = p;
		  r->right = p;

		  p->balance = 0;
		  r->balance = 0;

		  s = p->parent;
		  p->parent = r;
		  r->parent = s;
		  if (s)
		    {
		      if (s->left == p)
			s->left = r;
		      else
			s->right = r;
		    }
		  else
		    constructor_pending_elts = r;
		}
	      else
		{
		  /* LR rotation.  */
		  struct init_node *t = r->right;

		  r->right = t->left;
		  if (r->right)
		    r->right->parent = r;
		  t->left = r;

		  p->left = t->right;
		  if (p->left)
		    p->left->parent = p;
		  t->right = p;

		  p->balance = t->balance < 0;
		  r->balance = -(t->balance > 0);
		  t->balance = 0;

		  s = p->parent;
		  p->parent = t;
		  r->parent = t;
		  t->parent = s;
		  if (s)
		    {
		      if (s->left == p)
			s->left = t;
		      else
			s->right = t;
		    }
		  else
		    constructor_pending_elts = t;
		}
	      break;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      /* p->balance == +1; growth of left side balances the node.  */
	      p->balance = 0;
	      break;
	    }
	}
      else /* r == p->right */
	{
	  if (p->balance == 0)
	    /* Growth propagation from right side.  */
	    p->balance++;
	  else if (p->balance > 0)
	    {
	      if (r->balance > 0)
		{
		  /* R rotation.  */
		  p->right = r->left;
		  if (p->right)
		    p->right->parent = p;
		  r->left = p;

		  p->balance = 0;
		  r->balance = 0;

		  s = p->parent;
		  p->parent = r;
		  r->parent = s;
		  if (s)
		    {
		      if (s->left == p)
			s->left = r;
		      else
			s->right = r;
		    }
		  else
		    constructor_pending_elts = r;
		}
	      else /* r->balance == -1 */
		{
		  /* RL rotation */
		  struct init_node *t = r->left;

		  r->left = t->right;
		  if (r->left)
		    r->left->parent = r;
		  t->right = r;

		  p->right = t->left;
		  if (p->right)
		    p->right->parent = p;
		  t->left = p;

		  r->balance = (t->balance < 0);
		  p->balance = -(t->balance > 0);
		  t->balance = 0;

		  s = p->parent;
		  p->parent = t;
		  r->parent = t;
		  t->parent = s;
		  if (s)
		    {
		      if (s->left == p)
			s->left = t;
		      else
			s->right = t;
		    }
		  else
		    constructor_pending_elts = t;
		}
	      break;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      /* p->balance == -1; growth of right side balances the node.  */
	      p->balance = 0;
	      break;
	    }
	}

      r = p;
      p = p->parent;
    }
}

/* Build AVL tree from a sorted chain.  */

static void
set_nonincremental_init (struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT ix;
  tree index, value;

  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) != RECORD_TYPE
      && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) != ARRAY_TYPE)
    return;

  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (constructor_elements, ix, index, value)
    add_pending_init (input_location, index, value, NULL_TREE, true,
		      braced_init_obstack);
  constructor_elements = NULL;
  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE)
    {
      constructor_unfilled_fields = TYPE_FIELDS (constructor_type);
      /* Skip any nameless bit fields at the beginning.  */
      while (constructor_unfilled_fields != NULL_TREE
	     && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_unfilled_fields)
	     && DECL_NAME (constructor_unfilled_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	constructor_unfilled_fields = TREE_CHAIN (constructor_unfilled_fields);

    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      if (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type))
	constructor_unfilled_index
	    = convert (bitsizetype,
		       TYPE_MIN_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (constructor_type)));
      else
	constructor_unfilled_index = bitsize_zero_node;
    }
  constructor_incremental = 0;
}

/* Build AVL tree from a string constant.  */

static void
set_nonincremental_init_from_string (tree str,
				     struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  tree value, purpose, type;
  HOST_WIDE_INT val[2];
  const char *p, *end;
  int byte, wchar_bytes, charwidth, bitpos;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE);

  wchar_bytes = TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (str))) / BITS_PER_UNIT;
  charwidth = TYPE_PRECISION (char_type_node);
  gcc_assert ((size_t) wchar_bytes * charwidth
	      <= ARRAY_SIZE (val) * HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT);
  type = TREE_TYPE (constructor_type);
  p = TREE_STRING_POINTER (str);
  end = p + TREE_STRING_LENGTH (str);

  for (purpose = bitsize_zero_node;
       p < end
       && !(constructor_max_index
	    && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index, purpose));
       purpose = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR, purpose, bitsize_one_node))
    {
      if (wchar_bytes == 1)
	{
	  val[0] = (unsigned char) *p++;
	  val[1] = 0;
	}
      else
	{
	  val[1] = 0;
	  val[0] = 0;
	  for (byte = 0; byte < wchar_bytes; byte++)
	    {
	      if (BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
		bitpos = (wchar_bytes - byte - 1) * charwidth;
	      else
		bitpos = byte * charwidth;
	      val[bitpos / HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT]
		|= ((unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT) ((unsigned char) *p++))
		   << (bitpos % HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT);
	    }
	}

      if (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (type))
	{
	  bitpos = ((wchar_bytes - 1) * charwidth) + HOST_BITS_PER_CHAR;
	  if (bitpos < HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT)
	    {
	      if (val[0] & (HOST_WIDE_INT_1 << (bitpos - 1)))
		{
		  val[0] |= HOST_WIDE_INT_M1U << bitpos;
		  val[1] = -1;
		}
	    }
	  else if (bitpos == HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT)
	    {
	      if (val[0] < 0)
		val[1] = -1;
	    }
	  else if (val[1] & (HOST_WIDE_INT_1
			     << (bitpos - 1 - HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT)))
	    val[1] |= HOST_WIDE_INT_M1U << (bitpos - HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT);
	}

      value = wide_int_to_tree (type,
				wide_int::from_array (val, 2,
						      HOST_BITS_PER_WIDE_INT * 2));
      add_pending_init (input_location, purpose, value, NULL_TREE, true,
                        braced_init_obstack);
    }

  constructor_incremental = 0;
}

/* Return value of FIELD in pending initializer or NULL_TREE if the field was
   not initialized yet.  */

static tree
find_init_member (tree field, struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  struct init_node *p;

  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      if (constructor_incremental
	  && tree_int_cst_lt (field, constructor_unfilled_index))
	set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);

      p = constructor_pending_elts;
      while (p)
	{
	  if (tree_int_cst_lt (field, p->purpose))
	    p = p->left;
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (p->purpose, field))
	    p = p->right;
	  else
	    return p->value;
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE)
    {
      tree bitpos = bit_position (field);

      if (constructor_incremental
	  && (!constructor_unfilled_fields
	      || tree_int_cst_lt (bitpos,
				  bit_position (constructor_unfilled_fields))))
	set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);

      p = constructor_pending_elts;
      while (p)
	{
	  if (field == p->purpose)
	    return p->value;
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (bitpos, bit_position (p->purpose)))
	    p = p->left;
	  else
	    p = p->right;
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == UNION_TYPE)
    {
      if (!vec_safe_is_empty (constructor_elements)
	  && (constructor_elements->last ().index == field))
	return constructor_elements->last ().value;
    }
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* "Output" the next constructor element.
   At top level, really output it to assembler code now.
   Otherwise, collect it in a list from which we will make a CONSTRUCTOR.
   If ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it is the original type of VALUE.
   TYPE is the data type that the containing data type wants here.
   FIELD is the field (a FIELD_DECL) or the index that this element fills.
   If VALUE is a string constant, STRICT_STRING is true if it is
   unparenthesized or we should not warn here for it being parenthesized.
   For other types of VALUE, STRICT_STRING is not used.

   PENDING if true means output pending elements that belong
   right after this element.  (PENDING is normally true;
   it is false while outputting pending elements, to avoid recursion.)

   IMPLICIT is true if value comes from pop_init_level (1),
   the new initializer has been merged with the existing one
   and thus no warnings should be emitted about overriding an
   existing initializer.  */

static void
output_init_element (location_t loc, tree value, tree origtype,
		     bool strict_string, tree type, tree field, bool pending,
		     bool implicit, struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  tree semantic_type = NULL_TREE;
  bool maybe_const = true;
  bool npc;

  if (type == error_mark_node || value == error_mark_node)
    {
      constructor_erroneous = 1;
      return;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (value)) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && (TREE_CODE (value) == STRING_CST
	  || TREE_CODE (value) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
      && !(TREE_CODE (value) == STRING_CST
	   && TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
	   && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type)))
      && !comptypes (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value)),
		     TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type)))
    value = array_to_pointer_conversion (input_location, value);

  if (TREE_CODE (value) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR
      && require_constant_value && pending)
    {
      /* As an extension, allow initializing objects with static storage
	 duration with compound literals (which are then treated just as
	 the brace enclosed list they contain).  */
      if (flag_isoc99)
	pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "initializer element is not "
		      "constant");
      tree decl = COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR_DECL (value);
      value = DECL_INITIAL (decl);
    }

  npc = null_pointer_constant_p (value);
  if (TREE_CODE (value) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (value);
      value = TREE_OPERAND (value, 0);
    }
  value = c_fully_fold (value, require_constant_value, &maybe_const);

  if (value == error_mark_node)
    constructor_erroneous = 1;
  else if (!TREE_CONSTANT (value))
    constructor_constant = 0;
  else if (!initializer_constant_valid_p (value,
					  TREE_TYPE (value),
					  AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (constructor_type)
					  && TYPE_REVERSE_STORAGE_ORDER
					     (constructor_type))
	   || (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type)
	       && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (field)
	       && TREE_CODE (value) != INTEGER_CST))
    constructor_simple = 0;
  if (!maybe_const)
    constructor_nonconst = 1;

  /* Digest the initializer and issue any errors about incompatible
     types before issuing errors about non-constant initializers.  */
  tree new_value = value;
  if (semantic_type)
    new_value = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, semantic_type, value);
  new_value = digest_init (loc, type, new_value, origtype, npc, strict_string,
			   require_constant_value);
  if (new_value == error_mark_node)
    {
      constructor_erroneous = 1;
      return;
    }
  if (require_constant_value || require_constant_elements)
    constant_expression_warning (new_value);

  /* Proceed to check the constness of the original initializer.  */
  if (!initializer_constant_valid_p (value, TREE_TYPE (value)))
    {
      if (require_constant_value)
	{
	  error_init (loc, "initializer element is not constant");
	  value = error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (require_constant_elements)
	pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		 "initializer element is not computable at load time");
    }
  else if (!maybe_const
	   && (require_constant_value || require_constant_elements))
    pedwarn_init (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		  "initializer element is not a constant expression");

  /* Issue -Wc++-compat warnings about initializing a bitfield with
     enum type.  */
  if (warn_cxx_compat
      && field != NULL_TREE
      && TREE_CODE (field) == FIELD_DECL
      && DECL_BIT_FIELD_TYPE (field) != NULL_TREE
      && (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (DECL_BIT_FIELD_TYPE (field))
	  != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type))
      && TREE_CODE (DECL_BIT_FIELD_TYPE (field)) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
    {
      tree checktype = origtype != NULL_TREE ? origtype : TREE_TYPE (value);
      if (checktype != error_mark_node
	  && (TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (checktype)
	      != TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (DECL_BIT_FIELD_TYPE (field))))
	warning_init (loc, OPT_Wc___compat,
		      "enum conversion in initialization is invalid in C++");
    }

  /* If this field is empty (and not at the end of structure),
     don't do anything other than checking the initializer.  */
  if (field
      && (TREE_TYPE (field) == error_mark_node
	  || (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field))
	      && integer_zerop (TYPE_SIZE (TREE_TYPE (field)))
	      && (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
		  || DECL_CHAIN (field)))))
    return;

  /* Finally, set VALUE to the initializer value digested above.  */
  value = new_value;

  /* If this element doesn't come next in sequence,
     put it on constructor_pending_elts.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && (!constructor_incremental
	  || !tree_int_cst_equal (field, constructor_unfilled_index)))
    {
      if (constructor_incremental
	  && tree_int_cst_lt (field, constructor_unfilled_index))
	set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);

      add_pending_init (loc, field, value, origtype, implicit,
			braced_init_obstack);
      return;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE
	   && (!constructor_incremental
	       || field != constructor_unfilled_fields))
    {
      /* We do this for records but not for unions.  In a union,
	 no matter which field is specified, it can be initialized
	 right away since it starts at the beginning of the union.  */
      if (constructor_incremental)
	{
	  if (!constructor_unfilled_fields)
	    set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);
	  else
	    {
	      tree bitpos, unfillpos;

	      bitpos = bit_position (field);
	      unfillpos = bit_position (constructor_unfilled_fields);

	      if (tree_int_cst_lt (bitpos, unfillpos))
		set_nonincremental_init (braced_init_obstack);
	    }
	}

      add_pending_init (loc, field, value, origtype, implicit,
			braced_init_obstack);
      return;
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == UNION_TYPE
	   && !vec_safe_is_empty (constructor_elements))
    {
      if (!implicit)
	{
	  if (TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (constructor_elements->last ().value))
	    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init_side_effects,
			  "initialized field with side-effects overwritten");
	  else if (warn_override_init)
	    warning_init (loc, OPT_Woverride_init,
			  "initialized field overwritten");
	}

      /* We can have just one union field set.  */
      constructor_elements = NULL;
    }

  /* Otherwise, output this element either to
     constructor_elements or to the assembler file.  */

  constructor_elt celt = {field, value};
  vec_safe_push (constructor_elements, celt);

  /* Advance the variable that indicates sequential elements output.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    constructor_unfilled_index
      = size_binop_loc (input_location, PLUS_EXPR, constructor_unfilled_index,
			bitsize_one_node);
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE)
    {
      constructor_unfilled_fields
	= DECL_CHAIN (constructor_unfilled_fields);

      /* Skip any nameless bit fields.  */
      while (constructor_unfilled_fields != NULL_TREE
	     && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_unfilled_fields)
	     && DECL_NAME (constructor_unfilled_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	constructor_unfilled_fields =
	  DECL_CHAIN (constructor_unfilled_fields);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == UNION_TYPE)
    constructor_unfilled_fields = NULL_TREE;

  /* Now output any pending elements which have become next.  */
  if (pending)
    output_pending_init_elements (0, braced_init_obstack);
}

/* Output any pending elements which have become next.
   As we output elements, constructor_unfilled_{fields,index}
   advances, which may cause other elements to become next;
   if so, they too are output.

   If ALL is 0, we return when there are
   no more pending elements to output now.

   If ALL is 1, we output space as necessary so that
   we can output all the pending elements.  */
static void
output_pending_init_elements (int all, struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  struct init_node *elt = constructor_pending_elts;
  tree next;

 retry:

  /* Look through the whole pending tree.
     If we find an element that should be output now,
     output it.  Otherwise, set NEXT to the element
     that comes first among those still pending.  */

  next = NULL_TREE;
  while (elt)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	{
	  if (tree_int_cst_equal (elt->purpose,
				  constructor_unfilled_index))
	    output_init_element (input_location, elt->value, elt->origtype,
				 true, TREE_TYPE (constructor_type),
				 constructor_unfilled_index, false, false,
				 braced_init_obstack);
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_unfilled_index,
				    elt->purpose))
	    {
	      /* Advance to the next smaller node.  */
	      if (elt->left)
		elt = elt->left;
	      else
		{
		  /* We have reached the smallest node bigger than the
		     current unfilled index.  Fill the space first.  */
		  next = elt->purpose;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      /* Advance to the next bigger node.  */
	      if (elt->right)
		elt = elt->right;
	      else
		{
		  /* We have reached the biggest node in a subtree.  Find
		     the parent of it, which is the next bigger node.  */
		  while (elt->parent && elt->parent->right == elt)
		    elt = elt->parent;
		  elt = elt->parent;
		  if (elt && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_unfilled_index,
					      elt->purpose))
		    {
		      next = elt->purpose;
		      break;
		    }
		}
	    }
	}
      else if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
	{
	  tree ctor_unfilled_bitpos, elt_bitpos;

	  /* If the current record is complete we are done.  */
	  if (constructor_unfilled_fields == NULL_TREE)
	    break;

	  ctor_unfilled_bitpos = bit_position (constructor_unfilled_fields);
	  elt_bitpos = bit_position (elt->purpose);
	  /* We can't compare fields here because there might be empty
	     fields in between.  */
	  if (tree_int_cst_equal (elt_bitpos, ctor_unfilled_bitpos))
	    {
	      constructor_unfilled_fields = elt->purpose;
	      output_init_element (input_location, elt->value, elt->origtype,
				   true, TREE_TYPE (elt->purpose),
				   elt->purpose, false, false,
				   braced_init_obstack);
	    }
	  else if (tree_int_cst_lt (ctor_unfilled_bitpos, elt_bitpos))
	    {
	      /* Advance to the next smaller node.  */
	      if (elt->left)
		elt = elt->left;
	      else
		{
		  /* We have reached the smallest node bigger than the
		     current unfilled field.  Fill the space first.  */
		  next = elt->purpose;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      /* Advance to the next bigger node.  */
	      if (elt->right)
		elt = elt->right;
	      else
		{
		  /* We have reached the biggest node in a subtree.  Find
		     the parent of it, which is the next bigger node.  */
		  while (elt->parent && elt->parent->right == elt)
		    elt = elt->parent;
		  elt = elt->parent;
		  if (elt
		      && (tree_int_cst_lt (ctor_unfilled_bitpos,
					   bit_position (elt->purpose))))
		    {
		      next = elt->purpose;
		      break;
		    }
		}
	    }
	}
    }

  /* Ordinarily return, but not if we want to output all
     and there are elements left.  */
  if (!(all && next != NULL_TREE))
    return;

  /* If it's not incremental, just skip over the gap, so that after
     jumping to retry we will output the next successive element.  */
  if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
    constructor_unfilled_fields = next;
  else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    constructor_unfilled_index = next;

  /* ELT now points to the node in the pending tree with the next
     initializer to output.  */
  goto retry;
}

/* Add one non-braced element to the current constructor level.
   This adjusts the current position within the constructor's type.
   This may also start or terminate implicit levels
   to handle a partly-braced initializer.

   Once this has found the correct level for the new element,
   it calls output_init_element.

   IMPLICIT is true if value comes from pop_init_level (1),
   the new initializer has been merged with the existing one
   and thus no warnings should be emitted about overriding an
   existing initializer.  */

void
process_init_element (location_t loc, struct c_expr value, bool implicit,
		      struct obstack * braced_init_obstack)
{
  tree orig_value = value.value;
  int string_flag
    = (orig_value != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (orig_value) == STRING_CST);
  bool strict_string = value.original_code == STRING_CST;
  bool was_designated = designator_depth != 0;

  designator_depth = 0;
  designator_erroneous = 0;

  if (!implicit && value.value && !integer_zerop (value.value))
    constructor_zeroinit = 0;

  /* Handle superfluous braces around string cst as in
     char x[] = {"foo"}; */
  if (string_flag
      && constructor_type
      && !was_designated
      && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (constructor_type))
      && integer_zerop (constructor_unfilled_index))
    {
      if (constructor_stack->replacement_value.value)
	error_init (loc, "excess elements in char array initializer");
      constructor_stack->replacement_value = value;
      return;
    }

  if (constructor_stack->replacement_value.value != NULL_TREE)
    {
      error_init (loc, "excess elements in struct initializer");
      return;
    }

  /* Ignore elements of a brace group if it is entirely superfluous
     and has already been diagnosed.  */
  if (constructor_type == NULL_TREE)
    return;

  if (!implicit && warn_designated_init && !was_designated
      && TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE
      && lookup_attribute ("designated_init",
			   TYPE_ATTRIBUTES (constructor_type)))
    warning_init (loc,
		  OPT_Wdesignated_init,
		  "positional initialization of field "
		  "in %<struct%> declared with %<designated_init%> attribute");

  /* If we've exhausted any levels that didn't have braces,
     pop them now.  */
  while (constructor_stack->implicit)
    {
      if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (constructor_type)
	  && constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	process_init_element (loc,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      last_init_list_comma),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      else if ((TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE
		|| VECTOR_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
	       && constructor_max_index
	       && tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index,
				   constructor_index))
	process_init_element (loc,
			      pop_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack,
					      last_init_list_comma),
			      true, braced_init_obstack);
      else
	break;
    }

  /* In the case of [LO ... HI] = VALUE, only evaluate VALUE once.  */
  if (constructor_range_stack)
    {
      /* If value is a compound literal and we'll be just using its
	 content, don't put it into a SAVE_EXPR.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (value.value) != COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR
	  || !require_constant_value)
	{
	  tree semantic_type = NULL_TREE;
	  if (TREE_CODE (value.value) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	    {
	      semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (value.value);
	      value.value = TREE_OPERAND (value.value, 0);
	    }
	  value.value = save_expr (value.value);
	  if (semantic_type)
	    value.value = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, semantic_type,
				  value.value);
	}
    }

  while (1)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == RECORD_TYPE)
	{
	  tree fieldtype;
	  enum tree_code fieldcode;

	  if (constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      pedwarn_init (loc, 0, "excess elements in struct initializer");
	      break;
	    }

	  fieldtype = TREE_TYPE (constructor_fields);
	  if (fieldtype != error_mark_node)
	    fieldtype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (fieldtype);
	  fieldcode = TREE_CODE (fieldtype);

	  /* Error for non-static initialization of a flexible array member.  */
	  if (fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && !require_constant_value
	      && TYPE_SIZE (fieldtype) == NULL_TREE
	      && DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      error_init (loc, "non-static initialization of a flexible "
			  "array member");
	      break;
	    }

	  /* Error for initialization of a flexible array member with
	     a string constant if the structure is in an array.  E.g.:
	     struct S { int x; char y[]; };
	     struct S s[] = { { 1, "foo" } };
	     is invalid.  */
	  if (string_flag
	      && fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && constructor_depth > 1
	      && TYPE_SIZE (fieldtype) == NULL_TREE
	      && DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      bool in_array_p = false;
	      for (struct constructor_stack *p = constructor_stack;
		   p && p->type; p = p->next)
		if (TREE_CODE (p->type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
		  {
		    in_array_p = true;
		    break;
		  }
	      if (in_array_p)
		{
		  error_init (loc, "initialization of flexible array "
			      "member in a nested context");
		  break;
		}
	    }

	  /* Accept a string constant to initialize a subarray.  */
	  if (value.value != NULL_TREE
	      && fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (fieldtype))
	      && string_flag)
	    value.value = orig_value;
	  /* Otherwise, if we have come to a subaggregate,
	     and we don't have an element of its type, push into it.  */
	  else if (value.value != NULL_TREE
		   && value.value != error_mark_node
		   && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value.value)) != fieldtype
		   && (fieldcode == RECORD_TYPE || fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
		       || fieldcode == UNION_TYPE || fieldcode == VECTOR_TYPE))
	    {
	      push_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack);
	      continue;
	    }

	  if (value.value)
	    {
	      push_member_name (constructor_fields);
	      output_init_element (loc, value.value, value.original_type,
				   strict_string, fieldtype,
				   constructor_fields, true, implicit,
				   braced_init_obstack);
	      RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (constructor_depth);
	    }
	  else
	    /* Do the bookkeeping for an element that was
	       directly output as a constructor.  */
	    {
	      /* For a record, keep track of end position of last field.  */
	      if (DECL_SIZE (constructor_fields))
		constructor_bit_index
		  = size_binop_loc (input_location, PLUS_EXPR,
				    bit_position (constructor_fields),
				    DECL_SIZE (constructor_fields));

	      /* If the current field was the first one not yet written out,
		 it isn't now, so update.  */
	      if (constructor_unfilled_fields == constructor_fields)
		{
		  constructor_unfilled_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);
		  /* Skip any nameless bit fields.  */
		  while (constructor_unfilled_fields != 0
			 && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_unfilled_fields)
			 && DECL_NAME (constructor_unfilled_fields) == 0)
		    constructor_unfilled_fields =
		      DECL_CHAIN (constructor_unfilled_fields);
		}
	    }

	  constructor_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);
	  /* Skip any nameless bit fields at the beginning.  */
	  while (constructor_fields != NULL_TREE
		 && DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (constructor_fields)
		 && DECL_NAME (constructor_fields) == NULL_TREE)
	    constructor_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == UNION_TYPE)
	{
	  tree fieldtype;
	  enum tree_code fieldcode;

	  if (constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      pedwarn_init (loc, 0,
			    "excess elements in union initializer");
	      break;
	    }

	  fieldtype = TREE_TYPE (constructor_fields);
	  if (fieldtype != error_mark_node)
	    fieldtype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (fieldtype);
	  fieldcode = TREE_CODE (fieldtype);

	  /* Warn that traditional C rejects initialization of unions.
	     We skip the warning if the value is zero.  This is done
	     under the assumption that the zero initializer in user
	     code appears conditioned on e.g. __STDC__ to avoid
	     "missing initializer" warnings and relies on default
	     initialization to zero in the traditional C case.
	     We also skip the warning if the initializer is designated,
	     again on the assumption that this must be conditional on
	     __STDC__ anyway (and we've already complained about the
	     member-designator already).  */
	  if (!in_system_header_at (input_location) && !constructor_designated
	      && !(value.value && (integer_zerop (value.value)
				   || real_zerop (value.value))))
	    warning (OPT_Wtraditional, "traditional C rejects initialization "
		     "of unions");

	  /* Accept a string constant to initialize a subarray.  */
	  if (value.value != NULL_TREE
	      && fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (fieldtype))
	      && string_flag)
	    value.value = orig_value;
	  /* Otherwise, if we have come to a subaggregate,
	     and we don't have an element of its type, push into it.  */
	  else if (value.value != NULL_TREE
		   && value.value != error_mark_node
		   && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value.value)) != fieldtype
		   && (fieldcode == RECORD_TYPE || fieldcode == ARRAY_TYPE
		       || fieldcode == UNION_TYPE || fieldcode == VECTOR_TYPE))
	    {
	      push_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack);
	      continue;
	    }

	  if (value.value)
	    {
	      push_member_name (constructor_fields);
	      output_init_element (loc, value.value, value.original_type,
				   strict_string, fieldtype,
				   constructor_fields, true, implicit,
				   braced_init_obstack);
	      RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (constructor_depth);
	    }
	  else
	    /* Do the bookkeeping for an element that was
	       directly output as a constructor.  */
	    {
	      constructor_bit_index = DECL_SIZE (constructor_fields);
	      constructor_unfilled_fields = DECL_CHAIN (constructor_fields);
	    }

	  constructor_fields = NULL_TREE;
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (constructor_type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	{
	  tree elttype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (constructor_type));
	  enum tree_code eltcode = TREE_CODE (elttype);

	  /* Accept a string constant to initialize a subarray.  */
	  if (value.value != NULL_TREE
	      && eltcode == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (elttype))
	      && string_flag)
	    value.value = orig_value;
	  /* Otherwise, if we have come to a subaggregate,
	     and we don't have an element of its type, push into it.  */
	  else if (value.value != NULL_TREE
		   && value.value != error_mark_node
		   && TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (value.value)) != elttype
		   && (eltcode == RECORD_TYPE || eltcode == ARRAY_TYPE
		       || eltcode == UNION_TYPE || eltcode == VECTOR_TYPE))
	    {
	      push_init_level (loc, 1, braced_init_obstack);
	      continue;
	    }

	  if (constructor_max_index != NULL_TREE
	      && (tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index, constructor_index)
		  || integer_all_onesp (constructor_max_index)))
	    {
	      pedwarn_init (loc, 0,
			    "excess elements in array initializer");
	      break;
	    }

	  /* Now output the actual element.  */
	  if (value.value)
	    {
	      push_array_bounds (tree_to_uhwi (constructor_index));
	      output_init_element (loc, value.value, value.original_type,
				   strict_string, elttype,
				   constructor_index, true, implicit,
				   braced_init_obstack);
	      RESTORE_SPELLING_DEPTH (constructor_depth);
	    }

	  constructor_index
	    = size_binop_loc (input_location, PLUS_EXPR,
			      constructor_index, bitsize_one_node);

	  if (!value.value)
	    /* If we are doing the bookkeeping for an element that was
	       directly output as a constructor, we must update
	       constructor_unfilled_index.  */
	    constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
	}
      else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (constructor_type))
	{
	  tree elttype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (constructor_type));

	 /* Do a basic check of initializer size.  Note that vectors
	    always have a fixed size derived from their type.  */
	  if (tree_int_cst_lt (constructor_max_index, constructor_index))
	    {
	      pedwarn_init (loc, 0,
			    "excess elements in vector initializer");
	      break;
	    }

	  /* Now output the actual element.  */
	  if (value.value)
	    {
	      if (TREE_CODE (value.value) == VECTOR_CST)
		elttype = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (constructor_type);
	      output_init_element (loc, value.value, value.original_type,
				   strict_string, elttype,
				   constructor_index, true, implicit,
				   braced_init_obstack);
	    }

	  constructor_index
	    = size_binop_loc (input_location,
			      PLUS_EXPR, constructor_index, bitsize_one_node);

	  if (!value.value)
	    /* If we are doing the bookkeeping for an element that was
	       directly output as a constructor, we must update
	       constructor_unfilled_index.  */
	    constructor_unfilled_index = constructor_index;
	}

      /* Handle the sole element allowed in a braced initializer
	 for a scalar variable.  */
      else if (constructor_type != error_mark_node
	       && constructor_fields == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  pedwarn_init (loc, 0,
			"excess elements in scalar initializer");
	  break;
	}
      else
	{
	  if (value.value)
	    output_init_element (loc, value.value, value.original_type,
				 strict_string, constructor_type,
				 NULL_TREE, true, implicit,
				 braced_init_obstack);
	  constructor_fields = NULL_TREE;
	}

      /* Handle range initializers either at this level or anywhere higher
	 in the designator stack.  */
      if (constructor_range_stack)
	{
	  struct constructor_range_stack *p, *range_stack;
	  int finish = 0;

	  range_stack = constructor_range_stack;
	  constructor_range_stack = 0;
	  while (constructor_stack != range_stack->stack)
	    {
	      gcc_assert (constructor_stack->implicit);
	      process_init_element (loc,
				    pop_init_level (loc, 1,
						    braced_init_obstack,
						    last_init_list_comma),
				    true, braced_init_obstack);
	    }
	  for (p = range_stack;
	       !p->range_end || tree_int_cst_equal (p->index, p->range_end);
	       p = p->prev)
	    {
	      gcc_assert (constructor_stack->implicit);
	      process_init_element (loc,
				    pop_init_level (loc, 1,
						    braced_init_obstack,
						    last_init_list_comma),
				    true, braced_init_obstack);
	    }

	  p->index = size_binop_loc (input_location,
				     PLUS_EXPR, p->index, bitsize_one_node);
	  if (tree_int_cst_equal (p->index, p->range_end) && !p->prev)
	    finish = 1;

	  while (1)
	    {
	      constructor_index = p->index;
	      constructor_fields = p->fields;
	      if (finish && p->range_end && p->index == p->range_start)
		{
		  finish = 0;
		  p->prev = 0;
		}
	      p = p->next;
	      if (!p)
		break;
	      finish_implicit_inits (loc, braced_init_obstack);
	      push_init_level (loc, 2, braced_init_obstack);
	      p->stack = constructor_stack;
	      if (p->range_end && tree_int_cst_equal (p->index, p->range_end))
		p->index = p->range_start;
	    }

	  if (!finish)
	    constructor_range_stack = range_stack;
	  continue;
	}

      break;
    }

  constructor_range_stack = 0;
}

/* Build a complete asm-statement, whose components are a CV_QUALIFIER
   (guaranteed to be 'volatile' or null) and ARGS (represented using
   an ASM_EXPR node).  */
tree
build_asm_stmt (tree cv_qualifier, tree args)
{
  if (!ASM_VOLATILE_P (args) && cv_qualifier)
    ASM_VOLATILE_P (args) = 1;
  return add_stmt (args);
}

/* Build an asm-expr, whose components are a STRING, some OUTPUTS,
   some INPUTS, and some CLOBBERS.  The latter three may be NULL.
   SIMPLE indicates whether there was anything at all after the
   string in the asm expression -- asm("blah") and asm("blah" : )
   are subtly different.  We use a ASM_EXPR node to represent this.  */
tree
build_asm_expr (location_t loc, tree string, tree outputs, tree inputs,
		tree clobbers, tree labels, bool simple)
{
  tree tail;
  tree args;
  int i;
  const char *constraint;
  const char **oconstraints;
  bool allows_mem, allows_reg, is_inout;
  int ninputs, noutputs;

  ninputs = list_length (inputs);
  noutputs = list_length (outputs);
  oconstraints = (const char **) alloca (noutputs * sizeof (const char *));

  string = resolve_asm_operand_names (string, outputs, inputs, labels);

  /* Remove output conversions that change the type but not the mode.  */
  for (i = 0, tail = outputs; tail; ++i, tail = TREE_CHAIN (tail))
    {
      tree output = TREE_VALUE (tail);

      output = c_fully_fold (output, false, NULL);

      /* ??? Really, this should not be here.  Users should be using a
	 proper lvalue, dammit.  But there's a long history of using casts
	 in the output operands.  In cases like longlong.h, this becomes a
	 primitive form of typechecking -- if the cast can be removed, then
	 the output operand had a type of the proper width; otherwise we'll
	 get an error.  Gross, but ...  */
      STRIP_NOPS (output);

      if (!lvalue_or_else (loc, output, lv_asm))
	output = error_mark_node;

      if (output != error_mark_node
	  && (TREE_READONLY (output)
	      || TYPE_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (output))
	      || (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (output))
		  && C_TYPE_FIELDS_READONLY (TREE_TYPE (output)))))
	readonly_error (loc, output, lv_asm);

      constraint = TREE_STRING_POINTER (TREE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (tail)));
      oconstraints[i] = constraint;

      if (parse_output_constraint (&constraint, i, ninputs, noutputs,
				   &allows_mem, &allows_reg, &is_inout))
	{
	  /* If the operand is going to end up in memory,
	     mark it addressable.  */
	  if (!allows_reg && !c_mark_addressable (output))
	    output = error_mark_node;
	  if (!(!allows_reg && allows_mem)
	      && output != error_mark_node
	      && VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (output)))
	    {
	      error_at (loc, "invalid use of void expression");
	      output = error_mark_node;
	    }
	}
      else
	output = error_mark_node;

      TREE_VALUE (tail) = output;
    }

  for (i = 0, tail = inputs; tail; ++i, tail = TREE_CHAIN (tail))
    {
      tree input;

      constraint = TREE_STRING_POINTER (TREE_VALUE (TREE_PURPOSE (tail)));
      input = TREE_VALUE (tail);

      if (parse_input_constraint (&constraint, i, ninputs, noutputs, 0,
				  oconstraints, &allows_mem, &allows_reg))
	{
	  /* If the operand is going to end up in memory,
	     mark it addressable.  */
	  if (!allows_reg && allows_mem)
	    {
	      input = c_fully_fold (input, false, NULL);

	      /* Strip the nops as we allow this case.  FIXME, this really
		 should be rejected or made deprecated.  */
	      STRIP_NOPS (input);
	      if (!c_mark_addressable (input))
		input = error_mark_node;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      struct c_expr expr;
	      memset (&expr, 0, sizeof (expr));
	      expr.value = input;
	      expr = convert_lvalue_to_rvalue (loc, expr, true, false);
	      input = c_fully_fold (expr.value, false, NULL);

	      if (input != error_mark_node && VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (input)))
		{
		  error_at (loc, "invalid use of void expression");
		  input = error_mark_node;
		}
	    }
	}
      else
	input = error_mark_node;

      TREE_VALUE (tail) = input;
    }

  /* ASMs with labels cannot have outputs.  This should have been
     enforced by the parser.  */
  gcc_assert (outputs == NULL || labels == NULL);

  args = build_stmt (loc, ASM_EXPR, string, outputs, inputs, clobbers, labels);

  /* asm statements without outputs, including simple ones, are treated
     as volatile.  */
  ASM_INPUT_P (args) = simple;
  ASM_VOLATILE_P (args) = (noutputs == 0);

  return args;
}

/* Generate a goto statement to LABEL.  LOC is the location of the
   GOTO.  */

tree
c_finish_goto_label (location_t loc, tree label)
{
  tree decl = lookup_label_for_goto (loc, label);
  if (!decl)
    return NULL_TREE;
  TREE_USED (decl) = 1;
  {
    add_stmt (build_predict_expr (PRED_GOTO, NOT_TAKEN));
    tree t = build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, decl);
    SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, loc);
    return add_stmt (t);
  }
}

/* Generate a computed goto statement to EXPR.  LOC is the location of
   the GOTO.  */

tree
c_finish_goto_ptr (location_t loc, tree expr)
{
  tree t;
  pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids %<goto *expr;%>");
  expr = c_fully_fold (expr, false, NULL);
  expr = convert (ptr_type_node, expr);
  t = build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, expr);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, loc);
  return add_stmt (t);
}

/* Generate a C `return' statement.  RETVAL is the expression for what
   to return, or a null pointer for `return;' with no value.  LOC is
   the location of the return statement, or the location of the expression,
   if the statement has any.  If ORIGTYPE is not NULL_TREE, it
   is the original type of RETVAL.  */

tree
c_finish_return (location_t loc, tree retval, tree origtype)
{
  tree valtype = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (current_function_decl)), ret_stmt;
  bool no_warning = false;
  bool npc = false;
  size_t rank = 0;

  /* Use the expansion point to handle cases such as returning NULL
     in a function returning void.  */
  source_location xloc = expansion_point_location_if_in_system_header (loc);

  if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (current_function_decl))
    warning_at (xloc, 0,
		"function declared %<noreturn%> has a %<return%> statement");

  if (flag_cilkplus && contains_array_notation_expr (retval))
    {
      /* Array notations are allowed in a return statement if it is inside a
	 built-in array notation reduction function.  */
      if (!find_rank (loc, retval, retval, false, &rank))
	return error_mark_node;
      if (rank >= 1)
	{
	  error_at (loc, "array notation expression cannot be used as a "
		    "return value");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }
  if (flag_cilkplus && retval && contains_cilk_spawn_stmt (retval))
    {
      error_at (loc, "use of %<_Cilk_spawn%> in a return statement is not "
		"allowed");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  if (retval)
    {
      tree semantic_type = NULL_TREE;
      npc = null_pointer_constant_p (retval);
      if (TREE_CODE (retval) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
	{
	  semantic_type = TREE_TYPE (retval);
	  retval = TREE_OPERAND (retval, 0);
	}
      retval = c_fully_fold (retval, false, NULL);
      if (semantic_type)
	retval = build1 (EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR, semantic_type, retval);
    }

  if (!retval)
    {
      current_function_returns_null = 1;
      if ((warn_return_type || flag_isoc99)
	  && valtype != NULL_TREE && TREE_CODE (valtype) != VOID_TYPE)
	{
	  bool warned_here;
	  if (flag_isoc99)
	    warned_here = pedwarn
	      (loc, 0,
	       "%<return%> with no value, in function returning non-void");
	  else
	    warned_here = warning_at
	      (loc, OPT_Wreturn_type,
	       "%<return%> with no value, in function returning non-void");
	  no_warning = true;
	  if (warned_here)
	    inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (current_function_decl),
		    "declared here");
	}
    }
  else if (valtype == NULL_TREE || TREE_CODE (valtype) == VOID_TYPE)
    {
      current_function_returns_null = 1;
      bool warned_here;
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (retval)) != VOID_TYPE)
	warned_here = pedwarn
	  (xloc, 0,
	   "%<return%> with a value, in function returning void");
      else
	warned_here = pedwarn
	  (xloc, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
	   "%<return%> with expression, in function returning void");
      if (warned_here)
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (current_function_decl),
		"declared here");
    }
  else
    {
      tree t = convert_for_assignment (loc, UNKNOWN_LOCATION, valtype,
				       retval, origtype, ic_return,
				       npc, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE, 0);
      tree res = DECL_RESULT (current_function_decl);
      tree inner;
      bool save;

      current_function_returns_value = 1;
      if (t == error_mark_node)
	return NULL_TREE;

      save = in_late_binary_op;
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (res)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	  || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (res)) == COMPLEX_TYPE
	  || (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == REAL_TYPE
	      && (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (res)) == INTEGER_TYPE
		  || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (res)) == ENUMERAL_TYPE)
	      && sanitize_flags_p (SANITIZE_FLOAT_CAST)))
        in_late_binary_op = true;
      inner = t = convert (TREE_TYPE (res), t);
      in_late_binary_op = save;

      /* Strip any conversions, additions, and subtractions, and see if
	 we are returning the address of a local variable.  Warn if so.  */
      while (1)
	{
	  switch (TREE_CODE (inner))
	    {
	    CASE_CONVERT:
	    case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
	    case PLUS_EXPR:
	    case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
	      inner = TREE_OPERAND (inner, 0);
	      continue;

	    case MINUS_EXPR:
	      /* If the second operand of the MINUS_EXPR has a pointer
		 type (or is converted from it), this may be valid, so
		 don't give a warning.  */
	      {
		tree op1 = TREE_OPERAND (inner, 1);

		while (!POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (op1))
		       && (CONVERT_EXPR_P (op1)
			   || TREE_CODE (op1) == NON_LVALUE_EXPR))
		  op1 = TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0);

		if (POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (op1)))
		  break;

		inner = TREE_OPERAND (inner, 0);
		continue;
	      }

	    case ADDR_EXPR:
	      inner = TREE_OPERAND (inner, 0);

	      while (REFERENCE_CLASS_P (inner)
		     && !INDIRECT_REF_P (inner))
		inner = TREE_OPERAND (inner, 0);

	      if (DECL_P (inner)
		  && !DECL_EXTERNAL (inner)
		  && !TREE_STATIC (inner)
		  && DECL_CONTEXT (inner) == current_function_decl)
		{
		  if (TREE_CODE (inner) == LABEL_DECL)
		    warning_at (loc, OPT_Wreturn_local_addr,
				"function returns address of label");
		  else
		    {
		      warning_at (loc, OPT_Wreturn_local_addr,
				  "function returns address of local variable");
		      tree zero = build_zero_cst (TREE_TYPE (res));
		      t = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (res), t, zero);
		    }
		}
	      break;

	    default:
	      break;
	    }

	  break;
	}

      retval = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (res), res, t);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (retval, loc);

      if (warn_sequence_point)
	verify_sequence_points (retval);
    }

  ret_stmt = build_stmt (loc, RETURN_EXPR, retval);
  TREE_NO_WARNING (ret_stmt) |= no_warning;
  return add_stmt (ret_stmt);
}

struct c_switch {
  /* The SWITCH_EXPR being built.  */
  tree switch_expr;

  /* The original type of the testing expression, i.e. before the
     default conversion is applied.  */
  tree orig_type;

  /* A splay-tree mapping the low element of a case range to the high
     element, or NULL_TREE if there is no high element.  Used to
     determine whether or not a new case label duplicates an old case
     label.  We need a tree, rather than simply a hash table, because
     of the GNU case range extension.  */
  splay_tree cases;

  /* The bindings at the point of the switch.  This is used for
     warnings crossing decls when branching to a case label.  */
  struct c_spot_bindings *bindings;

  /* The next node on the stack.  */
  struct c_switch *next;

  /* Remember whether the controlling expression had boolean type
     before integer promotions for the sake of -Wswitch-bool.  */
  bool bool_cond_p;

  /* Remember whether there was a case value that is outside the
     range of the ORIG_TYPE.  */
  bool outside_range_p;
};

/* A stack of the currently active switch statements.  The innermost
   switch statement is on the top of the stack.  There is no need to
   mark the stack for garbage collection because it is only active
   during the processing of the body of a function, and we never
   collect at that point.  */

struct c_switch *c_switch_stack;

/* Start a C switch statement, testing expression EXP.  Return the new
   SWITCH_EXPR.  SWITCH_LOC is the location of the `switch'.
   SWITCH_COND_LOC is the location of the switch's condition.
   EXPLICIT_CAST_P is true if the expression EXP has an explicit cast.  */

tree
c_start_case (location_t switch_loc,
	      location_t switch_cond_loc,
	      tree exp, bool explicit_cast_p)
{
  tree orig_type = error_mark_node;
  bool bool_cond_p = false;
  struct c_switch *cs;

  if (exp != error_mark_node)
    {
      orig_type = TREE_TYPE (exp);

      if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (orig_type))
	{
	  if (orig_type != error_mark_node)
	    {
	      error_at (switch_cond_loc, "switch quantity not an integer");
	      orig_type = error_mark_node;
	    }
	  exp = integer_zero_node;
	}
      else
	{
	  tree type = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (orig_type);
	  tree e = exp;

	  /* Warn if the condition has boolean value.  */
	  while (TREE_CODE (e) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
	    e = TREE_OPERAND (e, 1);

	  if ((TREE_CODE (type) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	       || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (e)))
	      /* Explicit cast to int suppresses this warning.  */
	      && !(TREE_CODE (type) == INTEGER_TYPE
		   && explicit_cast_p))
	    bool_cond_p = true;

	  if (!in_system_header_at (input_location)
	      && (type == long_integer_type_node
		  || type == long_unsigned_type_node))
	    warning_at (switch_cond_loc,
			OPT_Wtraditional, "%<long%> switch expression not "
			"converted to %<int%> in ISO C");

	  exp = c_fully_fold (exp, false, NULL);
	  exp = default_conversion (exp);

	  if (warn_sequence_point)
	    verify_sequence_points (exp);
	}
    }

  /* Add this new SWITCH_EXPR to the stack.  */
  cs = XNEW (struct c_switch);
  cs->switch_expr = build3 (SWITCH_EXPR, orig_type, exp, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (cs->switch_expr, switch_loc);
  cs->orig_type = orig_type;
  cs->cases = splay_tree_new (case_compare, NULL, NULL);
  cs->bindings = c_get_switch_bindings ();
  cs->bool_cond_p = bool_cond_p;
  cs->outside_range_p = false;
  cs->next = c_switch_stack;
  c_switch_stack = cs;

  return add_stmt (cs->switch_expr);
}

/* Process a case label at location LOC.  */

tree
do_case (location_t loc, tree low_value, tree high_value)
{
  tree label = NULL_TREE;

  if (low_value && TREE_CODE (low_value) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      low_value = c_fully_fold (low_value, false, NULL);
      if (TREE_CODE (low_value) == INTEGER_CST)
	pedwarn (loc, OPT_Wpedantic,
		 "case label is not an integer constant expression");
    }

  if (high_value && TREE_CODE (high_value) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      high_value = c_fully_fold (high_value, false, NULL);
      if (TREE_CODE (high_value) == INTEGER_CST)
	pedwarn (input_location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		 "case label is not an integer constant expression");
    }

  if (c_switch_stack == NULL)
    {
      if (low_value)
	error_at (loc, "case label not within a switch statement");
      else
	error_at (loc, "%<default%> label not within a switch statement");
      return NULL_TREE;
    }

  if (c_check_switch_jump_warnings (c_switch_stack->bindings,
				    EXPR_LOCATION (c_switch_stack->switch_expr),
				    loc))
    return NULL_TREE;

  label = c_add_case_label (loc, c_switch_stack->cases,
			    SWITCH_COND (c_switch_stack->switch_expr),
			    c_switch_stack->orig_type,
			    low_value, high_value,
			    &c_switch_stack->outside_range_p);
  if (label == error_mark_node)
    label = NULL_TREE;
  return label;
}

/* Finish the switch statement.  TYPE is the original type of the
   controlling expression of the switch, or NULL_TREE.  */

void
c_finish_case (tree body, tree type)
{
  struct c_switch *cs = c_switch_stack;
  location_t switch_location;

  SWITCH_BODY (cs->switch_expr) = body;

  /* Emit warnings as needed.  */
  switch_location = EXPR_LOCATION (cs->switch_expr);
  c_do_switch_warnings (cs->cases, switch_location,
			type ? type : TREE_TYPE (cs->switch_expr),
			SWITCH_COND (cs->switch_expr),
			cs->bool_cond_p, cs->outside_range_p);

  /* Pop the stack.  */
  c_switch_stack = cs->next;
  splay_tree_delete (cs->cases);
  c_release_switch_bindings (cs->bindings);
  XDELETE (cs);
}

/* Emit an if statement.  IF_LOCUS is the location of the 'if'.  COND,
   THEN_BLOCK and ELSE_BLOCK are expressions to be used; ELSE_BLOCK
   may be null.  */

void
c_finish_if_stmt (location_t if_locus, tree cond, tree then_block,
		  tree else_block)
{
  tree stmt;

  /* If the condition has array notations, then the rank of the then_block and
     else_block must be either 0 or be equal to the rank of the condition.  If
     the condition does not have array notations then break them up as it is
     broken up in a normal expression.  */
  if (flag_cilkplus && contains_array_notation_expr (cond))
    {
      size_t then_rank = 0, cond_rank = 0, else_rank = 0;
      if (!find_rank (if_locus, cond, cond, true, &cond_rank))
	return;
      if (then_block
	  && !find_rank (if_locus, then_block, then_block, true, &then_rank))
	return;
      if (else_block
	  && !find_rank (if_locus, else_block, else_block, true, &else_rank)) 
	return;
      if (cond_rank != then_rank && then_rank != 0)
	{
	  error_at (if_locus, "rank-mismatch between if-statement%'s condition"
		    " and the then-block");
	  return;
	}
      else if (cond_rank != else_rank && else_rank != 0)
	{
	  error_at (if_locus, "rank-mismatch between if-statement%'s condition"
		    " and the else-block");
	  return;
	}
    }

  stmt = build3 (COND_EXPR, void_type_node, cond, then_block, else_block);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, if_locus);
  add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Emit a general-purpose loop construct.  START_LOCUS is the location of
   the beginning of the loop.  COND is the loop condition.  COND_IS_FIRST
   is false for DO loops.  INCR is the FOR increment expression.  BODY is
   the statement controlled by the loop.  BLAB is the break label.  CLAB is
   the continue label.  Everything is allowed to be NULL.  */

void
c_finish_loop (location_t start_locus, tree cond, tree incr, tree body,
	       tree blab, tree clab, bool cond_is_first)
{
  tree entry = NULL, exit = NULL, t;

  /* In theory could forbid cilk spawn for loop increment expression,
     but it should work just fine.  */
  
  /* If the condition is zero don't generate a loop construct.  */
  if (cond && integer_zerop (cond))
    {
      if (cond_is_first)
	{
	  t = build_and_jump (&blab);
	  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, start_locus);
	  add_stmt (t);
	}
    }
  else
    {
      tree top = build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, NULL_TREE);

      /* If we have an exit condition, then we build an IF with gotos either
	 out of the loop, or to the top of it.  If there's no exit condition,
	 then we just build a jump back to the top.  */
      exit = build_and_jump (&LABEL_EXPR_LABEL (top));

      if (cond && !integer_nonzerop (cond))
	{
	  /* Canonicalize the loop condition to the end.  This means
	     generating a branch to the loop condition.  Reuse the
	     continue label, if possible.  */
	  if (cond_is_first)
	    {
	      if (incr || !clab)
		{
		  entry = build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, NULL_TREE);
		  t = build_and_jump (&LABEL_EXPR_LABEL (entry));
		}
	      else
		t = build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, clab);
	      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, start_locus);
	      add_stmt (t);
	    }

	  t = build_and_jump (&blab);
	  if (cond_is_first)
	    exit = fold_build3_loc (start_locus,
				COND_EXPR, void_type_node, cond, exit, t);
	  else
	    exit = fold_build3_loc (input_location,
				COND_EXPR, void_type_node, cond, exit, t);
	}
      else
	{
	  /* For the backward-goto's location of an unconditional loop
	     use the beginning of the body, or, if there is none, the
	     top of the loop.  */
	  location_t loc = EXPR_LOCATION (expr_first (body));
	  if (loc == UNKNOWN_LOCATION)
	    loc = start_locus;
	  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (exit, loc);
	}

      add_stmt (top);
    }

  if (body)
    add_stmt (body);
  if (clab)
    add_stmt (build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, clab));
  if (incr)
    add_stmt (incr);
  if (entry)
    add_stmt (entry);
  if (exit)
    add_stmt (exit);
  if (blab)
    add_stmt (build1 (LABEL_EXPR, void_type_node, blab));
}

tree
c_finish_bc_stmt (location_t loc, tree *label_p, bool is_break)
{
  bool skip;
  tree label = *label_p;

  /* In switch statements break is sometimes stylistically used after
     a return statement.  This can lead to spurious warnings about
     control reaching the end of a non-void function when it is
     inlined.  Note that we are calling block_may_fallthru with
     language specific tree nodes; this works because
     block_may_fallthru returns true when given something it does not
     understand.  */
  skip = !block_may_fallthru (cur_stmt_list);

  if (!label)
    {
      if (!skip)
	*label_p = label = create_artificial_label (loc);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (label) == LABEL_DECL)
    ;
  else switch (TREE_INT_CST_LOW (label))
    {
    case 0:
      if (is_break)
	error_at (loc, "break statement not within loop or switch");
      else
	error_at (loc, "continue statement not within a loop");
      return NULL_TREE;

    case 1:
      gcc_assert (is_break);
      error_at (loc, "break statement used with OpenMP for loop");
      return NULL_TREE;

    case 2:
      if (is_break) 
	error ("break statement within %<#pragma simd%> loop body");
      else 
	error ("continue statement within %<#pragma simd%> loop body");
      return NULL_TREE;

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }

  if (skip)
    return NULL_TREE;

  if (!is_break)
    add_stmt (build_predict_expr (PRED_CONTINUE, NOT_TAKEN));

  return add_stmt (build1 (GOTO_EXPR, void_type_node, label));
}

/* A helper routine for c_process_expr_stmt and c_finish_stmt_expr.  */

static void
emit_side_effect_warnings (location_t loc, tree expr)
{
  if (expr == error_mark_node)
    ;
  else if (!TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (expr))
    {
      if (!VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (expr)) && !TREE_NO_WARNING (expr))
	warning_at (loc, OPT_Wunused_value, "statement with no effect");
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (expr) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
    {
      tree r = expr;
      location_t cloc = loc;
      while (TREE_CODE (r) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
	{
	  if (EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (r))
	    cloc = EXPR_LOCATION (r);
	  r = TREE_OPERAND (r, 1);
	}
      if (!TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (r)
	  && !VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r))
	  && !CONVERT_EXPR_P (r)
	  && !TREE_NO_WARNING (r)
	  && !TREE_NO_WARNING (expr))
	warning_at (cloc, OPT_Wunused_value,
		    "right-hand operand of comma expression has no effect");
    }
  else
    warn_if_unused_value (expr, loc);
}

/* Process an expression as if it were a complete statement.  Emit
   diagnostics, but do not call ADD_STMT.  LOC is the location of the
   statement.  */

tree
c_process_expr_stmt (location_t loc, tree expr)
{
  tree exprv;

  if (!expr)
    return NULL_TREE;

  expr = c_fully_fold (expr, false, NULL);

  if (warn_sequence_point)
    verify_sequence_points (expr);

  if (TREE_TYPE (expr) != error_mark_node
      && !COMPLETE_OR_VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (expr))
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (expr)) != ARRAY_TYPE)
    error_at (loc, "expression statement has incomplete type");

  /* If we're not processing a statement expression, warn about unused values.
     Warnings for statement expressions will be emitted later, once we figure
     out which is the result.  */
  if (!STATEMENT_LIST_STMT_EXPR (cur_stmt_list)
      && warn_unused_value)
    emit_side_effect_warnings (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (expr, loc), expr);

  exprv = expr;
  while (TREE_CODE (exprv) == COMPOUND_EXPR)
    exprv = TREE_OPERAND (exprv, 1);
  while (CONVERT_EXPR_P (exprv))
    exprv = TREE_OPERAND (exprv, 0);
  if (DECL_P (exprv)
      || handled_component_p (exprv)
      || TREE_CODE (exprv) == ADDR_EXPR)
    mark_exp_read (exprv);

  /* If the expression is not of a type to which we cannot assign a line
     number, wrap the thing in a no-op NOP_EXPR.  */
  if (DECL_P (expr) || CONSTANT_CLASS_P (expr))
    {
      expr = build1 (NOP_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (expr), expr);
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (expr, loc);
    }

  return expr;
}

/* Emit an expression as a statement.  LOC is the location of the
   expression.  */

tree
c_finish_expr_stmt (location_t loc, tree expr)
{
  if (expr)
    return add_stmt (c_process_expr_stmt (loc, expr));
  else
    return NULL;
}

/* Do the opposite and emit a statement as an expression.  To begin,
   create a new binding level and return it.  */

tree
c_begin_stmt_expr (void)
{
  tree ret;

  /* We must force a BLOCK for this level so that, if it is not expanded
     later, there is a way to turn off the entire subtree of blocks that
     are contained in it.  */
  keep_next_level ();
  ret = c_begin_compound_stmt (true);

  c_bindings_start_stmt_expr (c_switch_stack == NULL
			      ? NULL
			      : c_switch_stack->bindings);

  /* Mark the current statement list as belonging to a statement list.  */
  STATEMENT_LIST_STMT_EXPR (ret) = 1;

  return ret;
}

/* LOC is the location of the compound statement to which this body
   belongs.  */

tree
c_finish_stmt_expr (location_t loc, tree body)
{
  tree last, type, tmp, val;
  tree *last_p;

  body = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, body, true);

  c_bindings_end_stmt_expr (c_switch_stack == NULL
			    ? NULL
			    : c_switch_stack->bindings);

  /* Locate the last statement in BODY.  See c_end_compound_stmt
     about always returning a BIND_EXPR.  */
  last_p = &BIND_EXPR_BODY (body);
  last = BIND_EXPR_BODY (body);

 continue_searching:
  if (TREE_CODE (last) == STATEMENT_LIST)
    {
      tree_stmt_iterator i;

      /* This can happen with degenerate cases like ({ }).  No value.  */
      if (!TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (last))
	return body;

      /* If we're supposed to generate side effects warnings, process
	 all of the statements except the last.  */
      if (warn_unused_value)
	{
	  for (i = tsi_start (last); !tsi_one_before_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	    {
	      location_t tloc;
	      tree t = tsi_stmt (i);

	      tloc = EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (t) ? EXPR_LOCATION (t) : loc;
	      emit_side_effect_warnings (tloc, t);
	    }
	}
      else
	i = tsi_last (last);
      last_p = tsi_stmt_ptr (i);
      last = *last_p;
    }

  /* If the end of the list is exception related, then the list was split
     by a call to push_cleanup.  Continue searching.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (last) == TRY_FINALLY_EXPR
      || TREE_CODE (last) == TRY_CATCH_EXPR)
    {
      last_p = &TREE_OPERAND (last, 0);
      last = *last_p;
      goto continue_searching;
    }

  if (last == error_mark_node)
    return last;

  /* In the case that the BIND_EXPR is not necessary, return the
     expression out from inside it.  */
  if (last == BIND_EXPR_BODY (body)
      && BIND_EXPR_VARS (body) == NULL)
    {
      /* Even if this looks constant, do not allow it in a constant
	 expression.  */
      last = c_wrap_maybe_const (last, true);
      /* Do not warn if the return value of a statement expression is
	 unused.  */
      TREE_NO_WARNING (last) = 1;
      return last;
    }

  /* Extract the type of said expression.  */
  type = TREE_TYPE (last);

  /* If we're not returning a value at all, then the BIND_EXPR that
     we already have is a fine expression to return.  */
  if (!type || VOID_TYPE_P (type))
    return body;

  /* Now that we've located the expression containing the value, it seems
     silly to make voidify_wrapper_expr repeat the process.  Create a
     temporary of the appropriate type and stick it in a TARGET_EXPR.  */
  tmp = create_tmp_var_raw (type);

  /* Unwrap a no-op NOP_EXPR as added by c_finish_expr_stmt.  This avoids
     tree_expr_nonnegative_p giving up immediately.  */
  val = last;
  if (TREE_CODE (val) == NOP_EXPR
      && TREE_TYPE (val) == TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (val, 0)))
    val = TREE_OPERAND (val, 0);

  *last_p = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, void_type_node, tmp, val);
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (*last_p, EXPR_LOCATION (last));

  {
    tree t = build4 (TARGET_EXPR, type, tmp, body, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
    SET_EXPR_LOCATION (t, loc);
    return t;
  }
}

/* Begin and end compound statements.  This is as simple as pushing
   and popping new statement lists from the tree.  */

tree
c_begin_compound_stmt (bool do_scope)
{
  tree stmt = push_stmt_list ();
  if (do_scope)
    push_scope ();
  return stmt;
}

/* End a compound statement.  STMT is the statement.  LOC is the
   location of the compound statement-- this is usually the location
   of the opening brace.  */

tree
c_end_compound_stmt (location_t loc, tree stmt, bool do_scope)
{
  tree block = NULL;

  if (do_scope)
    {
      if (c_dialect_objc ())
	objc_clear_super_receiver ();
      block = pop_scope ();
    }

  stmt = pop_stmt_list (stmt);
  stmt = c_build_bind_expr (loc, block, stmt);

  /* If this compound statement is nested immediately inside a statement
     expression, then force a BIND_EXPR to be created.  Otherwise we'll
     do the wrong thing for ({ { 1; } }) or ({ 1; { } }).  In particular,
     STATEMENT_LISTs merge, and thus we can lose track of what statement
     was really last.  */
  if (building_stmt_list_p ()
      && STATEMENT_LIST_STMT_EXPR (cur_stmt_list)
      && TREE_CODE (stmt) != BIND_EXPR)
    {
      stmt = build3 (BIND_EXPR, void_type_node, NULL, stmt, NULL);
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (stmt) = 1;
      SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);
    }

  return stmt;
}

/* Queue a cleanup.  CLEANUP is an expression/statement to be executed
   when the current scope is exited.  EH_ONLY is true when this is not
   meant to apply to normal control flow transfer.  */

void
push_cleanup (tree decl, tree cleanup, bool eh_only)
{
  enum tree_code code;
  tree stmt, list;
  bool stmt_expr;

  code = eh_only ? TRY_CATCH_EXPR : TRY_FINALLY_EXPR;
  stmt = build_stmt (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (decl), code, NULL, cleanup);
  add_stmt (stmt);
  stmt_expr = STATEMENT_LIST_STMT_EXPR (cur_stmt_list);
  list = push_stmt_list ();
  TREE_OPERAND (stmt, 0) = list;
  STATEMENT_LIST_STMT_EXPR (list) = stmt_expr;
}

/* Build a vector comparison of ARG0 and ARG1 using CODE opcode
   into a value of TYPE type.  Comparison is done via VEC_COND_EXPR.  */

static tree
build_vec_cmp (tree_code code, tree type,
	       tree arg0, tree arg1)
{
  tree zero_vec = build_zero_cst (type);
  tree minus_one_vec = build_minus_one_cst (type);
  tree cmp_type = build_same_sized_truth_vector_type (type);
  tree cmp = build2 (code, cmp_type, arg0, arg1);
  return build3 (VEC_COND_EXPR, type, cmp, minus_one_vec, zero_vec);
}

/* Build a binary-operation expression without default conversions.
   CODE is the kind of expression to build.
   LOCATION is the operator's location.
   This function differs from `build' in several ways:
   the data type of the result is computed and recorded in it,
   warnings are generated if arg data types are invalid,
   special handling for addition and subtraction of pointers is known,
   and some optimization is done (operations on narrow ints
   are done in the narrower type when that gives the same result).
   Constant folding is also done before the result is returned.

   Note that the operands will never have enumeral types, or function
   or array types, because either they will have the default conversions
   performed or they have both just been converted to some other type in which
   the arithmetic is to be done.  */

tree
build_binary_op (location_t location, enum tree_code code,
		 tree orig_op0, tree orig_op1, bool convert_p)
{
  tree type0, type1, orig_type0, orig_type1;
  tree eptype;
  enum tree_code code0, code1;
  tree op0, op1;
  tree ret = error_mark_node;
  const char *invalid_op_diag;
  bool op0_int_operands, op1_int_operands;
  bool int_const, int_const_or_overflow, int_operands;

  /* Expression code to give to the expression when it is built.
     Normally this is CODE, which is what the caller asked for,
     but in some special cases we change it.  */
  enum tree_code resultcode = code;

  /* Data type in which the computation is to be performed.
     In the simplest cases this is the common type of the arguments.  */
  tree result_type = NULL;

  /* When the computation is in excess precision, the type of the
     final EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR.  */
  tree semantic_result_type = NULL;

  /* Nonzero means operands have already been type-converted
     in whatever way is necessary.
     Zero means they need to be converted to RESULT_TYPE.  */
  int converted = 0;

  /* Nonzero means create the expression with this type, rather than
     RESULT_TYPE.  */
  tree build_type = NULL_TREE;

  /* Nonzero means after finally constructing the expression
     convert it to this type.  */
  tree final_type = NULL_TREE;

  /* Nonzero if this is an operation like MIN or MAX which can
     safely be computed in short if both args are promoted shorts.
     Also implies COMMON.
     -1 indicates a bitwise operation; this makes a difference
     in the exact conditions for when it is safe to do the operation
     in a narrower mode.  */
  int shorten = 0;

  /* Nonzero if this is a comparison operation;
     if both args are promoted shorts, compare the original shorts.
     Also implies COMMON.  */
  int short_compare = 0;

  /* Nonzero if this is a right-shift operation, which can be computed on the
     original short and then promoted if the operand is a promoted short.  */
  int short_shift = 0;

  /* Nonzero means set RESULT_TYPE to the common type of the args.  */
  int common = 0;

  /* True means types are compatible as far as ObjC is concerned.  */
  bool objc_ok;

  /* True means this is an arithmetic operation that may need excess
     precision.  */
  bool may_need_excess_precision;

  /* True means this is a boolean operation that converts both its
     operands to truth-values.  */
  bool boolean_op = false;

  /* Remember whether we're doing / or %.  */
  bool doing_div_or_mod = false;

  /* Remember whether we're doing << or >>.  */
  bool doing_shift = false;

  /* Tree holding instrumentation expression.  */
  tree instrument_expr = NULL;

  if (location == UNKNOWN_LOCATION)
    location = input_location;

  op0 = orig_op0;
  op1 = orig_op1;

  op0_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (orig_op0);
  if (op0_int_operands)
    op0 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op0);
  op1_int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (orig_op1);
  if (op1_int_operands)
    op1 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op1);
  int_operands = (op0_int_operands && op1_int_operands);
  if (int_operands)
    {
      int_const_or_overflow = (TREE_CODE (orig_op0) == INTEGER_CST
			       && TREE_CODE (orig_op1) == INTEGER_CST);
      int_const = (int_const_or_overflow
		   && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op0)
		   && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op1));
    }
  else
    int_const = int_const_or_overflow = false;

  /* Do not apply default conversion in mixed vector/scalar expression.  */
  if (convert_p
      && VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (op0)) == VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (op1)))
    {
      op0 = default_conversion (op0);
      op1 = default_conversion (op1);
    }

  /* When Cilk Plus is enabled and there are array notations inside op0, then
     we check to see if there are builtin array notation functions.  If
     so, then we take on the type of the array notation inside it.  */
  if (flag_cilkplus && contains_array_notation_expr (op0)) 
    orig_type0 = type0 = find_correct_array_notation_type (op0);
  else
    orig_type0 = type0 = TREE_TYPE (op0);

  if (flag_cilkplus && contains_array_notation_expr (op1))
    orig_type1 = type1 = find_correct_array_notation_type (op1);
  else 
    orig_type1 = type1 = TREE_TYPE (op1);

  /* The expression codes of the data types of the arguments tell us
     whether the arguments are integers, floating, pointers, etc.  */
  code0 = TREE_CODE (type0);
  code1 = TREE_CODE (type1);

  /* Strip NON_LVALUE_EXPRs, etc., since we aren't using as an lvalue.  */
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (op0);
  STRIP_TYPE_NOPS (op1);

  /* If an error was already reported for one of the arguments,
     avoid reporting another error.  */

  if (code0 == ERROR_MARK || code1 == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE
      && reject_gcc_builtin (op0, EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op0)))
    return error_mark_node;

  if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE
      && reject_gcc_builtin (op1, EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op1)))
    return error_mark_node;

  if ((invalid_op_diag
       = targetm.invalid_binary_op (code, type0, type1)))
    {
      error_at (location, invalid_op_diag);
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  switch (code)
    {
    case PLUS_EXPR:
    case MINUS_EXPR:
    case MULT_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
    case CEIL_DIV_EXPR:
    case FLOOR_DIV_EXPR:
    case ROUND_DIV_EXPR:
    case EXACT_DIV_EXPR:
      may_need_excess_precision = true;
      break;
    default:
      may_need_excess_precision = false;
      break;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (op0) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      op0 = TREE_OPERAND (op0, 0);
      type0 = TREE_TYPE (op0);
    }
  else if (may_need_excess_precision
	   && (eptype = excess_precision_type (type0)) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      type0 = eptype;
      op0 = convert (eptype, op0);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (op1) == EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR)
    {
      op1 = TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0);
      type1 = TREE_TYPE (op1);
    }
  else if (may_need_excess_precision
	   && (eptype = excess_precision_type (type1)) != NULL_TREE)
    {
      type1 = eptype;
      op1 = convert (eptype, op1);
    }

  objc_ok = objc_compare_types (type0, type1, -3, NULL_TREE);

  /* In case when one of the operands of the binary operation is
     a vector and another is a scalar -- convert scalar to vector.  */
  if ((code0 == VECTOR_TYPE) != (code1 == VECTOR_TYPE))
    {
      enum stv_conv convert_flag = scalar_to_vector (location, code, op0, op1,
						     true);

      switch (convert_flag)
	{
	  case stv_error:
	    return error_mark_node;
	  case stv_firstarg:
	    {
              bool maybe_const = true;
              tree sc;
              sc = c_fully_fold (op0, false, &maybe_const);
              sc = save_expr (sc);
              sc = convert (TREE_TYPE (type1), sc);
              op0 = build_vector_from_val (type1, sc);
              if (!maybe_const)
                op0 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op0, true);
              orig_type0 = type0 = TREE_TYPE (op0);
              code0 = TREE_CODE (type0);
              converted = 1;
              break;
	    }
	  case stv_secondarg:
	    {
	      bool maybe_const = true;
	      tree sc;
	      sc = c_fully_fold (op1, false, &maybe_const);
	      sc = save_expr (sc);
	      sc = convert (TREE_TYPE (type0), sc);
	      op1 = build_vector_from_val (type0, sc);
	      if (!maybe_const)
		op1 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op1, true);
	      orig_type1 = type1 = TREE_TYPE (op1);
	      code1 = TREE_CODE (type1);
	      converted = 1;
	      break;
	    }
	  default:
	    break;
	}
    }

  switch (code)
    {
    case PLUS_EXPR:
      /* Handle the pointer + int case.  */
      if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  ret = pointer_int_sum (location, PLUS_EXPR, op0, op1);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
	}
      else if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && code0 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  ret = pointer_int_sum (location, PLUS_EXPR, op1, op0);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
	}
      else
	common = 1;
      break;

    case MINUS_EXPR:
      /* Subtraction of two similar pointers.
	 We must subtract them as integers, then divide by object size.  */
      if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == POINTER_TYPE
	  && comp_target_types (location, type0, type1))
	{
	  ret = pointer_diff (location, op0, op1);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
	}
      /* Handle pointer minus int.  Just like pointer plus int.  */
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  ret = pointer_int_sum (location, MINUS_EXPR, op0, op1);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
	}
      else
	common = 1;
      break;

    case MULT_EXPR:
      common = 1;
      break;

    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
    case CEIL_DIV_EXPR:
    case FLOOR_DIV_EXPR:
    case ROUND_DIV_EXPR:
    case EXACT_DIV_EXPR:
      doing_div_or_mod = true;
      warn_for_div_by_zero (location, op1);

      if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == REAL_TYPE
	   || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	   || code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	  && (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	      || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
	      || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code1 == VECTOR_TYPE))
	{
	  enum tree_code tcode0 = code0, tcode1 = code1;

	  if (code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	    tcode0 = TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op0)));
	  if (code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE || code1 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	    tcode1 = TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op1)));

	  if (!((tcode0 == INTEGER_TYPE && tcode1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	      || (tcode0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE && tcode1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)))
	    resultcode = RDIV_EXPR;
	  else
	    /* Although it would be tempting to shorten always here, that
	       loses on some targets, since the modulo instruction is
	       undefined if the quotient can't be represented in the
	       computation mode.  We shorten only if unsigned or if
	       dividing by something we know != -1.  */
	    shorten = (TYPE_UNSIGNED (TREE_TYPE (orig_op0))
		       || (TREE_CODE (op1) == INTEGER_CST
			   && !integer_all_onesp (op1)));
	  common = 1;
	}
      break;

    case BIT_AND_EXPR:
    case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
    case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
      if (code0 == INTEGER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	shorten = -1;
      /* Allow vector types which are not floating point types.   */
      else if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE
	       && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE
	       && !VECTOR_FLOAT_TYPE_P (type0)
	       && !VECTOR_FLOAT_TYPE_P (type1))
	common = 1;
      break;

    case TRUNC_MOD_EXPR:
    case FLOOR_MOD_EXPR:
      doing_div_or_mod = true;
      warn_for_div_by_zero (location, op1);

      if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type0)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type1)) == INTEGER_TYPE)
	common = 1;
      else if (code0 == INTEGER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  /* Although it would be tempting to shorten always here, that loses
	     on some targets, since the modulo instruction is undefined if the
	     quotient can't be represented in the computation mode.  We shorten
	     only if unsigned or if dividing by something we know != -1.  */
	  shorten = (TYPE_UNSIGNED (TREE_TYPE (orig_op0))
		     || (TREE_CODE (op1) == INTEGER_CST
			 && !integer_all_onesp (op1)));
	  common = 1;
	}
      break;

    case TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_AND_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_OR_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_XOR_EXPR:
      if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == POINTER_TYPE
	   || code0 == REAL_TYPE || code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE
	   || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
	  && (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == POINTER_TYPE
	      || code1 == REAL_TYPE || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE
	      || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE))
	{
	  /* Result of these operations is always an int,
	     but that does not mean the operands should be
	     converted to ints!  */
	  result_type = integer_type_node;
	  if (op0_int_operands)
	    {
	      op0 = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, orig_op0);
	      op0 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op0);
	    }
	  else
	    op0 = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, op0);
	  if (op1_int_operands)
	    {
	      op1 = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, orig_op1);
	      op1 = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (op1);
	    }
	  else
	    op1 = c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, op1);
	  converted = 1;
	  boolean_op = true;
	}
      if (code == TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR)
	{
	  int_const_or_overflow = (int_operands
				   && TREE_CODE (orig_op0) == INTEGER_CST
				   && (op0 == truthvalue_false_node
				       || TREE_CODE (orig_op1) == INTEGER_CST));
	  int_const = (int_const_or_overflow
		       && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op0)
		       && (op0 == truthvalue_false_node
			   || !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op1)));
	}
      else if (code == TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR)
	{
	  int_const_or_overflow = (int_operands
				   && TREE_CODE (orig_op0) == INTEGER_CST
				   && (op0 == truthvalue_true_node
				       || TREE_CODE (orig_op1) == INTEGER_CST));
	  int_const = (int_const_or_overflow
		       && !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op0)
		       && (op0 == truthvalue_true_node
			   || !TREE_OVERFLOW (orig_op1)));
	}
      break;

      /* Shift operations: result has same type as first operand;
	 always convert second operand to int.
	 Also set SHORT_SHIFT if shifting rightward.  */

    case RSHIFT_EXPR:
      if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type0)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type1)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0) == TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type1))
	{
	  result_type = type0;
	  converted = 1;
	}
      else if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
		|| code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	       && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  doing_shift = true;
	  if (TREE_CODE (op1) == INTEGER_CST)
	    {
	      if (tree_int_cst_sgn (op1) < 0)
		{
		  int_const = false;
		  if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
		    warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_negative,
				"right shift count is negative");
		}
	      else if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
		{
		  if (compare_tree_int (op1,
					TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (type0)))
		      >= 0)
		    {
		      int_const = false;
		      if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
			warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_overflow,
				    "right shift count >= width of vector element");
		    }
		}
	      else
		{
		  if (!integer_zerop (op1))
		    short_shift = 1;

		  if (compare_tree_int (op1, TYPE_PRECISION (type0)) >= 0)
		    {
		      int_const = false;
		      if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
			warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_overflow,
				    "right shift count >= width of type");
		    }
		}
	    }

	  /* Use the type of the value to be shifted.  */
	  result_type = type0;
	  /* Avoid converting op1 to result_type later.  */
	  converted = 1;
	}
      break;

    case LSHIFT_EXPR:
      if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type0)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type1)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0) == TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type1))
	{
	  result_type = type0;
	  converted = 1;
	}
      else if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE
		|| code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
	       && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  doing_shift = true;
	  if (TREE_CODE (op0) == INTEGER_CST
	      && tree_int_cst_sgn (op0) < 0)
	    {
	      /* Don't reject a left shift of a negative value in a context
		 where a constant expression is needed in C90.  */
	      if (flag_isoc99)
		int_const = false;
	      if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
		warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_negative_value,
			    "left shift of negative value");
	    }
	  if (TREE_CODE (op1) == INTEGER_CST)
	    {
	      if (tree_int_cst_sgn (op1) < 0)
		{
		  int_const = false;
		  if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
		    warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_negative,
				"left shift count is negative");
		}
	      else if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
		{
		  if (compare_tree_int (op1,
					TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (type0)))
		      >= 0)
		    {
		      int_const = false;
		      if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
			warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_overflow,
				    "left shift count >= width of vector element");
		    }
		}
	      else if (compare_tree_int (op1, TYPE_PRECISION (type0)) >= 0)
		{
		  int_const = false;
		  if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
		    warning_at (location, OPT_Wshift_count_overflow,
				"left shift count >= width of type");
		}
	      else if (TREE_CODE (op0) == INTEGER_CST
		       && maybe_warn_shift_overflow (location, op0, op1)
		       && flag_isoc99)
		int_const = false;
	    }

	  /* Use the type of the value to be shifted.  */
	  result_type = type0;
	  /* Avoid converting op1 to result_type later.  */
	  converted = 1;
	}
      break;

    case EQ_EXPR:
    case NE_EXPR:
      if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE)
        {
          tree intt;
	  if (!vector_types_compatible_elements_p (type0, type1))
            {
              error_at (location, "comparing vectors with different "
                                  "element types");
              return error_mark_node;
            }

          if (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0) != TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type1))
            {
              error_at (location, "comparing vectors with different "
                                  "number of elements");
              return error_mark_node;
            }

	  /* It's not precisely specified how the usual arithmetic
	     conversions apply to the vector types.  Here, we use
	     the unsigned type if one of the operands is signed and
	     the other one is unsigned.  */
	  if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type0) != TYPE_UNSIGNED (type1))
	    {
	      if (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (type0))
		op0 = build1 (VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR, type1, op0);
	      else
		op1 = build1 (VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR, type0, op1);
	      warning_at (location, OPT_Wsign_compare, "comparison between "
			  "types %qT and %qT", type0, type1);
	    }

          /* Always construct signed integer vector type.  */
          intt = c_common_type_for_size (GET_MODE_BITSIZE
					 (SCALAR_TYPE_MODE
					  (TREE_TYPE (type0))), 0);
          result_type = build_opaque_vector_type (intt,
						  TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0));
          converted = 1;
	  ret = build_vec_cmp (resultcode, result_type, op0, op1);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
        }
      if (FLOAT_TYPE_P (type0) || FLOAT_TYPE_P (type1))
	warning_at (location,
		    OPT_Wfloat_equal,
		    "comparing floating point with == or != is unsafe");
      /* Result of comparison is always int,
	 but don't convert the args to int!  */
      build_type = integer_type_node;
      if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == REAL_TYPE
	   || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE)
	  && (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	      || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE))
	short_compare = 1;
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op1))
	{
	  if (TREE_CODE (op0) == ADDR_EXPR
	      && decl_with_nonnull_addr_p (TREE_OPERAND (op0, 0))
	      && !from_macro_expansion_at (location))
	    {
	      if (code == EQ_EXPR)
		warning_at (location,
			    OPT_Waddress,
			    "the comparison will always evaluate as %<false%> "
			    "for the address of %qD will never be NULL",
			    TREE_OPERAND (op0, 0));
	      else
		warning_at (location,
			    OPT_Waddress,
			    "the comparison will always evaluate as %<true%> "
			    "for the address of %qD will never be NULL",
			    TREE_OPERAND (op0, 0));
	    }
	  result_type = type0;
	}
      else if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op0))
	{
	  if (TREE_CODE (op1) == ADDR_EXPR
	      && decl_with_nonnull_addr_p (TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0))
	      && !from_macro_expansion_at (location))
	    {
	      if (code == EQ_EXPR)
		warning_at (location,
			    OPT_Waddress,
			    "the comparison will always evaluate as %<false%> "
			    "for the address of %qD will never be NULL",
			    TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0));
	      else
		warning_at (location,
			    OPT_Waddress,
			    "the comparison will always evaluate as %<true%> "
			    "for the address of %qD will never be NULL",
			    TREE_OPERAND (op1, 0));
	    }
	  result_type = type1;
	}
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == POINTER_TYPE)
	{
	  tree tt0 = TREE_TYPE (type0);
	  tree tt1 = TREE_TYPE (type1);
	  addr_space_t as0 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (tt0);
	  addr_space_t as1 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (tt1);
	  addr_space_t as_common = ADDR_SPACE_GENERIC;

	  /* Anything compares with void *.  void * compares with anything.
	     Otherwise, the targets must be compatible
	     and both must be object or both incomplete.  */
	  if (comp_target_types (location, type0, type1))
	    result_type = common_pointer_type (type0, type1);
	  else if (!addr_space_superset (as0, as1, &as_common))
	    {
	      error_at (location, "comparison of pointers to "
			"disjoint address spaces");
	      return error_mark_node;
	    }
	  else if (VOID_TYPE_P (tt0) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (tt0))
	    {
	      if (pedantic && TREE_CODE (tt1) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
		pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
			 "comparison of %<void *%> with function pointer");
	    }
	  else if (VOID_TYPE_P (tt1) && !TYPE_ATOMIC (tt1))
	    {
	      if (pedantic && TREE_CODE (tt0) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
		pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
			 "comparison of %<void *%> with function pointer");
	    }
	  else
	    /* Avoid warning about the volatile ObjC EH puts on decls.  */
	    if (!objc_ok)
	      pedwarn (location, 0,
		       "comparison of distinct pointer types lacks a cast");

	  if (result_type == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      int qual = ENCODE_QUAL_ADDR_SPACE (as_common);
	      result_type = build_pointer_type
			      (build_qualified_type (void_type_node, qual));
	    }
	}
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  result_type = type0;
	  pedwarn (location, 0, "comparison between pointer and integer");
	}
      else if (code0 == INTEGER_TYPE && code1 == POINTER_TYPE)
	{
	  result_type = type1;
	  pedwarn (location, 0, "comparison between pointer and integer");
	}
      if ((TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (orig_op0)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	   || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (orig_op0)))
	  ^ (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (orig_op1)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	     || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (orig_op1))))
	maybe_warn_bool_compare (location, code, orig_op0, orig_op1);
      break;

    case LE_EXPR:
    case GE_EXPR:
    case LT_EXPR:
    case GT_EXPR:
      if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE)
        {
          tree intt;
	  if (!vector_types_compatible_elements_p (type0, type1))
            {
              error_at (location, "comparing vectors with different "
                                  "element types");
              return error_mark_node;
            }

          if (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0) != TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type1))
            {
              error_at (location, "comparing vectors with different "
                                  "number of elements");
              return error_mark_node;
            }

	  /* It's not precisely specified how the usual arithmetic
	     conversions apply to the vector types.  Here, we use
	     the unsigned type if one of the operands is signed and
	     the other one is unsigned.  */
	  if (TYPE_UNSIGNED (type0) != TYPE_UNSIGNED (type1))
	    {
	      if (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (type0))
		op0 = build1 (VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR, type1, op0);
	      else
		op1 = build1 (VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR, type0, op1);
	      warning_at (location, OPT_Wsign_compare, "comparison between "
			  "types %qT and %qT", type0, type1);
	    }

          /* Always construct signed integer vector type.  */
          intt = c_common_type_for_size (GET_MODE_BITSIZE
					 (SCALAR_TYPE_MODE
					  (TREE_TYPE (type0))), 0);
          result_type = build_opaque_vector_type (intt,
						  TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (type0));
          converted = 1;
	  ret = build_vec_cmp (resultcode, result_type, op0, op1);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
        }
      build_type = integer_type_node;
      if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == REAL_TYPE
	   || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE)
	  && (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE
	      || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE))
	short_compare = 1;
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == POINTER_TYPE)
	{
	  addr_space_t as0 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (type0));
	  addr_space_t as1 = TYPE_ADDR_SPACE (TREE_TYPE (type1));
	  addr_space_t as_common;

	  if (comp_target_types (location, type0, type1))
	    {
	      result_type = common_pointer_type (type0, type1);
	      if (!COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type0))
		  != !COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (type1)))
		pedwarn (location, 0,
			 "comparison of complete and incomplete pointers");
	      else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type0)) == FUNCTION_TYPE)
		pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic, "ISO C forbids "
			 "ordered comparisons of pointers to functions");
	      else if (null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op0)
		       || null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op1))
		warning_at (location, OPT_Wextra,
			    "ordered comparison of pointer with null pointer");

	    }
	  else if (!addr_space_superset (as0, as1, &as_common))
	    {
	      error_at (location, "comparison of pointers to "
			"disjoint address spaces");
	      return error_mark_node;
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      int qual = ENCODE_QUAL_ADDR_SPACE (as_common);
	      result_type = build_pointer_type
			      (build_qualified_type (void_type_node, qual));
	      pedwarn (location, 0,
		       "comparison of distinct pointer types lacks a cast");
	    }
	}
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op1))
	{
	  result_type = type0;
	  if (pedantic)
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ordered comparison of pointer with integer zero");
	  else if (extra_warnings)
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wextra,
			"ordered comparison of pointer with integer zero");
	}
      else if (code1 == POINTER_TYPE && null_pointer_constant_p (orig_op0))
	{
	  result_type = type1;
	  if (pedantic)
	    pedwarn (location, OPT_Wpedantic,
		     "ordered comparison of pointer with integer zero");
	  else if (extra_warnings)
	    warning_at (location, OPT_Wextra,
			"ordered comparison of pointer with integer zero");
	}
      else if (code0 == POINTER_TYPE && code1 == INTEGER_TYPE)
	{
	  result_type = type0;
	  pedwarn (location, 0, "comparison between pointer and integer");
	}
      else if (code0 == INTEGER_TYPE && code1 == POINTER_TYPE)
	{
	  result_type = type1;
	  pedwarn (location, 0, "comparison between pointer and integer");
	}
      if ((TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (orig_op0)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	   || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (orig_op0)))
	  ^ (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (orig_op1)) == BOOLEAN_TYPE
	     || truth_value_p (TREE_CODE (orig_op1))))
	maybe_warn_bool_compare (location, code, orig_op0, orig_op1);
      break;

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }

  if (code0 == ERROR_MARK || code1 == ERROR_MARK)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (code0 == VECTOR_TYPE && code1 == VECTOR_TYPE
      && (!tree_int_cst_equal (TYPE_SIZE (type0), TYPE_SIZE (type1))
	  || !vector_types_compatible_elements_p (type0, type1)))
    {
      gcc_rich_location richloc (location);
      richloc.maybe_add_expr (orig_op0);
      richloc.maybe_add_expr (orig_op1);
      binary_op_error (&richloc, code, type0, type1);
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if ((code0 == INTEGER_TYPE || code0 == REAL_TYPE || code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE
       || code0 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code0 == VECTOR_TYPE)
      &&
      (code1 == INTEGER_TYPE || code1 == REAL_TYPE || code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE
       || code1 == FIXED_POINT_TYPE || code1 == VECTOR_TYPE))
    {
      bool first_complex = (code0 == COMPLEX_TYPE);
      bool second_complex = (code1 == COMPLEX_TYPE);
      int none_complex = (!first_complex && !second_complex);

      if (shorten || common || short_compare)
	{
	  result_type = c_common_type (type0, type1);
	  do_warn_double_promotion (result_type, type0, type1,
				    "implicit conversion from %qT to %qT "
				    "to match other operand of binary "
				    "expression",
				    location);
	  if (result_type == error_mark_node)
	    return error_mark_node;
	}

      if (first_complex != second_complex
	  && (code == PLUS_EXPR
	      || code == MINUS_EXPR
	      || code == MULT_EXPR
	      || (code == TRUNC_DIV_EXPR && first_complex))
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (result_type)) == REAL_TYPE
	  && flag_signed_zeros)
	{
	  /* An operation on mixed real/complex operands must be
	     handled specially, but the language-independent code can
	     more easily optimize the plain complex arithmetic if
	     -fno-signed-zeros.  */
	  tree real_type = TREE_TYPE (result_type);
	  tree real, imag;
	  if (type0 != orig_type0 || type1 != orig_type1)
	    {
	      gcc_assert (may_need_excess_precision && common);
	      semantic_result_type = c_common_type (orig_type0, orig_type1);
	    }
	  if (first_complex)
	    {
	      if (TREE_TYPE (op0) != result_type)
		op0 = convert_and_check (location, result_type, op0);
	      if (TREE_TYPE (op1) != real_type)
		op1 = convert_and_check (location, real_type, op1);
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      if (TREE_TYPE (op0) != real_type)
		op0 = convert_and_check (location, real_type, op0);
	      if (TREE_TYPE (op1) != result_type)
		op1 = convert_and_check (location, result_type, op1);
	    }
	  if (TREE_CODE (op0) == ERROR_MARK || TREE_CODE (op1) == ERROR_MARK)
	    return error_mark_node;
	  if (first_complex)
	    {
	      op0 = save_expr (op0);
	      real = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op0), REALPART_EXPR,
				     op0, true);
	      imag = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op0), IMAGPART_EXPR,
				     op0, true);
	      switch (code)
		{
		case MULT_EXPR:
		case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
		  op1 = save_expr (op1);
		  imag = build2 (resultcode, real_type, imag, op1);
		  /* Fall through.  */
		case PLUS_EXPR:
		case MINUS_EXPR:
		  real = build2 (resultcode, real_type, real, op1);
		  break;
		default:
		  gcc_unreachable();
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      op1 = save_expr (op1);
	      real = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op1), REALPART_EXPR,
				     op1, true);
	      imag = build_unary_op (EXPR_LOCATION (orig_op1), IMAGPART_EXPR,
				     op1, true);
	      switch (code)
		{
		case MULT_EXPR:
		  op0 = save_expr (op0);
		  imag = build2 (resultcode, real_type, op0, imag);
		  /* Fall through.  */
		case PLUS_EXPR:
		  real = build2 (resultcode, real_type, op0, real);
		  break;
		case MINUS_EXPR:
		  real = build2 (resultcode, real_type, op0, real);
		  imag = build1 (NEGATE_EXPR, real_type, imag);
		  break;
		default:
		  gcc_unreachable();
		}
	    }
	  ret = build2 (COMPLEX_EXPR, result_type, real, imag);
	  goto return_build_binary_op;
	}

      /* For certain operations (which identify themselves by shorten != 0)
	 if both args were extended from the same smaller type,
	 do the arithmetic in that type and then extend.

	 shorten !=0 and !=1 indicates a bitwise operation.
	 For them, this optimization is safe only if
	 both args are zero-extended or both are sign-extended.
	 Otherwise, we might change the result.
	 Eg, (short)-1 | (unsigned short)-1 is (int)-1
	 but calculated in (unsigned short) it would be (unsigned short)-1.  */

      if (shorten && none_complex)
	{
	  final_type = result_type;
	  result_type = shorten_binary_op (result_type, op0, op1,
					   shorten == -1);
	}

      /* Shifts can be shortened if shifting right.  */

      if (short_shift)
	{
	  int unsigned_arg;
	  tree arg0 = get_narrower (op0, &unsigned_arg);

	  final_type = result_type;

	  if (arg0 == op0 && final_type == TREE_TYPE (op0))
	    unsigned_arg = TYPE_UNSIGNED (TREE_TYPE (op0));

	  if (TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (arg0)) < TYPE_PRECISION (result_type)
	      && tree_int_cst_sgn (op1) > 0
	      /* We can shorten only if the shift count is less than the
		 number of bits in the smaller type size.  */
	      && compare_tree_int (op1, TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (arg0))) < 0
	      /* We cannot drop an unsigned shift after sign-extension.  */
	      && (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (final_type) || unsigned_arg))
	    {
	      /* Do an unsigned shift if the operand was zero-extended.  */
	      result_type
		= c_common_signed_or_unsigned_type (unsigned_arg,
						    TREE_TYPE (arg0));
	      /* Convert value-to-be-shifted to that type.  */
	      if (TREE_TYPE (op0) != result_type)
		op0 = convert (result_type, op0);
	      converted = 1;
	    }
	}

      /* Comparison operations are shortened too but differently.
	 They identify themselves by setting short_compare = 1.  */

      if (short_compare)
	{
	  /* Don't write &op0, etc., because that would prevent op0
	     from being kept in a register.
	     Instead, make copies of the our local variables and
	     pass the copies by reference, then copy them back afterward.  */
	  tree xop0 = op0, xop1 = op1, xresult_type = result_type;
	  enum tree_code xresultcode = resultcode;
	  tree val
	    = shorten_compare (location, &xop0, &xop1, &xresult_type,
			       &xresultcode);

	  if (val != NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      ret = val;
	      goto return_build_binary_op;
	    }

	  op0 = xop0, op1 = xop1;
	  converted = 1;
	  resultcode = xresultcode;

	  if (c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings == 0)
	    {
	      bool op0_maybe_const = true;
	      bool op1_maybe_const = true;
	      tree orig_op0_folded, orig_op1_folded;

	      if (in_late_binary_op)
		{
		  orig_op0_folded = orig_op0;
		  orig_op1_folded = orig_op1;
		}
	      else
		{
		  /* Fold for the sake of possible warnings, as in
		     build_conditional_expr.  This requires the
		     "original" values to be folded, not just op0 and
		     op1.  */
		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings++;
		  op0 = c_fully_fold (op0, require_constant_value,
				      &op0_maybe_const);
		  op1 = c_fully_fold (op1, require_constant_value,
				      &op1_maybe_const);
		  c_inhibit_evaluation_warnings--;
		  orig_op0_folded = c_fully_fold (orig_op0,
						  require_constant_value,
						  NULL);
		  orig_op1_folded = c_fully_fold (orig_op1,
						  require_constant_value,
						  NULL);
		}

	      if (warn_sign_compare)
		warn_for_sign_compare (location, orig_op0_folded,
				       orig_op1_folded, op0, op1,
				       result_type, resultcode);
	      if (!in_late_binary_op && !int_operands)
		{
		  if (!op0_maybe_const || TREE_CODE (op0) != INTEGER_CST)
		    op0 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op0, !op0_maybe_const);
		  if (!op1_maybe_const || TREE_CODE (op1) != INTEGER_CST)
		    op1 = c_wrap_maybe_const (op1, !op1_maybe_const);
		}
	    }
	}
    }

  /* At this point, RESULT_TYPE must be nonzero to avoid an error message.
     If CONVERTED is zero, both args will be converted to type RESULT_TYPE.
     Then the expression will be built.
     It will be given type FINAL_TYPE if that is nonzero;
     otherwise, it will be given type RESULT_TYPE.  */

  if (!result_type)
    {
      gcc_rich_location richloc (location);
      richloc.maybe_add_expr (orig_op0);
      richloc.maybe_add_expr (orig_op1);
      binary_op_error (&richloc, code, TREE_TYPE (op0), TREE_TYPE (op1));
      return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (build_type == NULL_TREE)
    {
      build_type = result_type;
      if ((type0 != orig_type0 || type1 != orig_type1)
	  && !boolean_op)
	{
	  gcc_assert (may_need_excess_precision && common);
	  semantic_result_type = c_common_type (orig_type0, orig_type1);
	}
    }

  if (!converted)
    {
      op0 = ep_convert_and_check (location, result_type, op0,
				  semantic_result_type);
      op1 = ep_convert_and_check (location, result_type, op1,
				  semantic_result_type);

      /* This can happen if one operand has a vector type, and the other
	 has a different type.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (op0) == ERROR_MARK || TREE_CODE (op1) == ERROR_MARK)
	return error_mark_node;
    }

  if (sanitize_flags_p ((SANITIZE_SHIFT
			 | SANITIZE_DIVIDE | SANITIZE_FLOAT_DIVIDE))
      && current_function_decl != NULL_TREE
      && (doing_div_or_mod || doing_shift)
      && !require_constant_value)
    {
      /* OP0 and/or OP1 might have side-effects.  */
      op0 = save_expr (op0);
      op1 = save_expr (op1);
      op0 = c_fully_fold (op0, false, NULL);
      op1 = c_fully_fold (op1, false, NULL);
      if (doing_div_or_mod && (sanitize_flags_p ((SANITIZE_DIVIDE
						  | SANITIZE_FLOAT_DIVIDE))))
	instrument_expr = ubsan_instrument_division (location, op0, op1);
      else if (doing_shift && sanitize_flags_p (SANITIZE_SHIFT))
	instrument_expr = ubsan_instrument_shift (location, code, op0, op1);
    }

  /* Treat expressions in initializers specially as they can't trap.  */
  if (int_const_or_overflow)
    ret = (require_constant_value
	   ? fold_build2_initializer_loc (location, resultcode, build_type,
					  op0, op1)
	   : fold_build2_loc (location, resultcode, build_type, op0, op1));
  else
    ret = build2 (resultcode, build_type, op0, op1);
  if (final_type != NULL_TREE)
    ret = convert (final_type, ret);

 return_build_binary_op:
  gcc_assert (ret != error_mark_node);
  if (TREE_CODE (ret) == INTEGER_CST && !TREE_OVERFLOW (ret) && !int_const)
    ret = (int_operands
	   ? note_integer_operands (ret)
	   : build1 (NOP_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret), ret));
  else if (TREE_CODE (ret) != INTEGER_CST && int_operands
	   && !in_late_binary_op)
    ret = note_integer_operands (ret);
  protected_set_expr_location (ret, location);

  if (instrument_expr != NULL)
    ret = fold_build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ret),
		       instrument_expr, ret);

  if (semantic_result_type)
    ret = build1_loc (location, EXCESS_PRECISION_EXPR,
		      semantic_result_type, ret);

  return ret;
}


/* Convert EXPR to be a truth-value, validating its type for this
   purpose.  LOCATION is the source location for the expression.  */

tree
c_objc_common_truthvalue_conversion (location_t location, tree expr)
{
  bool int_const, int_operands;

  switch (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (expr)))
    {
    case ARRAY_TYPE:
      error_at (location, "used array that cannot be converted to pointer where scalar is required");
      return error_mark_node;

    case RECORD_TYPE:
      error_at (location, "used struct type value where scalar is required");
      return error_mark_node;

    case UNION_TYPE:
      error_at (location, "used union type value where scalar is required");
      return error_mark_node;

    case VOID_TYPE:
      error_at (location, "void value not ignored as it ought to be");
      return error_mark_node;

    case POINTER_TYPE:
      if (reject_gcc_builtin (expr))
	return error_mark_node;
      break;

    case FUNCTION_TYPE:
      gcc_unreachable ();

    case VECTOR_TYPE:
      error_at (location, "used vector type where scalar is required");
      return error_mark_node;

    default:
      break;
    }

  int_const = (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST && !TREE_OVERFLOW (expr));
  int_operands = EXPR_INT_CONST_OPERANDS (expr);
  if (int_operands && TREE_CODE (expr) != INTEGER_CST)
    {
      expr = remove_c_maybe_const_expr (expr);
      expr = build2 (NE_EXPR, integer_type_node, expr,
		     convert (TREE_TYPE (expr), integer_zero_node));
      expr = note_integer_operands (expr);
    }
  else
    /* ??? Should we also give an error for vectors rather than leaving
       those to give errors later?  */
    expr = c_common_truthvalue_conversion (location, expr);

  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST && int_operands && !int_const)
    {
      if (TREE_OVERFLOW (expr))
	return expr;
      else
	return note_integer_operands (expr);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == INTEGER_CST && !int_const)
    return build1 (NOP_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (expr), expr);
  return expr;
}


/* Convert EXPR to a contained DECL, updating *TC, *TI and *SE as
   required.  */

tree
c_expr_to_decl (tree expr, bool *tc ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED, bool *se)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (expr) == COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR)
    {
      tree decl = COMPOUND_LITERAL_EXPR_DECL (expr);
      /* Executing a compound literal inside a function reinitializes
	 it.  */
      if (!TREE_STATIC (decl))
	*se = true;
      return decl;
    }
  else
    return expr;
}

/* Generate OMP construct CODE, with BODY and CLAUSES as its compound
   statement.  LOC is the location of the construct.  */

tree
c_finish_omp_construct (location_t loc, enum tree_code code, tree body,
			tree clauses)
{
  body = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, body, true);

  tree stmt = make_node (code);
  TREE_TYPE (stmt) = void_type_node;
  OMP_BODY (stmt) = body;
  OMP_CLAUSES (stmt) = clauses;
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);

  return add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Generate OACC_DATA, with CLAUSES and BLOCK as its compound
   statement.  LOC is the location of the OACC_DATA.  */

tree
c_finish_oacc_data (location_t loc, tree clauses, tree block)
{
  tree stmt;

  block = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, block, true);

  stmt = make_node (OACC_DATA);
  TREE_TYPE (stmt) = void_type_node;
  OACC_DATA_CLAUSES (stmt) = clauses;
  OACC_DATA_BODY (stmt) = block;
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);

  return add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Generate OACC_HOST_DATA, with CLAUSES and BLOCK as its compound
   statement.  LOC is the location of the OACC_HOST_DATA.  */

tree
c_finish_oacc_host_data (location_t loc, tree clauses, tree block)
{
  tree stmt;

  block = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, block, true);

  stmt = make_node (OACC_HOST_DATA);
  TREE_TYPE (stmt) = void_type_node;
  OACC_HOST_DATA_CLAUSES (stmt) = clauses;
  OACC_HOST_DATA_BODY (stmt) = block;
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);

  return add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Like c_begin_compound_stmt, except force the retention of the BLOCK.  */

tree
c_begin_omp_parallel (void)
{
  tree block;

  keep_next_level ();
  block = c_begin_compound_stmt (true);

  return block;
}

/* Generate OMP_PARALLEL, with CLAUSES and BLOCK as its compound
   statement.  LOC is the location of the OMP_PARALLEL.  */

tree
c_finish_omp_parallel (location_t loc, tree clauses, tree block)
{
  tree stmt;

  block = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, block, true);

  stmt = make_node (OMP_PARALLEL);
  TREE_TYPE (stmt) = void_type_node;
  OMP_PARALLEL_CLAUSES (stmt) = clauses;
  OMP_PARALLEL_BODY (stmt) = block;
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);

  return add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Like c_begin_compound_stmt, except force the retention of the BLOCK.  */

tree
c_begin_omp_task (void)
{
  tree block;

  keep_next_level ();
  block = c_begin_compound_stmt (true);

  return block;
}

/* Generate OMP_TASK, with CLAUSES and BLOCK as its compound
   statement.  LOC is the location of the #pragma.  */

tree
c_finish_omp_task (location_t loc, tree clauses, tree block)
{
  tree stmt;

  block = c_end_compound_stmt (loc, block, true);

  stmt = make_node (OMP_TASK);
  TREE_TYPE (stmt) = void_type_node;
  OMP_TASK_CLAUSES (stmt) = clauses;
  OMP_TASK_BODY (stmt) = block;
  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (stmt, loc);

  return add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Generate GOMP_cancel call for #pragma omp cancel.  */

void
c_finish_omp_cancel (location_t loc, tree clauses)
{
  tree fn = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_GOMP_CANCEL);
  int mask = 0;
  if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_PARALLEL))
    mask = 1;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_FOR))
    mask = 2;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_SECTIONS))
    mask = 4;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_TASKGROUP))
    mask = 8;
  else
    {
      error_at (loc, "%<#pragma omp cancel%> must specify one of "
		     "%<parallel%>, %<for%>, %<sections%> or %<taskgroup%> "
		     "clauses");
      return;
    }
  tree ifc = omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_IF);
  if (ifc != NULL_TREE)
    {
      tree type = TREE_TYPE (OMP_CLAUSE_IF_EXPR (ifc));
      ifc = fold_build2_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (ifc), NE_EXPR,
			     boolean_type_node, OMP_CLAUSE_IF_EXPR (ifc),
			     build_zero_cst (type));
    }
  else
    ifc = boolean_true_node;
  tree stmt = build_call_expr_loc (loc, fn, 2,
				   build_int_cst (integer_type_node, mask),
				   ifc);
  add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Generate GOMP_cancellation_point call for
   #pragma omp cancellation point.  */

void
c_finish_omp_cancellation_point (location_t loc, tree clauses)
{
  tree fn = builtin_decl_explicit (BUILT_IN_GOMP_CANCELLATION_POINT);
  int mask = 0;
  if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_PARALLEL))
    mask = 1;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_FOR))
    mask = 2;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_SECTIONS))
    mask = 4;
  else if (omp_find_clause (clauses, OMP_CLAUSE_TASKGROUP))
    mask = 8;
  else
    {
      error_at (loc, "%<#pragma omp cancellation point%> must specify one of "
		     "%<parallel%>, %<for%>, %<sections%> or %<taskgroup%> "
		     "clauses");
      return;
    }
  tree stmt = build_call_expr_loc (loc, fn, 1,
				   build_int_cst (integer_type_node, mask));
  add_stmt (stmt);
}

/* Helper function for handle_omp_array_sections.  Called recursively
   to handle multiple array-section-subscripts.  C is the clause,
   T current expression (initially OMP_CLAUSE_DECL), which is either
   a TREE_LIST for array-section-subscript (TREE_PURPOSE is low-bound
   expression if specified, TREE_VALUE length expression if specified,
   TREE_CHAIN is what it has been specified after, or some decl.
   TYPES vector is populated with array section types, MAYBE_ZERO_LEN
   set to true if any of the array-section-subscript could have length
   of zero (explicit or implicit), FIRST_NON_ONE is the index of the
   first array-section-subscript which is known not to have length
   of one.  Given say:
   map(a[:b][2:1][:c][:2][:d][e:f][2:5])
   FIRST_NON_ONE will be 3, array-section-subscript [:b], [2:1] and [:c]
   all are or may have length of 1, array-section-subscript [:2] is the
   first one known not to have length 1.  For array-section-subscript
   <= FIRST_NON_ONE we diagnose non-contiguous arrays if low bound isn't
   0 or length isn't the array domain max + 1, for > FIRST_NON_ONE we
   can if MAYBE_ZERO_LEN is false.  MAYBE_ZERO_LEN will be true in the above
   case though, as some lengths could be zero.  */

static tree
handle_omp_array_sections_1 (tree c, tree t, vec<tree> &types,
			     bool &maybe_zero_len, unsigned int &first_non_one,
			     enum c_omp_region_type ort)
{
  tree ret, low_bound, length, type;
  if (TREE_CODE (t) != TREE_LIST)
    {
      if (error_operand_p (t))
	return error_mark_node;
      ret = t;
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	  && TYPE_ATOMIC (strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (t))))
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), "%<_Atomic%> %qE in %qs clause",
		    t, omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (TREE_CODE (t) == COMPONENT_REF
	  && ort == C_ORT_OMP
	  && (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_MAP
	      || OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_TO
	      || OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_FROM))
	{
	  if (DECL_BIT_FIELD (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1)))
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"bit-field %qE in %qs clause",
			t, omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	      return error_mark_node;
	    }
	  while (TREE_CODE (t) == COMPONENT_REF)
	    {
	      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0))) == UNION_TYPE)
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%qE is a member of a union", t);
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	      t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	    }
	}
      if (!VAR_P (t) && TREE_CODE (t) != PARM_DECL)
	{
	  if (DECL_P (t))
	    error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		      "%qD is not a variable in %qs clause", t,
		      omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  else
	    error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		      "%qE is not a variable in %qs clause", t,
		      omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	       && TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), "%<_Atomic%> %qD in %qs clause",
		    t, omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      else if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	       && VAR_P (t)
	       && DECL_THREAD_LOCAL_P (t))
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "%qD is threadprivate variable in %qs clause", t,
		    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	  && TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (t))
	  && POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  /* If the array section is pointer based and the pointer
	     itself is _Atomic qualified, we need to atomically load
	     the pointer.  */
	  c_expr expr;
	  memset (&expr, 0, sizeof (expr));
	  expr.value = ret;
	  expr = convert_lvalue_to_rvalue (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
					   expr, false, false);
	  ret = expr.value;
	}
      return ret;
    }

  ret = handle_omp_array_sections_1 (c, TREE_CHAIN (t), types,
				     maybe_zero_len, first_non_one, ort);
  if (ret == error_mark_node || ret == NULL_TREE)
    return ret;

  type = TREE_TYPE (ret);
  low_bound = TREE_PURPOSE (t);
  length = TREE_VALUE (t);

  if (low_bound == error_mark_node || length == error_mark_node)
    return error_mark_node;

  if (low_bound && !INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (low_bound)))
    {
      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		"low bound %qE of array section does not have integral type",
		low_bound);
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  if (length && !INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (length)))
    {
      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		"length %qE of array section does not have integral type",
		length);
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  if (low_bound
      && TREE_CODE (low_bound) == INTEGER_CST
      && TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (low_bound))
	 > TYPE_PRECISION (sizetype))
    low_bound = fold_convert (sizetype, low_bound);
  if (length
      && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST
      && TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (length))
	 > TYPE_PRECISION (sizetype))
    length = fold_convert (sizetype, length);
  if (low_bound == NULL_TREE)
    low_bound = integer_zero_node;

  if (length != NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (!integer_nonzerop (length))
	{
	  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	      || OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
	    {
	      if (integer_zerop (length))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "zero length array section in %qs clause",
			    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    maybe_zero_len = true;
	}
      if (first_non_one == types.length ()
	  && (TREE_CODE (length) != INTEGER_CST || integer_onep (length)))
	first_non_one++;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    {
      if (length == NULL_TREE
	  && (TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE
	      || TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)) == NULL_TREE))
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "for unknown bound array type length expression must "
		    "be specified");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (TREE_CODE (low_bound) == INTEGER_CST
	  && tree_int_cst_sgn (low_bound) == -1)
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "negative low bound in array section in %qs clause",
		    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (length != NULL_TREE
	  && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST
	  && tree_int_cst_sgn (length) == -1)
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "negative length in array section in %qs clause",
		    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)
	  && TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type))
	  && TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)))
			== INTEGER_CST)
	{
	  tree size
	    = fold_convert (sizetype, TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)));
	  size = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR, size, size_one_node);
	  if (TREE_CODE (low_bound) == INTEGER_CST)
	    {
	      if (tree_int_cst_lt (size, low_bound))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "low bound %qE above array section size "
			    "in %qs clause", low_bound,
			    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	      if (tree_int_cst_equal (size, low_bound))
		{
		  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
		      || OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
		    {
		      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
				"zero length array section in %qs clause",
				omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		      return error_mark_node;
		    }
		  maybe_zero_len = true;
		}
	      else if (length == NULL_TREE
		       && first_non_one == types.length ()
		       && tree_int_cst_equal
			    (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)),
			     low_bound))
		first_non_one++;
	    }
	  else if (length == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
		  && OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
		maybe_zero_len = true;
	      if (first_non_one == types.length ())
		first_non_one++;
	    }
	  if (length && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST)
	    {
	      if (tree_int_cst_lt (size, length))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "length %qE above array section size "
			    "in %qs clause", length,
			    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		  return error_mark_node;
		}
	      if (TREE_CODE (low_bound) == INTEGER_CST)
		{
		  tree lbpluslen
		    = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR,
				  fold_convert (sizetype, low_bound),
				  fold_convert (sizetype, length));
		  if (TREE_CODE (lbpluslen) == INTEGER_CST
		      && tree_int_cst_lt (size, lbpluslen))
		    {
		      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
				"high bound %qE above array section size "
				"in %qs clause", lbpluslen,
				omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		      return error_mark_node;
		    }
		}
	    }
	}
      else if (length == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	      && OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
	    maybe_zero_len = true;
	  if (first_non_one == types.length ())
	    first_non_one++;
	}

      /* For [lb:] we will need to evaluate lb more than once.  */
      if (length == NULL_TREE && OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND)
	{
	  tree lb = save_expr (low_bound);
	  if (lb != low_bound)
	    {
	      TREE_PURPOSE (t) = lb;
	      low_bound = lb;
	    }
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE)
    {
      if (length == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "for pointer type length expression must be specified");
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      if (length != NULL_TREE
	  && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST
	  && tree_int_cst_sgn (length) == -1)
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "negative length in array section in %qs clause",
		    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
      /* If there is a pointer type anywhere but in the very first
	 array-section-subscript, the array section can't be contiguous.  */
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_CHAIN (t)) == TREE_LIST)
	{
	  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		    "array section is not contiguous in %qs clause",
		    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	  return error_mark_node;
	}
    }
  else
    {
      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
		"%qE does not have pointer or array type", ret);
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND)
    types.safe_push (TREE_TYPE (ret));
  /* We will need to evaluate lb more than once.  */
  tree lb = save_expr (low_bound);
  if (lb != low_bound)
    {
      TREE_PURPOSE (t) = lb;
      low_bound = lb;
    }
  ret = build_array_ref (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), ret, low_bound);
  return ret;
}

/* Handle array sections for clause C.  */

static bool
handle_omp_array_sections (tree c, enum c_omp_region_type ort)
{
  bool maybe_zero_len = false;
  unsigned int first_non_one = 0;
  auto_vec<tree, 10> types;
  tree first = handle_omp_array_sections_1 (c, OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c), types,
					    maybe_zero_len, first_non_one,
					    ort);
  if (first == error_mark_node)
    return true;
  if (first == NULL_TREE)
    return false;
  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_DEPEND)
    {
      tree t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
      tree tem = NULL_TREE;
      /* Need to evaluate side effects in the length expressions
	 if any.  */
      while (TREE_CODE (t) == TREE_LIST)
	{
	  if (TREE_VALUE (t) && TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (TREE_VALUE (t)))
	    {
	      if (tem == NULL_TREE)
		tem = TREE_VALUE (t);
	      else
		tem = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (tem),
			      TREE_VALUE (t), tem);
	    }
	  t = TREE_CHAIN (t);
	}
      if (tem)
	first = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (first), tem, first);
      first = c_fully_fold (first, false, NULL);
      OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c) = first;
    }
  else
    {
      unsigned int num = types.length (), i;
      tree t, side_effects = NULL_TREE, size = NULL_TREE;
      tree condition = NULL_TREE;

      if (int_size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (first)) <= 0)
	maybe_zero_len = true;

      for (i = num, t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c); i > 0;
	   t = TREE_CHAIN (t))
	{
	  tree low_bound = TREE_PURPOSE (t);
	  tree length = TREE_VALUE (t);

	  i--;
	  if (low_bound
	      && TREE_CODE (low_bound) == INTEGER_CST
	      && TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (low_bound))
		 > TYPE_PRECISION (sizetype))
	    low_bound = fold_convert (sizetype, low_bound);
	  if (length
	      && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST
	      && TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (length))
		 > TYPE_PRECISION (sizetype))
	    length = fold_convert (sizetype, length);
	  if (low_bound == NULL_TREE)
	    low_bound = integer_zero_node;
	  if (!maybe_zero_len && i > first_non_one)
	    {
	      if (integer_nonzerop (low_bound))
		goto do_warn_noncontiguous;
	      if (length != NULL_TREE
		  && TREE_CODE (length) == INTEGER_CST
		  && TYPE_DOMAIN (types[i])
		  && TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (types[i]))
		  && TREE_CODE (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (types[i])))
		     == INTEGER_CST)
		{
		  tree size;
		  size = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR,
				     TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (types[i])),
				     size_one_node);
		  if (!tree_int_cst_equal (length, size))
		    {
		     do_warn_noncontiguous:
		      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
				"array section is not contiguous in %qs "
				"clause",
				omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
		      return true;
		    }
		}
	      if (length != NULL_TREE
		  && TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (length))
		{
		  if (side_effects == NULL_TREE)
		    side_effects = length;
		  else
		    side_effects = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR,
					   TREE_TYPE (side_effects),
					   length, side_effects);
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      tree l;

	      if (i > first_non_one
		  && ((length && integer_nonzerop (length))
		      || OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION))
		continue;
	      if (length)
		l = fold_convert (sizetype, length);
	      else
		{
		  l = size_binop (PLUS_EXPR,
				  TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (types[i])),
				  size_one_node);
		  l = size_binop (MINUS_EXPR, l,
				  fold_convert (sizetype, low_bound));
		}
	      if (i > first_non_one)
		{
		  l = fold_build2 (NE_EXPR, boolean_type_node, l,
				   size_zero_node);
		  if (condition == NULL_TREE)
		    condition = l;
		  else
		    condition = fold_build2 (BIT_AND_EXPR, boolean_type_node,
					     l, condition);
		}
	      else if (size == NULL_TREE)
		{
		  size = size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (types[i]));
		  tree eltype = TREE_TYPE (types[num - 1]);
		  while (TREE_CODE (eltype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
		    eltype = TREE_TYPE (eltype);
		  if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
		    {
		      if (integer_zerop (size)
			  || integer_zerop (size_in_bytes (eltype)))
			{
			  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
				    "zero length array section in %qs clause",
				    omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
			  return error_mark_node;
			}
		      size = size_binop (EXACT_DIV_EXPR, size,
					 size_in_bytes (eltype));
		    }
		  size = size_binop (MULT_EXPR, size, l);
		  if (condition)
		    size = fold_build3 (COND_EXPR, sizetype, condition,
					size, size_zero_node);
		}
	      else
		size = size_binop (MULT_EXPR, size, l);
	    }
	}
      if (side_effects)
	size = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, sizetype, side_effects, size);
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
	{
	  size = size_binop (MINUS_EXPR, size, size_one_node);
	  size = c_fully_fold (size, false, NULL);
	  tree index_type = build_index_type (size);
	  tree eltype = TREE_TYPE (first);
	  while (TREE_CODE (eltype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    eltype = TREE_TYPE (eltype);
	  tree type = build_array_type (eltype, index_type);
	  tree ptype = build_pointer_type (eltype);
	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    t = build_fold_addr_expr (t);
	  tree t2 = build_fold_addr_expr (first);
	  t2 = fold_convert_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
				 ptrdiff_type_node, t2);
	  t2 = fold_build2_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), MINUS_EXPR,
				ptrdiff_type_node, t2,
				fold_convert_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
						  ptrdiff_type_node, t));
	  t2 = c_fully_fold (t2, false, NULL);
	  if (tree_fits_shwi_p (t2))
	    t = build2 (MEM_REF, type, t,
			build_int_cst (ptype, tree_to_shwi (t2)));
	  else
	    {
	      t2 = fold_convert_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), sizetype, t2);
	      t = build2_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), POINTER_PLUS_EXPR,
			      TREE_TYPE (t), t, t2);
	      t = build2 (MEM_REF, type, t, build_int_cst (ptype, 0));
	    }
	  OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c) = t;
	  return false;
	}
      first = c_fully_fold (first, false, NULL);
      OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c) = first;
      if (size)
	size = c_fully_fold (size, false, NULL);
      OMP_CLAUSE_SIZE (c) = size;
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_MAP
	  || (TREE_CODE (t) == COMPONENT_REF
	      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == ARRAY_TYPE))
	return false;
      gcc_assert (OMP_CLAUSE_MAP_KIND (c) != GOMP_MAP_FORCE_DEVICEPTR);
      if (ort == C_ORT_OMP || ort == C_ORT_ACC)
	switch (OMP_CLAUSE_MAP_KIND (c))
	  {
	  case GOMP_MAP_ALLOC:
	  case GOMP_MAP_TO:
	  case GOMP_MAP_FROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_TOFROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_ALWAYS_TO:
	  case GOMP_MAP_ALWAYS_FROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_ALWAYS_TOFROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_RELEASE:
	  case GOMP_MAP_DELETE:
	  case GOMP_MAP_FORCE_TO:
	  case GOMP_MAP_FORCE_FROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_FORCE_TOFROM:
	  case GOMP_MAP_FORCE_PRESENT:
	    OMP_CLAUSE_MAP_MAYBE_ZERO_LENGTH_ARRAY_SECTION (c) = 1;
	    break;
	  default:
	    break;
	  }
      tree c2 = build_omp_clause (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), OMP_CLAUSE_MAP);
      if (ort != C_ORT_OMP && ort != C_ORT_ACC)
	OMP_CLAUSE_SET_MAP_KIND (c2, GOMP_MAP_POINTER);
      else if (TREE_CODE (t) == COMPONENT_REF)
	OMP_CLAUSE_SET_MAP_KIND (c2, GOMP_MAP_ALWAYS_POINTER);
      else
	OMP_CLAUSE_SET_MAP_KIND (c2, GOMP_MAP_FIRSTPRIVATE_POINTER);
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_MAP_KIND (c2) != GOMP_MAP_FIRSTPRIVATE_POINTER
	  && !c_mark_addressable (t))
	return false;
      OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c2) = t;
      t = build_fold_addr_expr (first);
      t = fold_convert_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), ptrdiff_type_node, t);
      tree ptr = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c2);
      if (!POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (ptr)))
	ptr = build_fold_addr_expr (ptr);
      t = fold_build2_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), MINUS_EXPR,
			   ptrdiff_type_node, t,
			   fold_convert_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
					     ptrdiff_type_node, ptr));
      t = c_fully_fold (t, false, NULL);
      OMP_CLAUSE_SIZE (c2) = t;
      OMP_CLAUSE_CHAIN (c2) = OMP_CLAUSE_CHAIN (c);
      OMP_CLAUSE_CHAIN (c) = c2;
    }
  return false;
}

/* Helper function of finish_omp_clauses.  Clone STMT as if we were making
   an inline call.  But, remap
   the OMP_DECL1 VAR_DECL (omp_out resp. omp_orig) to PLACEHOLDER
   and OMP_DECL2 VAR_DECL (omp_in resp. omp_priv) to DECL.  */

static tree
c_clone_omp_udr (tree stmt, tree omp_decl1, tree omp_decl2,
		 tree decl, tree placeholder)
{
  copy_body_data id;
  hash_map<tree, tree> decl_map;

  decl_map.put (omp_decl1, placeholder);
  decl_map.put (omp_decl2, decl);
  memset (&id, 0, sizeof (id));
  id.src_fn = DECL_CONTEXT (omp_decl1);
  id.dst_fn = current_function_decl;
  id.src_cfun = DECL_STRUCT_FUNCTION (id.src_fn);
  id.decl_map = &decl_map;

  id.copy_decl = copy_decl_no_change;
  id.transform_call_graph_edges = CB_CGE_DUPLICATE;
  id.transform_new_cfg = true;
  id.transform_return_to_modify = false;
  id.transform_lang_insert_block = NULL;
  id.eh_lp_nr = 0;
  walk_tree (&stmt, copy_tree_body_r, &id, NULL);
  return stmt;
}

/* Helper function of c_finish_omp_clauses, called via walk_tree.
   Find OMP_CLAUSE_PLACEHOLDER (passed in DATA) in *TP.  */

static tree
c_find_omp_placeholder_r (tree *tp, int *, void *data)
{
  if (*tp == (tree) data)
    return *tp;
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* For all elements of CLAUSES, validate them against their constraints.
   Remove any elements from the list that are invalid.  */

tree
c_finish_omp_clauses (tree clauses, enum c_omp_region_type ort)
{
  bitmap_head generic_head, firstprivate_head, lastprivate_head;
  bitmap_head aligned_head, map_head, map_field_head, oacc_reduction_head;
  tree c, t, type, *pc;
  tree simdlen = NULL_TREE, safelen = NULL_TREE;
  bool branch_seen = false;
  bool copyprivate_seen = false;
  bool linear_variable_step_check = false;
  tree *nowait_clause = NULL;
  bool ordered_seen = false;
  tree schedule_clause = NULL_TREE;
  bool oacc_async = false;

  bitmap_obstack_initialize (NULL);
  bitmap_initialize (&generic_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&firstprivate_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&lastprivate_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&aligned_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&map_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&map_field_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);
  bitmap_initialize (&oacc_reduction_head, &bitmap_default_obstack);

  if (ort & C_ORT_ACC)
    for (c = clauses; c; c = OMP_CLAUSE_CHAIN (c))
      if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_ASYNC)
	{
	  oacc_async = true;
	  break;
	}

  for (pc = &clauses, c = clauses; c ; c = *pc)
    {
      bool remove = false;
      bool need_complete = false;
      bool need_implicitly_determined = false;

      switch (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c))
	{
	case OMP_CLAUSE_SHARED:
	  need_implicitly_determined = true;
	  goto check_dup_generic;

	case OMP_CLAUSE_PRIVATE:
	  need_complete = true;
	  need_implicitly_determined = true;
	  goto check_dup_generic;

	case OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION:
	  need_implicitly_determined = true;
	  t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
	  if (TREE_CODE (t) == TREE_LIST)
	    {
	      if (handle_omp_array_sections (c, ort))
		{
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}

	      t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
	    }
	  t = require_complete_type (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), t);
	  if (t == error_mark_node)
	    {
	      remove = true;
	      break;
	    }
	  if (oacc_async)
	    c_mark_addressable (t);
	  type = TREE_TYPE (t);
	  if (TREE_CODE (t) == MEM_REF)
	    type = TREE_TYPE (type);
	  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    {
	      tree oatype = type;
	      gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (t) != MEM_REF);
	      while (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
		type = TREE_TYPE (type);
	      if (integer_zerop (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type)))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%qD in %<reduction%> clause is a zero size array",
			    t);
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	      tree size = size_binop (EXACT_DIV_EXPR, TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (oatype),
				      TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type));
	      if (integer_zerop (size))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%qD in %<reduction%> clause is a zero size array",
			    t);
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	      size = size_binop (MINUS_EXPR, size, size_one_node);
	      tree index_type = build_index_type (size);
	      tree atype = build_array_type (type, index_type);
	      tree ptype = build_pointer_type (type);
	      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
		t = build_fold_addr_expr (t);
	      t = build2 (MEM_REF, atype, t, build_int_cst (ptype, 0));
	      OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c) = t;
	    }
	  if (TYPE_ATOMIC (type))
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"%<_Atomic%> %qE in %<reduction%> clause", t);
	      remove = true;
	      break;
	    }
	  if (OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_PLACEHOLDER (c) == NULL_TREE
	      && (FLOAT_TYPE_P (type)
		  || TREE_CODE (type) == COMPLEX_TYPE))
	    {
	      enum tree_code r_code = OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_CODE (c);
	      const char *r_name = NULL;

	      switch (r_code)
		{
		case PLUS_EXPR:
		case MULT_EXPR:
		case MINUS_EXPR:
		  break;
		case MIN_EXPR:
		  if (TREE_CODE (type) == COMPLEX_TYPE)
		    r_name = "min";
		  break;
		case MAX_EXPR:
		  if (TREE_CODE (type) == COMPLEX_TYPE)
		    r_name = "max";
		  break;
		case BIT_AND_EXPR:
		  r_name = "&";
		  break;
		case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
		  r_name = "^";
		  break;
		case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
		  r_name = "|";
		  break;
		case TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR:
		  if (FLOAT_TYPE_P (type))
		    r_name = "&&";
		  break;
		case TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR:
		  if (FLOAT_TYPE_P (type))
		    r_name = "||";
		  break;
		default:
		  gcc_unreachable ();
		}
	      if (r_name)
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%qE has invalid type for %<reduction(%s)%>",
			    t, r_name);
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  else if (OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_PLACEHOLDER (c) == error_mark_node)
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"user defined reduction not found for %qE", t);
	      remove = true;
	      break;
	    }
	  else if (OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_PLACEHOLDER (c))
	    {
	      tree list = OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_PLACEHOLDER (c);
	      type = TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (type);
	      tree placeholder = build_decl (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
					     VAR_DECL, NULL_TREE, type);
	      tree decl_placeholder = NULL_TREE;
	      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_PLACEHOLDER (c) = placeholder;
	      DECL_ARTIFICIAL (placeholder) = 1;
	      DECL_IGNORED_P (placeholder) = 1;
	      if (TREE_CODE (t) == MEM_REF)
		{
		  decl_placeholder = build_decl (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
						 VAR_DECL, NULL_TREE, type);
		  OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_DECL_PLACEHOLDER (c) = decl_placeholder;
		  DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl_placeholder) = 1;
		  DECL_IGNORED_P (decl_placeholder) = 1;
		}
	      if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 0)))
		c_mark_addressable (placeholder);
	      if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 1)))
		c_mark_addressable (decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder
				    : OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c));
	      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_MERGE (c)
		= c_clone_omp_udr (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 2),
				   TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 0),
				   TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 1),
				   decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder
				   : OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c), placeholder);
	      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_MERGE (c)
		= build3_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), BIND_EXPR,
			      void_type_node, NULL_TREE,
			      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_MERGE (c), NULL_TREE);
	      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_MERGE (c)) = 1;
	      if (TREE_VEC_LENGTH (list) == 6)
		{
		  if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 3)))
		    c_mark_addressable (decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder
					: OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c));
		  if (TREE_ADDRESSABLE (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 4)))
		    c_mark_addressable (placeholder);
		  tree init = TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 5);
		  if (init == error_mark_node)
		    init = DECL_INITIAL (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 3));
		  OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c)
		    = c_clone_omp_udr (init, TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 4),
				       TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 3),
				       decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder
				       : OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c), placeholder);
		  if (TREE_VEC_ELT (list, 5) == error_mark_node)
		    {
		      tree v = decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder : t;
		      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c)
			= build2 (INIT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (v), v,
				  OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c));
		    }
		  if (walk_tree (&OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c),
				 c_find_omp_placeholder_r,
				 placeholder, NULL))
		    OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_OMP_ORIG_REF (c) = 1;
		}
	      else
		{
		  tree init;
		  tree v = decl_placeholder ? decl_placeholder : t;
		  if (AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (v)))
		    init = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (v), NULL);
		  else
		    init = fold_convert (TREE_TYPE (v), integer_zero_node);
		  OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c)
		    = build2 (INIT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (v), v, init);
		}
	      OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c)
		= build3_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), BIND_EXPR,
			      void_type_node, NULL_TREE,
			       OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c), NULL_TREE);
	      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION_INIT (c)) = 1;
	    }
	  if (TREE_CODE (t) == MEM_REF)
	    {
	      if (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (t))) == NULL_TREE
		  || TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (t))))
		     != INTEGER_CST)
		{
		  sorry ("variable length element type in array "
			 "%<reduction%> clause");
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	      t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	      if (TREE_CODE (t) == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR)
		t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	      if (TREE_CODE (t) == ADDR_EXPR)
		t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	    }
	  goto check_dup_generic_t;

	case OMP_CLAUSE_COPYPRIVATE:
	  copyprivate_seen = true;
	  if (nowait_clause)
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (*nowait_clause),
			"%<nowait%> clause must not be used together "
			"with %<copyprivate%>");
	      *nowait_clause = OMP_CLAUSE_CHAIN (*nowait_clause);
	      nowait_clause = NULL;
	    }
	  goto check_dup_generic;

	case OMP_CLAUSE_COPYIN:
	  t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
	  if (!VAR_P (t) || !DECL_THREAD_LOCAL_P (t))
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"%qE must be %<threadprivate%> for %<copyin%>", t);
	      remove = true;
	      break;
	    }
	  goto check_dup_generic;

	case OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR:
	  if (ort != C_ORT_OMP_DECLARE_SIMD)
	    need_implicitly_determined = true;
	  t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
	  if (ort != C_ORT_OMP_DECLARE_SIMD
	      && OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_KIND (c) != OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_DEFAULT)
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"modifier should not be specified in %<linear%> "
			"clause on %<simd%> or %<for%> constructs");
	      OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_KIND (c) = OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_DEFAULT;
	    }
	  if (ort & C_ORT_CILK)
	    {
	      if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
		  && !SCALAR_FLOAT_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
		  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) != POINTER_TYPE)
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "linear clause applied to non-integral, "
			    "non-floating, non-pointer variable with type %qT",
			    TREE_TYPE (t));
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
		  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) != POINTER_TYPE)
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "linear clause applied to non-integral non-pointer "
			    "variable with type %qT", TREE_TYPE (t));
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	      if (TYPE_ATOMIC (TREE_TYPE (t)))
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%<_Atomic%> %qD in %<linear%> clause", t);
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  if (ort == C_ORT_OMP_DECLARE_SIMD)
	    {
	      tree s = OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_STEP (c);
	      if (TREE_CODE (s) == PARM_DECL)
		{
		  OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_VARIABLE_STRIDE (c) = 1;
		  /* map_head bitmap is used as uniform_head if
		     declare_simd.  */
		  if (!bitmap_bit_p (&map_head, DECL_UID (s)))
		    linear_variable_step_check = true;
		  goto check_dup_generic;
		}
	      if (TREE_CODE (s) != INTEGER_CST)
		{
		  error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			    "%<linear%> clause step %qE is neither constant "
			    "nor a parameter", s);
		  remove = true;
		  break;
		}
	    }
	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c))) == POINTER_TYPE)
	    {
	      tree s = OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_STEP (c);
	      s = pointer_int_sum (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), PLUS_EXPR,
				   OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c), s);
	      s = fold_build2_loc (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c), MINUS_EXPR,
				   sizetype, fold_convert (sizetype, s),
				   fold_convert
				     (sizetype, OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c)));
	      if (s == error_mark_node)
		s = size_one_node;
	      OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_STEP (c) = s;
	    }
	  else
	    OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_STEP (c)
	      = fold_convert (TREE_TYPE (t), OMP_CLAUSE_LINEAR_STEP (c));
	  goto check_dup_generic;

	check_dup_generic:
	  t = OMP_CLAUSE_DECL (c);
	check_dup_generic_t:
	  if (!VAR_P (t) && TREE_CODE (t) != PARM_DECL)
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"%qE is not a variable in clause %qs", t,
			omp_clause_code_name[OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c)]);
	      remove = true;
	    }
	  else if (ort == C_ORT_ACC
		   && OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_REDUCTION)
	    {
	      if (bitmap_bit_p (&oacc_reduction_head, DECL_UID (t)))
		{
		  error ("%qD appears more than once in reduction clauses", t);
		  remove = true;
		}
	      else
		bitmap_set_bit (&oacc_reduction_head, DECL_UID (t));
	    }
	  else if (bitmap_bit_p (&generic_head, DECL_UID (t))
		   || bitmap_bit_p (&firstprivate_head, DECL_UID (t))
		   || bitmap_bit_p (&lastprivate_head, DECL_UID (t)))
	    {
	      error_at (OMP_CLAUSE_LOCATION (c),
			"%qE appears more than once in data clauses", t);
	      remove = true;
	    }
	  else if (OMP_CLAUSE_CODE (c) == OMP_CLAUSE_PRIVATE
		   && bitmap_bit_p (&map_head, DECL_UID (t)))
	    {
	      if (ort == C_ORT_ACC)
		error ("%qD appears more than once in data clauses", t);