view gcc/cp/constexpr.c @ 16:04ced10e8804

gcc 7
author kono
date Fri, 27 Oct 2017 22:46:09 +0900
parents
children 84e7813d76e9
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/* Perform -*- C++ -*- constant expression evaluation, including calls to
   constexpr functions.  These routines are used both during actual parsing
   and during the instantiation of template functions.

   Copyright (C) 1998-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   This file is part of GCC.

   GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
   the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
   any later version.

   GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */

#include "config.h"
#include "system.h"
#include "coretypes.h"
#include "cp-tree.h"
#include "varasm.h"
#include "c-family/c-objc.h"
#include "tree-iterator.h"
#include "gimplify.h"
#include "builtins.h"
#include "tree-inline.h"
#include "ubsan.h"
#include "gimple-fold.h"
#include "timevar.h"

static bool verify_constant (tree, bool, bool *, bool *);
#define VERIFY_CONSTANT(X)						\
do {									\
  if (verify_constant ((X), ctx->quiet, non_constant_p, overflow_p)) \
    return t;								\
 } while (0)

/* Returns true iff FUN is an instantiation of a constexpr function
   template or a defaulted constexpr function.  */

bool
is_instantiation_of_constexpr (tree fun)
{
  return ((DECL_TEMPLOID_INSTANTIATION (fun)
	   && DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (DECL_TI_TEMPLATE (fun)))
	  || (DECL_DEFAULTED_FN (fun)
	      && DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (fun)));
}

/* Return true if T is a literal type.   */

bool
literal_type_p (tree t)
{
  if (SCALAR_TYPE_P (t)
      || VECTOR_TYPE_P (t)
      || TREE_CODE (t) == REFERENCE_TYPE
      || (VOID_TYPE_P (t) && cxx_dialect >= cxx14))
    return true;
  if (CLASS_TYPE_P (t))
    {
      t = complete_type (t);
      gcc_assert (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (t) || errorcount);
      return CLASSTYPE_LITERAL_P (t);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    return literal_type_p (strip_array_types (t));
  return false;
}

/* If DECL is a variable declared `constexpr', require its type
   be literal.  Return the DECL if OK, otherwise NULL.  */

tree
ensure_literal_type_for_constexpr_object (tree decl)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (decl);
  if (VAR_P (decl)
      && (DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (decl)
	  || var_in_constexpr_fn (decl))
      && !processing_template_decl)
    {
      tree stype = strip_array_types (type);
      if (CLASS_TYPE_P (stype) && !COMPLETE_TYPE_P (complete_type (stype)))
	/* Don't complain here, we'll complain about incompleteness
	   when we try to initialize the variable.  */;
      else if (!literal_type_p (type))
	{
	  if (DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (decl))
	    {
	      error ("the type %qT of constexpr variable %qD is not literal",
		     type, decl);
	      explain_non_literal_class (type);
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      if (!is_instantiation_of_constexpr (current_function_decl))
		{
		  error ("variable %qD of non-literal type %qT in %<constexpr%> "
			 "function", decl, type);
		  explain_non_literal_class (type);
		}
	      cp_function_chain->invalid_constexpr = true;
	    }
	  return NULL;
	}
    }
  return decl;
}

/* Representation of entries in the constexpr function definition table.  */

struct GTY((for_user)) constexpr_fundef {
  tree decl;
  tree body;
};

struct constexpr_fundef_hasher : ggc_ptr_hash<constexpr_fundef>
{
  static hashval_t hash (constexpr_fundef *);
  static bool equal (constexpr_fundef *, constexpr_fundef *);
};

/* This table holds all constexpr function definitions seen in
   the current translation unit.  */

static GTY (()) hash_table<constexpr_fundef_hasher> *constexpr_fundef_table;

/* Utility function used for managing the constexpr function table.
   Return true if the entries pointed to by P and Q are for the
   same constexpr function.  */

inline bool
constexpr_fundef_hasher::equal (constexpr_fundef *lhs, constexpr_fundef *rhs)
{
  return lhs->decl == rhs->decl;
}

/* Utility function used for managing the constexpr function table.
   Return a hash value for the entry pointed to by Q.  */

inline hashval_t
constexpr_fundef_hasher::hash (constexpr_fundef *fundef)
{
  return DECL_UID (fundef->decl);
}

/* Return a previously saved definition of function FUN.   */

static constexpr_fundef *
retrieve_constexpr_fundef (tree fun)
{
  constexpr_fundef fundef = { NULL, NULL };
  if (constexpr_fundef_table == NULL)
    return NULL;

  fundef.decl = fun;
  return constexpr_fundef_table->find (&fundef);
}

/* Check whether the parameter and return types of FUN are valid for a
   constexpr function, and complain if COMPLAIN.  */

bool
is_valid_constexpr_fn (tree fun, bool complain)
{
  bool ret = true;

  if (DECL_INHERITED_CTOR (fun)
      && TREE_CODE (fun) == TEMPLATE_DECL)
    {
      ret = false;
      if (complain)
	error ("inherited constructor %qD is not constexpr",
	       DECL_INHERITED_CTOR (fun));
    }
  else
    {
      for (tree parm = FUNCTION_FIRST_USER_PARM (fun);
	   parm != NULL_TREE; parm = TREE_CHAIN (parm))
	if (!literal_type_p (TREE_TYPE (parm)))
	  {
	    ret = false;
	    if (complain)
	      {
		error ("invalid type for parameter %d of constexpr "
		       "function %q+#D", DECL_PARM_INDEX (parm), fun);
		explain_non_literal_class (TREE_TYPE (parm));
	      }
	  }
    }

  if (LAMBDA_TYPE_P (CP_DECL_CONTEXT (fun)) && cxx_dialect < cxx17)
    {
      ret = false;
      if (complain)
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fun),
		"lambdas are implicitly constexpr only in C++17 and later");
    }
  else if (!DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
    {
      tree rettype = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (fun));
      if (!literal_type_p (rettype))
	{
	  ret = false;
	  if (complain)
	    {
	      error ("invalid return type %qT of constexpr function %q+D",
		     rettype, fun);
	      explain_non_literal_class (rettype);
	    }
	}

      /* C++14 DR 1684 removed this restriction.  */
      if (cxx_dialect < cxx14
	  && DECL_NONSTATIC_MEMBER_FUNCTION_P (fun)
	  && !CLASSTYPE_LITERAL_P (DECL_CONTEXT (fun)))
	{
	  ret = false;
	  if (complain
	      && pedwarn (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fun), OPT_Wpedantic,
			  "enclosing class of constexpr non-static member "
			  "function %q+#D is not a literal type", fun))
	    explain_non_literal_class (DECL_CONTEXT (fun));
	}
    }
  else if (CLASSTYPE_VBASECLASSES (DECL_CONTEXT (fun)))
    {
      ret = false;
      if (complain)
	error ("%q#T has virtual base classes", DECL_CONTEXT (fun));
    }

  return ret;
}

/* Subroutine of build_data_member_initialization.  MEMBER is a COMPONENT_REF
   for a member of an anonymous aggregate, INIT is the initializer for that
   member, and VEC_OUTER is the vector of constructor elements for the class
   whose constructor we are processing.  Add the initializer to the vector
   and return true to indicate success.  */

static bool
build_anon_member_initialization (tree member, tree init,
				  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> **vec_outer)
{
  /* MEMBER presents the relevant fields from the inside out, but we need
     to build up the initializer from the outside in so that we can reuse
     previously built CONSTRUCTORs if this is, say, the second field in an
     anonymous struct.  So we use a vec as a stack.  */
  auto_vec<tree, 2> fields;
  do
    {
      fields.safe_push (TREE_OPERAND (member, 1));
      member = TREE_OPERAND (member, 0);
    }
  while (ANON_AGGR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (member))
	 && TREE_CODE (member) == COMPONENT_REF);

  /* VEC has the constructor elements vector for the context of FIELD.
     If FIELD is an anonymous aggregate, we will push inside it.  */
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> **vec = vec_outer;
  tree field;
  while (field = fields.pop(),
	 ANON_AGGR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
    {
      tree ctor;
      /* If there is already an outer constructor entry for the anonymous
	 aggregate FIELD, use it; otherwise, insert one.  */
      if (vec_safe_is_empty (*vec)
	  || (*vec)->last().index != field)
	{
	  ctor = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (field), NULL);
	  CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*vec, field, ctor);
	}
      else
	ctor = (*vec)->last().value;
      vec = &CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ctor);
    }

  /* Now we're at the innermost field, the one that isn't an anonymous
     aggregate.  Add its initializer to the CONSTRUCTOR and we're done.  */
  gcc_assert (fields.is_empty());
  CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*vec, field, init);

  return true;
}

/* Subroutine of  build_constexpr_constructor_member_initializers.
   The expression tree T represents a data member initialization
   in a (constexpr) constructor definition.  Build a pairing of
   the data member with its initializer, and prepend that pair
   to the existing initialization pair INITS.  */

static bool
build_data_member_initialization (tree t, vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> **vec)
{
  tree member, init;
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR)
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == EXPR_STMT)
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  if (t == error_mark_node)
    return false;
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == STATEMENT_LIST)
    {
      tree_stmt_iterator i;
      for (i = tsi_start (t); !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	{
	  if (! build_data_member_initialization (tsi_stmt (i), vec))
	    return false;
	}
      return true;
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == CLEANUP_STMT)
    {
      /* We can't see a CLEANUP_STMT in a constructor for a literal class,
	 but we can in a constexpr constructor for a non-literal class.  Just
	 ignore it; either all the initialization will be constant, in which
	 case the cleanup can't run, or it can't be constexpr.
	 Still recurse into CLEANUP_BODY.  */
      return build_data_member_initialization (CLEANUP_BODY (t), vec);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == CONVERT_EXPR)
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == INIT_EXPR
      /* vptr initialization shows up as a MODIFY_EXPR.  In C++14 we only
	 use what this function builds for cx_check_missing_mem_inits, and
	 assignment in the ctor body doesn't count.  */
      || (cxx_dialect < cxx14 && TREE_CODE (t) == MODIFY_EXPR))
    {
      member = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
      init = break_out_target_exprs (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1));
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (t) == CALL_EXPR)
    {
      tree fn = get_callee_fndecl (t);
      if (!fn || !DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fn))
	/* We're only interested in calls to subobject constructors.  */
	return true;
      member = CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, 0);
      /* We don't use build_cplus_new here because it complains about
	 abstract bases.  Leaving the call unwrapped means that it has the
	 wrong type, but cxx_eval_constant_expression doesn't care.  */
      init = break_out_target_exprs (t);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (t) == BIND_EXPR)
    return build_data_member_initialization (BIND_EXPR_BODY (t), vec);
  else
    /* Don't add anything else to the CONSTRUCTOR.  */
    return true;
  if (INDIRECT_REF_P (member))
    member = TREE_OPERAND (member, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (member) == NOP_EXPR)
    {
      tree op = member;
      STRIP_NOPS (op);
      if (TREE_CODE (op) == ADDR_EXPR)
	{
	  gcc_assert (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		      (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op)),
		       TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (member))));
	  /* Initializing a cv-qualified member; we need to look through
	     the const_cast.  */
	  member = op;
	}
      else if (op == current_class_ptr
	       && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		   (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (member)),
		    current_class_type)))
	/* Delegating constructor.  */
	member = op;
      else
	{
	  /* This is an initializer for an empty base; keep it for now so
	     we can check it in cxx_eval_bare_aggregate.  */
	  gcc_assert (is_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (member))));
	}
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (member) == ADDR_EXPR)
    member = TREE_OPERAND (member, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (member) == COMPONENT_REF)
    {
      tree aggr = TREE_OPERAND (member, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (aggr) == VAR_DECL)
	/* Initializing a local variable, don't add anything.  */
	return true;
      if (TREE_CODE (aggr) != COMPONENT_REF)
	/* Normal member initialization.  */
	member = TREE_OPERAND (member, 1);
      else if (ANON_AGGR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (aggr)))
	/* Initializing a member of an anonymous union.  */
	return build_anon_member_initialization (member, init, vec);
      else
	/* We're initializing a vtable pointer in a base.  Leave it as
	   COMPONENT_REF so we remember the path to get to the vfield.  */
	gcc_assert (TREE_TYPE (member) == vtbl_ptr_type_node);
    }

  /* Value-initialization can produce multiple initializers for the
     same field; use the last one.  */
  if (!vec_safe_is_empty (*vec) && (*vec)->last().index == member)
    (*vec)->last().value = init;
  else
    CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*vec, member, init);
  return true;
}

/* Subroutine of check_constexpr_ctor_body_1 and constexpr_fn_retval.
   In C++11 mode checks that the TYPE_DECLs in the BIND_EXPR_VARS of a 
   BIND_EXPR conform to 7.1.5/3/4 on typedef and alias declarations.  */

static bool
check_constexpr_bind_expr_vars (tree t)
{
  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (t) == BIND_EXPR);

  for (tree var = BIND_EXPR_VARS (t); var; var = DECL_CHAIN (var))
    if (TREE_CODE (var) == TYPE_DECL
	&& DECL_IMPLICIT_TYPEDEF_P (var)
	&& !LAMBDA_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (var)))
      return false;
  return true;
}

/* Subroutine of check_constexpr_ctor_body.  */

static bool
check_constexpr_ctor_body_1 (tree last, tree list)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (list))
    {
    case DECL_EXPR:
      if (TREE_CODE (DECL_EXPR_DECL (list)) == USING_DECL
	  || TREE_CODE (DECL_EXPR_DECL (list)) == TYPE_DECL)
	return true;
      return false;

    case CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR:
      return check_constexpr_ctor_body (last, TREE_OPERAND (list, 0),
					/*complain=*/false);

    case BIND_EXPR:
       if (!check_constexpr_bind_expr_vars (list)
	   || !check_constexpr_ctor_body (last, BIND_EXPR_BODY (list),
					  /*complain=*/false))
	 return false;
       return true;

    case USING_STMT:
    case STATIC_ASSERT:
      return true;

    default:
      return false;
    }
}

/* Make sure that there are no statements after LAST in the constructor
   body represented by LIST.  */

bool
check_constexpr_ctor_body (tree last, tree list, bool complain)
{
  /* C++14 doesn't require a constexpr ctor to have an empty body.  */
  if (cxx_dialect >= cxx14)
    return true;

  bool ok = true;
  if (TREE_CODE (list) == STATEMENT_LIST)
    {
      tree_stmt_iterator i = tsi_last (list);
      for (; !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_prev (&i))
	{
	  tree t = tsi_stmt (i);
	  if (t == last)
	    break;
	  if (!check_constexpr_ctor_body_1 (last, t))
	    {
	      ok = false;
	      break;
	    }
	}
    }
  else if (list != last
	   && !check_constexpr_ctor_body_1 (last, list))
    ok = false;
  if (!ok)
    {
      if (complain)
	error ("constexpr constructor does not have empty body");
      DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (current_function_decl) = false;
    }
  return ok;
}

/* V is a vector of constructor elements built up for the base and member
   initializers of a constructor for TYPE.  They need to be in increasing
   offset order, which they might not be yet if TYPE has a primary base
   which is not first in the base-clause or a vptr and at least one base
   all of which are non-primary.  */

static vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *
sort_constexpr_mem_initializers (tree type, vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *v)
{
  tree pri = CLASSTYPE_PRIMARY_BINFO (type);
  tree field_type;
  unsigned i;
  constructor_elt *ce;

  if (pri)
    field_type = BINFO_TYPE (pri);
  else if (TYPE_CONTAINS_VPTR_P (type))
    field_type = vtbl_ptr_type_node;
  else
    return v;

  /* Find the element for the primary base or vptr and move it to the
     beginning of the vec.  */
  for (i = 0; vec_safe_iterate (v, i, &ce); ++i)
    if (TREE_TYPE (ce->index) == field_type)
      break;

  if (i > 0 && i < vec_safe_length (v))
    {
      vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> &vref = *v;
      constructor_elt elt = vref[i];
      for (; i > 0; --i)
	vref[i] = vref[i-1];
      vref[0] = elt;
    }

  return v;
}

/* Build compile-time evalable representations of member-initializer list
   for a constexpr constructor.  */

static tree
build_constexpr_constructor_member_initializers (tree type, tree body)
{
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *vec = NULL;
  bool ok = true;
  while (true)
    switch (TREE_CODE (body))
      {
      case MUST_NOT_THROW_EXPR:
      case EH_SPEC_BLOCK:
	body = TREE_OPERAND (body, 0);
	break;

      case STATEMENT_LIST:
	for (tree_stmt_iterator i = tsi_start (body);
	     !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	  {
	    body = tsi_stmt (i);
	    if (TREE_CODE (body) == BIND_EXPR)
	      break;
	  }
	break;

      case BIND_EXPR:
	body = BIND_EXPR_BODY (body);
	goto found;

      default:
	gcc_unreachable ();
    }
 found:
  if (TREE_CODE (body) == CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR)
    {
      body = TREE_OPERAND (body, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (body) == EXPR_STMT)
	body = TREE_OPERAND (body, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (body) == INIT_EXPR
	  && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
	      (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (body, 0)),
	       current_class_type)))
	{
	  /* Trivial copy.  */
	  return TREE_OPERAND (body, 1);
	}
      ok = build_data_member_initialization (body, &vec);
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (body) == STATEMENT_LIST)
    {
      tree_stmt_iterator i;
      for (i = tsi_start (body); !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	{
	  ok = build_data_member_initialization (tsi_stmt (i), &vec);
	  if (!ok)
	    break;
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (body) == TRY_BLOCK)
    {
      error ("body of %<constexpr%> constructor cannot be "
	     "a function-try-block");
      return error_mark_node;
    }
  else if (EXPR_P (body))
    ok = build_data_member_initialization (body, &vec);
  else
    gcc_assert (errorcount > 0);
  if (ok)
    {
      if (vec_safe_length (vec) > 0)
	{
	  /* In a delegating constructor, return the target.  */
	  constructor_elt *ce = &(*vec)[0];
	  if (ce->index == current_class_ptr)
	    {
	      body = ce->value;
	      vec_free (vec);
	      return body;
	    }
	}
      vec = sort_constexpr_mem_initializers (type, vec);
      return build_constructor (type, vec);
    }
  else
    return error_mark_node;
}

/* Subroutine of register_constexpr_fundef.  BODY is the body of a function
   declared to be constexpr, or a sub-statement thereof.  Returns the
   return value if suitable, error_mark_node for a statement not allowed in
   a constexpr function, or NULL_TREE if no return value was found.  */

static tree
constexpr_fn_retval (tree body)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (body))
    {
    case STATEMENT_LIST:
      {
	tree_stmt_iterator i;
	tree expr = NULL_TREE;
	for (i = tsi_start (body); !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	  {
	    tree s = constexpr_fn_retval (tsi_stmt (i));
	    if (s == error_mark_node)
	      return error_mark_node;
	    else if (s == NULL_TREE)
	      /* Keep iterating.  */;
	    else if (expr)
	      /* Multiple return statements.  */
	      return error_mark_node;
	    else
	      expr = s;
	  }
	return expr;
      }

    case RETURN_EXPR:
      return break_out_target_exprs (TREE_OPERAND (body, 0));

    case DECL_EXPR:
      {
	tree decl = DECL_EXPR_DECL (body);
	if (TREE_CODE (decl) == USING_DECL
	    /* Accept __func__, __FUNCTION__, and __PRETTY_FUNCTION__.  */
	    || DECL_ARTIFICIAL (decl))
	  return NULL_TREE;
	return error_mark_node;
      }

    case CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR:
      return constexpr_fn_retval (TREE_OPERAND (body, 0));

    case BIND_EXPR:
      if (!check_constexpr_bind_expr_vars (body))
	return error_mark_node;
      return constexpr_fn_retval (BIND_EXPR_BODY (body));

    case USING_STMT:
      return NULL_TREE;

    default:
      return error_mark_node;
    }
}

/* Subroutine of register_constexpr_fundef.  BODY is the DECL_SAVED_TREE of
   FUN; do the necessary transformations to turn it into a single expression
   that we can store in the hash table.  */

static tree
massage_constexpr_body (tree fun, tree body)
{
  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
    body = build_constexpr_constructor_member_initializers
      (DECL_CONTEXT (fun), body);
  else if (cxx_dialect < cxx14)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (body) == EH_SPEC_BLOCK)
        body = EH_SPEC_STMTS (body);
      if (TREE_CODE (body) == MUST_NOT_THROW_EXPR)
	body = TREE_OPERAND (body, 0);
      body = constexpr_fn_retval (body);
    }
  return body;
}

/* CTYPE is a type constructed from BODY.  Return true if some
   bases/fields are uninitialized, and complain if COMPLAIN.  */

static bool
cx_check_missing_mem_inits (tree ctype, tree body, bool complain)
{
  unsigned nelts = 0;
  
  if (body)
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (body) != CONSTRUCTOR)
	return false;
      nelts = CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (body);
    }
  tree field = TYPE_FIELDS (ctype);

  if (TREE_CODE (ctype) == UNION_TYPE)
    {
      if (nelts == 0 && next_initializable_field (field))
	{
	  if (complain)
	    error ("%<constexpr%> constructor for union %qT must "
		   "initialize exactly one non-static data member", ctype);
	  return true;
	}
      return false;
    }

  /* Iterate over the CONSTRUCTOR, checking any missing fields don't
     need an explicit initialization.  */
  bool bad = false;
  for (unsigned i = 0; i <= nelts; ++i)
    {
      tree index = NULL_TREE;
      if (i < nelts)
	{
	  index = CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (body, i)->index;
	  /* Skip base and vtable inits.  */
	  if (TREE_CODE (index) != FIELD_DECL
	      || DECL_ARTIFICIAL (index))
	    continue;
	}

      for (; field != index; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
	{
	  tree ftype;
	  if (TREE_CODE (field) != FIELD_DECL)
	    continue;
	  if (DECL_C_BIT_FIELD (field) && !DECL_NAME (field))
	    continue;
	  if (DECL_ARTIFICIAL (field))
	    continue;
	  if (ANON_AGGR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (field)))
	    {
	      /* Recurse to check the anonummous aggregate member.  */
	      bad |= cx_check_missing_mem_inits
		(TREE_TYPE (field), NULL_TREE, complain);
	      if (bad && !complain)
		return true;
	      continue;
	    }
	  ftype = strip_array_types (TREE_TYPE (field));
	  if (type_has_constexpr_default_constructor (ftype))
	    {
	      /* It's OK to skip a member with a trivial constexpr ctor.
	         A constexpr ctor that isn't trivial should have been
	         added in by now.  */
	      gcc_checking_assert (!TYPE_HAS_COMPLEX_DFLT (ftype)
				   || errorcount != 0);
	      continue;
	    }
	  if (!complain)
	    return true;
	  error ("member %qD must be initialized by mem-initializer "
		 "in %<constexpr%> constructor", field);
	  inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (field), "declared here");
	  bad = true;
	}
      if (field == NULL_TREE)
	break;

      if (ANON_AGGR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (index)))
	{
	  /* Check the anonymous aggregate initializer is valid.  */
	  bad |= cx_check_missing_mem_inits
	    (TREE_TYPE (index), CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (body, i)->value, complain);
	  if (bad && !complain)
	    return true;
	}
      field = DECL_CHAIN (field);
    }

  return bad;
}

/* We are processing the definition of the constexpr function FUN.
   Check that its BODY fulfills the propriate requirements and
   enter it in the constexpr function definition table.
   For constructor BODY is actually the TREE_LIST of the
   member-initializer list.  */

tree
register_constexpr_fundef (tree fun, tree body)
{
  constexpr_fundef entry;
  constexpr_fundef **slot;

  if (!is_valid_constexpr_fn (fun, !DECL_GENERATED_P (fun)))
    return NULL;

  tree massaged = massage_constexpr_body (fun, body);
  if (massaged == NULL_TREE || massaged == error_mark_node)
    {
      if (!DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
	error ("body of constexpr function %qD not a return-statement", fun);
      return NULL;
    }

  if (!potential_rvalue_constant_expression (massaged))
    {
      if (!DECL_GENERATED_P (fun))
	require_potential_rvalue_constant_expression (massaged);
      return NULL;
    }

  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun)
      && cx_check_missing_mem_inits (DECL_CONTEXT (fun),
				     massaged, !DECL_GENERATED_P (fun)))
    return NULL;

  /* Create the constexpr function table if necessary.  */
  if (constexpr_fundef_table == NULL)
    constexpr_fundef_table
      = hash_table<constexpr_fundef_hasher>::create_ggc (101);

  entry.decl = fun;
  entry.body = body;
  slot = constexpr_fundef_table->find_slot (&entry, INSERT);

  gcc_assert (*slot == NULL);
  *slot = ggc_alloc<constexpr_fundef> ();
  **slot = entry;

  return fun;
}

/* FUN is a non-constexpr function called in a context that requires a
   constant expression.  If it comes from a constexpr template, explain why
   the instantiation isn't constexpr.  */

void
explain_invalid_constexpr_fn (tree fun)
{
  static hash_set<tree> *diagnosed;
  tree body;
  location_t save_loc;
  /* Only diagnose defaulted functions, lambdas, or instantiations.  */
  if (!DECL_DEFAULTED_FN (fun)
      && !LAMBDA_TYPE_P (CP_DECL_CONTEXT (fun))
      && !is_instantiation_of_constexpr (fun))
    return;
  if (diagnosed == NULL)
    diagnosed = new hash_set<tree>;
  if (diagnosed->add (fun))
    /* Already explained.  */
    return;

  save_loc = input_location;
  if (!lambda_static_thunk_p (fun))
    {
      /* Diagnostics should completely ignore the static thunk, so leave
	 input_location set to our caller's location.  */
      input_location = DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (fun);
      inform (input_location,
	      "%qD is not usable as a constexpr function because:", fun);
    }
  /* First check the declaration.  */
  if (is_valid_constexpr_fn (fun, true))
    {
      /* Then if it's OK, the body.  */
      if (!DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (fun)
	  && !LAMBDA_TYPE_P (CP_DECL_CONTEXT (fun)))
	explain_implicit_non_constexpr (fun);
      else
	{
	  body = massage_constexpr_body (fun, DECL_SAVED_TREE (fun));
	  require_potential_rvalue_constant_expression (body);
	  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
	    cx_check_missing_mem_inits (DECL_CONTEXT (fun), body, true);
	}
    }
  input_location = save_loc;
}

/* Objects of this type represent calls to constexpr functions
   along with the bindings of parameters to their arguments, for
   the purpose of compile time evaluation.  */

struct GTY((for_user)) constexpr_call {
  /* Description of the constexpr function definition.  */
  constexpr_fundef *fundef;
  /* Parameter bindings environment.  A TREE_LIST where each TREE_PURPOSE
     is a parameter _DECL and the TREE_VALUE is the value of the parameter.
     Note: This arrangement is made to accommodate the use of
     iterative_hash_template_arg (see pt.c).  If you change this
     representation, also change the hash calculation in
     cxx_eval_call_expression.  */
  tree bindings;
  /* Result of the call.
       NULL means the call is being evaluated.
       error_mark_node means that the evaluation was erroneous;
       otherwise, the actuall value of the call.  */
  tree result;
  /* The hash of this call; we remember it here to avoid having to
     recalculate it when expanding the hash table.  */
  hashval_t hash;
};

struct constexpr_call_hasher : ggc_ptr_hash<constexpr_call>
{
  static hashval_t hash (constexpr_call *);
  static bool equal (constexpr_call *, constexpr_call *);
};

enum constexpr_switch_state {
  /* Used when processing a switch for the first time by cxx_eval_switch_expr
     and default: label for that switch has not been seen yet.  */
  css_default_not_seen,
  /* Used when processing a switch for the first time by cxx_eval_switch_expr
     and default: label for that switch has been seen already.  */
  css_default_seen,
  /* Used when processing a switch for the second time by
     cxx_eval_switch_expr, where default: label should match.  */
  css_default_processing
};

/* The constexpr expansion context.  CALL is the current function
   expansion, CTOR is the current aggregate initializer, OBJECT is the
   object being initialized by CTOR, either a VAR_DECL or a _REF.  VALUES
   is a map of values of variables initialized within the expression.  */

struct constexpr_ctx {
  /* The innermost call we're evaluating.  */
  constexpr_call *call;
  /* Values for any temporaries or local variables within the
     constant-expression. */
  hash_map<tree,tree> *values;
  /* SAVE_EXPRs that we've seen within the current LOOP_EXPR.  NULL if we
     aren't inside a loop.  */
  hash_set<tree> *save_exprs;
  /* The CONSTRUCTOR we're currently building up for an aggregate
     initializer.  */
  tree ctor;
  /* The object we're building the CONSTRUCTOR for.  */
  tree object;
  /* If inside SWITCH_EXPR.  */
  constexpr_switch_state *css_state;
  /* Whether we should error on a non-constant expression or fail quietly.  */
  bool quiet;
  /* Whether we are strictly conforming to constant expression rules or
     trying harder to get a constant value.  */
  bool strict;
};

/* A table of all constexpr calls that have been evaluated by the
   compiler in this translation unit.  */

static GTY (()) hash_table<constexpr_call_hasher> *constexpr_call_table;

static tree cxx_eval_constant_expression (const constexpr_ctx *, tree,
					  bool, bool *, bool *, tree * = NULL);

/* Compute a hash value for a constexpr call representation.  */

inline hashval_t
constexpr_call_hasher::hash (constexpr_call *info)
{
  return info->hash;
}

/* Return true if the objects pointed to by P and Q represent calls
   to the same constexpr function with the same arguments.
   Otherwise, return false.  */

bool
constexpr_call_hasher::equal (constexpr_call *lhs, constexpr_call *rhs)
{
  tree lhs_bindings;
  tree rhs_bindings;
  if (lhs == rhs)
    return 1;
  if (!constexpr_fundef_hasher::equal (lhs->fundef, rhs->fundef))
    return 0;
  lhs_bindings = lhs->bindings;
  rhs_bindings = rhs->bindings;
  while (lhs_bindings != NULL && rhs_bindings != NULL)
    {
      tree lhs_arg = TREE_VALUE (lhs_bindings);
      tree rhs_arg = TREE_VALUE (rhs_bindings);
      gcc_assert (TREE_TYPE (lhs_arg) == TREE_TYPE (rhs_arg));
      if (!cp_tree_equal (lhs_arg, rhs_arg))
        return 0;
      lhs_bindings = TREE_CHAIN (lhs_bindings);
      rhs_bindings = TREE_CHAIN (rhs_bindings);
    }
  return lhs_bindings == rhs_bindings;
}

/* Initialize the constexpr call table, if needed.  */

static void
maybe_initialize_constexpr_call_table (void)
{
  if (constexpr_call_table == NULL)
    constexpr_call_table = hash_table<constexpr_call_hasher>::create_ggc (101);
}

/* During constexpr CALL_EXPR evaluation, to avoid issues with sharing when
   a function happens to get called recursively, we unshare the callee
   function's body and evaluate this unshared copy instead of evaluating the
   original body.

   FUNDEF_COPIES_TABLE is a per-function freelist of these unshared function
   copies.  The underlying data structure of FUNDEF_COPIES_TABLE is a hash_map
   that's keyed off of the original FUNCTION_DECL and whose value is a
   TREE_LIST of this function's unused copies awaiting reuse.

   This is not GC-deletable to avoid GC affecting UID generation.  */

static GTY(()) hash_map<tree, tree> *fundef_copies_table;

/* Initialize FUNDEF_COPIES_TABLE if it's not initialized.  */

static void
maybe_initialize_fundef_copies_table ()
{
  if (fundef_copies_table == NULL)
    fundef_copies_table = hash_map<tree,tree>::create_ggc (101);
}

/* Reuse a copy or create a new unshared copy of the function FUN.
   Return this copy.  We use a TREE_LIST whose PURPOSE is body, VALUE
   is parms, TYPE is result.  */

static tree
get_fundef_copy (tree fun)
{
  maybe_initialize_fundef_copies_table ();

  tree copy;
  bool existed;
  tree *slot = &fundef_copies_table->get_or_insert (fun, &existed);

  if (!existed)
    {
      /* There is no cached function available, or in use.  We can use
	 the function directly.  That the slot is now created records
	 that this function is now in use.  */
      copy = build_tree_list (DECL_SAVED_TREE (fun), DECL_ARGUMENTS (fun));
      TREE_TYPE (copy) = DECL_RESULT (fun);
    }
  else if (*slot == NULL_TREE)
    {
      /* We've already used the function itself, so make a copy.  */
      copy = build_tree_list (NULL, NULL);
      TREE_PURPOSE (copy) = copy_fn (fun, TREE_VALUE (copy), TREE_TYPE (copy));
    }
  else
    {
      /* We have a cached function available.  */
      copy = *slot;
      *slot = TREE_CHAIN (copy);
    }

  return copy;
}

/* Save the copy COPY of function FUN for later reuse by
   get_fundef_copy().  By construction, there will always be an entry
   to find.  */

static void
save_fundef_copy (tree fun, tree copy)
{
  tree *slot = fundef_copies_table->get (fun);
  TREE_CHAIN (copy) = *slot;
  *slot = copy;
}

/* We have an expression tree T that represents a call, either CALL_EXPR
   or AGGR_INIT_EXPR.  If the call is lexically to a named function,
   retrun the _DECL for that function.  */

static tree
get_function_named_in_call (tree t)
{
  tree fun = cp_get_callee (t);
  if (fun && TREE_CODE (fun) == ADDR_EXPR
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (fun, 0)) == FUNCTION_DECL)
    fun = TREE_OPERAND (fun, 0);
  return fun;
}

/* We have an expression tree T that represents a call, either CALL_EXPR
   or AGGR_INIT_EXPR.  Return the Nth argument.  */

static inline tree
get_nth_callarg (tree t, int n)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case CALL_EXPR:
      return CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, n);

    case AGGR_INIT_EXPR:
      return AGGR_INIT_EXPR_ARG (t, n);

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
      return NULL;
    }
}

/* Attempt to evaluate T which represents a call to a builtin function.
   We assume here that all builtin functions evaluate to scalar types
   represented by _CST nodes.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_builtin_function_call (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t, tree fun,
				bool lval,
				bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  const int nargs = call_expr_nargs (t);
  tree *args = (tree *) alloca (nargs * sizeof (tree));
  tree new_call;
  int i;

  /* Don't fold __builtin_constant_p within a constexpr function.  */
  bool bi_const_p = (DECL_FUNCTION_CODE (fun) == BUILT_IN_CONSTANT_P);

  if (bi_const_p
      && current_function_decl
      && DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (current_function_decl))
    {
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* Be permissive for arguments to built-ins; __builtin_constant_p should
     return constant false for a non-constant argument.  */
  constexpr_ctx new_ctx = *ctx;
  new_ctx.quiet = true;
  bool dummy1 = false, dummy2 = false;
  for (i = 0; i < nargs; ++i)
    {
      args[i] = cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, i),
					      false, &dummy1, &dummy2);
      if (bi_const_p)
	/* For __built_in_constant_p, fold all expressions with constant values
	   even if they aren't C++ constant-expressions.  */
	args[i] = cp_fully_fold (args[i]);
    }

  bool save_ffbcp = force_folding_builtin_constant_p;
  force_folding_builtin_constant_p = true;
  new_call = fold_builtin_call_array (EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_TYPE (t),
				      CALL_EXPR_FN (t), nargs, args);
  force_folding_builtin_constant_p = save_ffbcp;
  if (new_call == NULL)
    {
      if (!*non_constant_p && !ctx->quiet)
	{
	  new_call = build_call_array_loc (EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_TYPE (t),
					   CALL_EXPR_FN (t), nargs, args);
	  error ("%q+E is not a constant expression", new_call);
	}
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  if (!is_constant_expression (new_call))
    {
      if (!*non_constant_p && !ctx->quiet)
	error ("%q+E is not a constant expression", new_call);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  return cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, new_call, lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
}

/* TEMP is the constant value of a temporary object of type TYPE.  Adjust
   the type of the value to match.  */

static tree
adjust_temp_type (tree type, tree temp)
{
  if (TREE_TYPE (temp) == type)
    return temp;
  /* Avoid wrapping an aggregate value in a NOP_EXPR.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (temp) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    return build_constructor (type, CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (temp));
  gcc_assert (scalarish_type_p (type));
  return cp_fold_convert (type, temp);
}

/* Callback for walk_tree used by unshare_constructor.  */

static tree
find_constructor (tree *tp, int *walk_subtrees, void *)
{
  if (TYPE_P (*tp))
    *walk_subtrees = 0;
  if (TREE_CODE (*tp) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    return *tp;
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* If T is a CONSTRUCTOR or an expression that has a CONSTRUCTOR node as a
   subexpression, return an unshared copy of T.  Otherwise return T.  */

static tree
unshare_constructor (tree t)
{
  tree ctor = walk_tree (&t, find_constructor, NULL, NULL);
  if (ctor != NULL_TREE)
    return unshare_expr (t);
  return t;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_call_expression.
   We are processing a call expression (either CALL_EXPR or
   AGGR_INIT_EXPR) in the context of CTX.  Evaluate
   all arguments and bind their values to correspondings
   parameters, making up the NEW_CALL context.  */

static void
cxx_bind_parameters_in_call (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
                             constexpr_call *new_call,
			     bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
			     bool *non_constant_args)
{
  const int nargs = call_expr_nargs (t);
  tree fun = new_call->fundef->decl;
  tree parms = DECL_ARGUMENTS (fun);
  int i;
  tree *p = &new_call->bindings;
  for (i = 0; i < nargs; ++i)
    {
      tree x, arg;
      tree type = parms ? TREE_TYPE (parms) : void_type_node;
      x = get_nth_callarg (t, i);
      /* For member function, the first argument is a pointer to the implied
         object.  For a constructor, it might still be a dummy object, in
         which case we get the real argument from ctx. */
      if (i == 0 && DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun)
	  && is_dummy_object (x))
	{
	  x = ctx->object;
	  /* We don't use cp_build_addr_expr here because we don't want to
	     capture the object argument until we've chosen a non-static member
	     function.  */
	  x = build_address (x);
	}
      bool lval = false;
      arg = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, x, lval,
					  non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here.  */
      if (*non_constant_p && ctx->quiet)
	return;
      /* Just discard ellipsis args after checking their constantitude.  */
      if (!parms)
	continue;

      if (!*non_constant_p)
	{
	  /* Make sure the binding has the same type as the parm.  But
	     only for constant args.  */
	  if (TREE_CODE (type) != REFERENCE_TYPE)
	    arg = adjust_temp_type (type, arg);
	  if (!TREE_CONSTANT (arg))
	    *non_constant_args = true;
	  *p = build_tree_list (parms, arg);
	  p = &TREE_CHAIN (*p);
	}
      parms = TREE_CHAIN (parms);
    }
}

/* Variables and functions to manage constexpr call expansion context.
   These do not need to be marked for PCH or GC.  */

/* FIXME remember and print actual constant arguments.  */
static vec<tree> call_stack;
static int call_stack_tick;
static int last_cx_error_tick;

static bool
push_cx_call_context (tree call)
{
  ++call_stack_tick;
  if (!EXPR_HAS_LOCATION (call))
    SET_EXPR_LOCATION (call, input_location);
  call_stack.safe_push (call);
  if (call_stack.length () > (unsigned) max_constexpr_depth)
    return false;
  return true;
}

static void
pop_cx_call_context (void)
{
  ++call_stack_tick;
  call_stack.pop ();
}

vec<tree> 
cx_error_context (void)
{
  vec<tree> r = vNULL;
  if (call_stack_tick != last_cx_error_tick
      && !call_stack.is_empty ())
    r = call_stack;
  last_cx_error_tick = call_stack_tick;
  return r;
}

/* Evaluate a call T to a GCC internal function when possible and return
   the evaluated result or, under the control of CTX, give an error, set
   NON_CONSTANT_P, and return the unevaluated call T otherwise.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_internal_function (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			    bool lval,
			    bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  enum tree_code opcode = ERROR_MARK;

  switch (CALL_EXPR_IFN (t))
    {
    case IFN_UBSAN_NULL:
    case IFN_UBSAN_BOUNDS:
    case IFN_UBSAN_VPTR:
    case IFN_FALLTHROUGH:
      return void_node;

    case IFN_ADD_OVERFLOW:
      opcode = PLUS_EXPR;
      break;
    case IFN_SUB_OVERFLOW:
      opcode = MINUS_EXPR;
      break;
    case IFN_MUL_OVERFLOW:
      opcode = MULT_EXPR;
      break;

    case IFN_LAUNDER:
      return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, 0),
					   false, non_constant_p, overflow_p);

    default:
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
		  "call to internal function %qE", t);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* Evaluate constant arguments using OPCODE and return a complex
     number containing the result and the overflow bit.  */
  tree arg0 = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, 0), lval,
					    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  tree arg1 = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, CALL_EXPR_ARG (t, 1), lval,
					    non_constant_p, overflow_p);

  if (TREE_CODE (arg0) == INTEGER_CST && TREE_CODE (arg1) == INTEGER_CST)
    {
      location_t loc = EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location);
      tree type = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (t));
      tree result = fold_binary_loc (loc, opcode, type,
				     fold_convert_loc (loc, type, arg0),
				     fold_convert_loc (loc, type, arg1));
      tree ovf
	= build_int_cst (type, arith_overflowed_p (opcode, type, arg0, arg1));
      /* Reset TREE_OVERFLOW to avoid warnings for the overflow.  */
      if (TREE_OVERFLOW (result))
	TREE_OVERFLOW (result) = 0;

      return build_complex (TREE_TYPE (t), result, ovf);
    }

  *non_constant_p = true;
  return t;
}

/* Clean CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO from CTOR and its sub-aggregates.  */

static void
clear_no_implicit_zero (tree ctor)
{
  if (CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (ctor))
    {
      CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (ctor) = false;
      tree elt; unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT idx;
      FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_VALUE (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ctor), idx, elt)
	if (TREE_CODE (elt) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	  clear_no_implicit_zero (elt);
    }
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Evaluate the call expression tree T in the context of OLD_CALL expression
   evaluation.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_call_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			  bool lval,
			  bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  location_t loc = EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location);
  tree fun = get_function_named_in_call (t);
  constexpr_call new_call = { NULL, NULL, NULL, 0 };
  bool depth_ok;

  if (fun == NULL_TREE)
    return cxx_eval_internal_function (ctx, t, lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);

  if (TREE_CODE (fun) != FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      /* Might be a constexpr function pointer.  */
      fun = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, fun,
					  /*lval*/false, non_constant_p,
					  overflow_p);
      STRIP_NOPS (fun);
      if (TREE_CODE (fun) == ADDR_EXPR)
	fun = TREE_OPERAND (fun, 0);
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (fun) != FUNCTION_DECL)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet && !*non_constant_p)
	error_at (loc, "expression %qE does not designate a constexpr "
		  "function", fun);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }
  if (DECL_CLONED_FUNCTION_P (fun))
    fun = DECL_CLONED_FUNCTION (fun);

  if (is_ubsan_builtin_p (fun))
    return void_node;

  if (is_builtin_fn (fun))
    return cxx_eval_builtin_function_call (ctx, t, fun,
					   lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (!DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (fun))
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	{
	  if (!lambda_static_thunk_p (fun))
	    error_at (loc, "call to non-constexpr function %qD", fun);
	  explain_invalid_constexpr_fn (fun);
	}
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  constexpr_ctx new_ctx = *ctx;
  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun) && !ctx->object
      && TREE_CODE (t) == AGGR_INIT_EXPR)
    {
      /* We want to have an initialization target for an AGGR_INIT_EXPR.
	 If we don't already have one in CTX, use the AGGR_INIT_EXPR_SLOT.  */
      new_ctx.object = AGGR_INIT_EXPR_SLOT (t);
      tree ctor = new_ctx.ctor = build_constructor (DECL_CONTEXT (fun), NULL);
      CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (ctor) = true;
      ctx->values->put (new_ctx.object, ctor);
      ctx = &new_ctx;
    }

  /* Shortcut trivial constructor/op=.  */
  if (trivial_fn_p (fun))
    {
      tree init = NULL_TREE;
      if (call_expr_nargs (t) == 2)
	init = convert_from_reference (get_nth_callarg (t, 1));
      else if (TREE_CODE (t) == AGGR_INIT_EXPR
	       && AGGR_INIT_ZERO_FIRST (t))
	init = build_zero_init (DECL_CONTEXT (fun), NULL_TREE, false);
      if (init)
	{
	  tree op = get_nth_callarg (t, 0);
	  if (is_dummy_object (op))
	    op = ctx->object;
	  else
	    op = build1 (INDIRECT_REF, TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (op)), op);
	  tree set = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (op), op, init);
	  new_ctx.call = &new_call;
	  return cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, set, lval,
					       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	}
    }

  /* We can't defer instantiating the function any longer.  */
  if (!DECL_INITIAL (fun)
      && DECL_TEMPLOID_INSTANTIATION (fun))
    {
      location_t save_loc = input_location;
      input_location = loc;
      ++function_depth;
      instantiate_decl (fun, /*defer_ok*/false, /*expl_inst*/false);
      --function_depth;
      input_location = save_loc;
    }

  /* If in direct recursive call, optimize definition search.  */
  if (ctx && ctx->call && ctx->call->fundef && ctx->call->fundef->decl == fun)
    new_call.fundef = ctx->call->fundef;
  else
    {
      new_call.fundef = retrieve_constexpr_fundef (fun);
      if (new_call.fundef == NULL || new_call.fundef->body == NULL
	  || fun == current_function_decl)
        {
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    {
	      /* We need to check for current_function_decl here in case we're
		 being called during cp_fold_function, because at that point
		 DECL_INITIAL is set properly and we have a fundef but we
		 haven't lowered invisirefs yet (c++/70344).  */
	      if (DECL_INITIAL (fun) == error_mark_node
		  || fun == current_function_decl)
		error_at (loc, "%qD called in a constant expression before its "
			  "definition is complete", fun);
	      else if (DECL_INITIAL (fun))
		{
		  /* The definition of fun was somehow unsuitable.  But pretend
		     that lambda static thunks don't exist.  */
		  if (!lambda_static_thunk_p (fun))
		    error_at (loc, "%qD called in a constant expression", fun);
		  explain_invalid_constexpr_fn (fun);
		}
	      else
		error_at (loc, "%qD used before its definition", fun);
	    }
	  *non_constant_p = true;
          return t;
        }
    }

  bool non_constant_args = false;
  cxx_bind_parameters_in_call (ctx, t, &new_call,
			       non_constant_p, overflow_p, &non_constant_args);
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;

  depth_ok = push_cx_call_context (t);

  tree result = NULL_TREE;

  constexpr_call *entry = NULL;
  if (depth_ok && !non_constant_args)
    {
      new_call.hash = iterative_hash_template_arg
	(new_call.bindings, constexpr_fundef_hasher::hash (new_call.fundef));

      /* If we have seen this call before, we are done.  */
      maybe_initialize_constexpr_call_table ();
      constexpr_call **slot
	= constexpr_call_table->find_slot (&new_call, INSERT);
      entry = *slot;
      if (entry == NULL)
	{
	  /* We need to keep a pointer to the entry, not just the slot, as the
	     slot can move in the call to cxx_eval_builtin_function_call.  */
	  *slot = entry = ggc_alloc<constexpr_call> ();
	  *entry = new_call;
	}
      /* Calls that are in progress have their result set to NULL,
	 so that we can detect circular dependencies.  */
      else if (entry->result == NULL)
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error ("call has circular dependency");
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  entry->result = result = error_mark_node;
	}
      else
	result = entry->result;
    }

  if (!depth_ok)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("constexpr evaluation depth exceeds maximum of %d (use "
	       "-fconstexpr-depth= to increase the maximum)",
	       max_constexpr_depth);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      result = error_mark_node;
    }
  else
    {
      if (result && result != error_mark_node)
	/* OK */;
      else if (!DECL_SAVED_TREE (fun))
	{
	  /* When at_eof >= 2, cgraph has started throwing away
	     DECL_SAVED_TREE, so fail quietly.  FIXME we get here because of
	     late code generation for VEC_INIT_EXPR, which needs to be
	     completely reconsidered.  */
	  gcc_assert (at_eof >= 2 && ctx->quiet);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	}
      else
	{
	  tree body, parms, res;

	  /* Reuse or create a new unshared copy of this function's body.  */
	  tree copy = get_fundef_copy (fun);
	  body = TREE_PURPOSE (copy);
	  parms = TREE_VALUE (copy);
	  res = TREE_TYPE (copy);

	  /* Associate the bindings with the remapped parms.  */
	  tree bound = new_call.bindings;
	  tree remapped = parms;
	  while (bound)
	    {
	      tree oparm = TREE_PURPOSE (bound);
	      tree arg = TREE_VALUE (bound);
	      gcc_assert (DECL_NAME (remapped) == DECL_NAME (oparm));
	      /* Don't share a CONSTRUCTOR that might be changed.  */
	      arg = unshare_constructor (arg);
	      ctx->values->put (remapped, arg);
	      bound = TREE_CHAIN (bound);
	      remapped = DECL_CHAIN (remapped);
	    }
	  /* Add the RESULT_DECL to the values map, too.  */
	  tree slot = NULL_TREE;
	  if (DECL_BY_REFERENCE (res))
	    {
	      slot = AGGR_INIT_EXPR_SLOT (t);
	      tree addr = build_address (slot);
	      addr = build_nop (TREE_TYPE (res), addr);
	      ctx->values->put (res, addr);
	      ctx->values->put (slot, NULL_TREE);
	    }
	  else
	    ctx->values->put (res, NULL_TREE);

	  /* Track the callee's evaluated SAVE_EXPRs so that we can forget
	     their values after the call.  */
	  constexpr_ctx ctx_with_save_exprs = *ctx;
	  hash_set<tree> save_exprs;
	  ctx_with_save_exprs.save_exprs = &save_exprs;
	  ctx_with_save_exprs.call = &new_call;

	  tree jump_target = NULL_TREE;
	  cxx_eval_constant_expression (&ctx_with_save_exprs, body,
					lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					&jump_target);

	  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
	    /* This can be null for a subobject constructor call, in
	       which case what we care about is the initialization
	       side-effects rather than the value.  We could get at the
	       value by evaluating *this, but we don't bother; there's
	       no need to put such a call in the hash table.  */
	    result = lval ? ctx->object : ctx->ctor;
	  else if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (res)))
	    result = void_node;
	  else
	    {
	      result = *ctx->values->get (slot ? slot : res);
	      if (result == NULL_TREE && !*non_constant_p)
		{
		  if (!ctx->quiet)
		    error ("constexpr call flows off the end "
			   "of the function");
		  *non_constant_p = true;
		}
	    }

	  /* Forget the saved values of the callee's SAVE_EXPRs.  */
	  for (hash_set<tree>::iterator iter = save_exprs.begin();
	       iter != save_exprs.end(); ++iter)
	    ctx_with_save_exprs.values->remove (*iter);

	  /* Remove the parms/result from the values map.  Is it worth
	     bothering to do this when the map itself is only live for
	     one constexpr evaluation?  If so, maybe also clear out
	     other vars from call, maybe in BIND_EXPR handling?  */
	  ctx->values->remove (res);
	  if (slot)
	    ctx->values->remove (slot);
	  for (tree parm = parms; parm; parm = TREE_CHAIN (parm))
	    ctx->values->remove (parm);

	  /* Make the unshared function copy we used available for re-use.  */
	  save_fundef_copy (fun, copy);
	}

      if (result == error_mark_node)
	*non_constant_p = true;
      if (*non_constant_p || *overflow_p)
	result = error_mark_node;
      else if (!result)
	result = void_node;
      if (entry)
	entry->result = result;
    }

  /* The result of a constexpr function must be completely initialized.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (result) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    clear_no_implicit_zero (result);

  pop_cx_call_context ();
  return unshare_constructor (result);
}

/* FIXME speed this up, it's taking 16% of compile time on sieve testcase.  */

bool
reduced_constant_expression_p (tree t)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case PTRMEM_CST:
      /* Even if we can't lower this yet, it's constant.  */
      return true;

    case CONSTRUCTOR:
      /* And we need to handle PTRMEM_CST wrapped in a CONSTRUCTOR.  */
      tree idx, val, field; unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i;
      if (CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (t))
	field = next_initializable_field (TYPE_FIELDS (TREE_TYPE (t)));
      else
	field = NULL_TREE;
      FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (t), i, idx, val)
	{
	  if (!val)
	    /* We're in the middle of initializing this element.  */
	    return false;
	  if (!reduced_constant_expression_p (val))
	    return false;
	  if (field)
	    {
	      if (idx != field)
		return false;
	      field = next_initializable_field (DECL_CHAIN (field));
	    }
	}
      if (field)
	return false;
      else if (CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (t))
	/* All the fields are initialized.  */
	CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (t) = false;
      return true;

    default:
      /* FIXME are we calling this too much?  */
      return initializer_constant_valid_p (t, TREE_TYPE (t)) != NULL_TREE;
    }
}

/* Some expressions may have constant operands but are not constant
   themselves, such as 1/0.  Call this function (or rather, the macro
   following it) to check for that condition.

   We only call this in places that require an arithmetic constant, not in
   places where we might have a non-constant expression that can be a
   component of a constant expression, such as the address of a constexpr
   variable that might be dereferenced later.  */

static bool
verify_constant (tree t, bool allow_non_constant, bool *non_constant_p,
		 bool *overflow_p)
{
  if (!*non_constant_p && !reduced_constant_expression_p (t))
    {
      if (!allow_non_constant)
	error ("%q+E is not a constant expression", t);
      *non_constant_p = true;
    }
  if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (t))
    {
      if (!allow_non_constant)
	{
	  permerror (input_location, "overflow in constant expression");
	  /* If we're being permissive (and are in an enforcing
	     context), ignore the overflow.  */
	  if (flag_permissive)
	    return *non_constant_p;
	}
      *overflow_p = true;
    }
  return *non_constant_p;
}

/* Check whether the shift operation with code CODE and type TYPE on LHS
   and RHS is undefined.  If it is, give an error with an explanation,
   and return true; return false otherwise.  */

static bool
cxx_eval_check_shift_p (location_t loc, const constexpr_ctx *ctx,
			enum tree_code code, tree type, tree lhs, tree rhs)
{
  if ((code != LSHIFT_EXPR && code != RSHIFT_EXPR)
      || TREE_CODE (lhs) != INTEGER_CST
      || TREE_CODE (rhs) != INTEGER_CST)
    return false;

  tree lhstype = TREE_TYPE (lhs);
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT uprec = TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (lhs));

  /* [expr.shift] The behavior is undefined if the right operand
     is negative, or greater than or equal to the length in bits
     of the promoted left operand.  */
  if (tree_int_cst_sgn (rhs) == -1)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	permerror (loc, "right operand of shift expression %q+E is negative",
		   build2_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs));
      return (!flag_permissive || ctx->quiet);
    }
  if (compare_tree_int (rhs, uprec) >= 0)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	permerror (loc, "right operand of shift expression %q+E is >= than "
		   "the precision of the left operand",
		   build2_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs));
      return (!flag_permissive || ctx->quiet);
    }

  /* The value of E1 << E2 is E1 left-shifted E2 bit positions; [...]
     if E1 has a signed type and non-negative value, and E1x2^E2 is
     representable in the corresponding unsigned type of the result type,
     then that value, converted to the result type, is the resulting value;
     otherwise, the behavior is undefined.  */
  if (code == LSHIFT_EXPR && !TYPE_UNSIGNED (lhstype)
      && (cxx_dialect >= cxx11))
    {
      if (tree_int_cst_sgn (lhs) == -1)
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    permerror (loc,
		       "left operand of shift expression %q+E is negative",
		       build2_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs));
	  return (!flag_permissive || ctx->quiet);
	}
      /* For signed x << y the following:
	 (unsigned) x >> ((prec (lhs) - 1) - y)
	 if > 1, is undefined.  The right-hand side of this formula
	 is the highest bit of the LHS that can be set (starting from 0),
	 so that the shift doesn't overflow.  We then right-shift the LHS
	 to see whether any other bit is set making the original shift
	 undefined -- the result is not representable in the corresponding
	 unsigned type.  */
      tree t = build_int_cst (unsigned_type_node, uprec - 1);
      t = fold_build2 (MINUS_EXPR, unsigned_type_node, t, rhs);
      tree ulhs = fold_convert (unsigned_type_for (lhstype), lhs);
      t = fold_build2 (RSHIFT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (ulhs), ulhs, t);
      if (tree_int_cst_lt (integer_one_node, t))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    permerror (loc, "shift expression %q+E overflows",
		       build2_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs));
	  return (!flag_permissive || ctx->quiet);
	}
    }
  return false;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Attempt to reduce the unary expression tree T to a compile time value.
   If successful, return the value.  Otherwise issue a diagnostic
   and return error_mark_node.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_unary_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			   bool /*lval*/,
			   bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree r;
  tree orig_arg = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree arg = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_arg, /*lval*/false,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (arg);
  location_t loc = EXPR_LOCATION (t);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (t);
  r = fold_unary_loc (loc, code, type, arg);
  if (r == NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (arg == orig_arg)
	r = t;
      else
	r = build1_loc (loc, code, type, arg);
    }
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (r);
  return r;
}

/* Helper function for cxx_eval_binary_expression.  Try to optimize
   original POINTER_PLUS_EXPR T, LHS p+ RHS, return NULL_TREE if the
   generic folding should be used.  */

static tree
cxx_fold_pointer_plus_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
				  tree lhs, tree rhs, bool *non_constant_p,
				  bool *overflow_p)
{
  STRIP_NOPS (lhs);
  if (TREE_CODE (lhs) != ADDR_EXPR)
    return NULL_TREE;

  lhs = TREE_OPERAND (lhs, 0);

  /* &A[i] p+ j => &A[i + j] */
  if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == ARRAY_REF
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (lhs, 1)) == INTEGER_CST
      && TREE_CODE (rhs) == INTEGER_CST
      && TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (lhs))
      && TREE_CODE (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (lhs))) == INTEGER_CST)
    {
      tree orig_type = TREE_TYPE (t);
      location_t loc = EXPR_LOCATION (t);
      tree type = TREE_TYPE (lhs);

      t = fold_convert_loc (loc, ssizetype, TREE_OPERAND (lhs, 1));
      tree nelts = array_type_nelts_top (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (lhs, 0)));
      nelts = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, nelts, false, non_constant_p,
					    overflow_p);
      if (*non_constant_p)
	return NULL_TREE;
      /* Don't fold an out-of-bound access.  */
      if (!tree_int_cst_le (t, nelts))
	return NULL_TREE;
      rhs = cp_fold_convert (ssizetype, rhs);
      /* Don't fold if rhs can't be divided exactly by TYPE_SIZE_UNIT.
	 constexpr int A[1]; ... (char *)&A[0] + 1 */
      if (!integer_zerop (fold_build2_loc (loc, TRUNC_MOD_EXPR, sizetype,
					   rhs, TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type))))
	return NULL_TREE;
      /* Make sure to treat the second operand of POINTER_PLUS_EXPR
	 as signed.  */
      rhs = fold_build2_loc (loc, EXACT_DIV_EXPR, ssizetype, rhs,
			     TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type));
      t = size_binop_loc (loc, PLUS_EXPR, rhs, t);
      t = build4_loc (loc, ARRAY_REF, type, TREE_OPERAND (lhs, 0),
		      t, NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
      t = cp_build_addr_expr (t, tf_warning_or_error);
      t = cp_fold_convert (orig_type, t);
      return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, t, /*lval*/false,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
    }

  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Like cxx_eval_unary_expression, except for binary expressions.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_binary_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			    bool /*lval*/,
			    bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree r = NULL_TREE;
  tree orig_lhs = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree orig_rhs = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  tree lhs, rhs;
  lhs = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_lhs, /*lval*/false,
				      non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here, it's unnecessary and will break pointer
     subtraction.  */
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  rhs = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_rhs, /*lval*/false,
				      non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;

  location_t loc = EXPR_LOCATION (t);
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (t);

  if (code == EQ_EXPR || code == NE_EXPR)
    {
      bool is_code_eq = (code == EQ_EXPR);

      if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == PTRMEM_CST
	  && TREE_CODE (rhs) == PTRMEM_CST)
	r = constant_boolean_node (cp_tree_equal (lhs, rhs) == is_code_eq,
				   type);
      else if ((TREE_CODE (lhs) == PTRMEM_CST
		|| TREE_CODE (rhs) == PTRMEM_CST)
	       && (null_member_pointer_value_p (lhs)
		   || null_member_pointer_value_p (rhs)))
	r = constant_boolean_node (!is_code_eq, type);
      else if (TREE_CODE (lhs) == PTRMEM_CST)
	lhs = cplus_expand_constant (lhs);
      else if (TREE_CODE (rhs) == PTRMEM_CST)
	rhs = cplus_expand_constant (rhs);
    }
  if (code == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR && !*non_constant_p
      && integer_zerop (lhs) && !integer_zerop (rhs))
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("arithmetic involving a null pointer in %qE", lhs);
      return t;
    }
  else if (code == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR)
    r = cxx_fold_pointer_plus_expression (ctx, t, lhs, rhs, non_constant_p,
					  overflow_p);

  if (r == NULL_TREE)
    r = fold_binary_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs);

  if (r == NULL_TREE)
    {
      if (lhs == orig_lhs && rhs == orig_rhs)
	r = t;
      else
	r = build2_loc (loc, code, type, lhs, rhs);
    }
  else if (cxx_eval_check_shift_p (loc, ctx, code, type, lhs, rhs))
    *non_constant_p = true;
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT if this might be dealing with a pointer to
     a local array in a constexpr function.  */
  bool ptr = POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (lhs));
  if (!ptr)
    VERIFY_CONSTANT (r);
  return r;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Attempt to evaluate condition expressions.  Dead branches are not
   looked into.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_conditional_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
				 bool lval,
				 bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
				 tree *jump_target)
{
  tree val = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
					   /*lval*/false,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (val);
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT the other operands.  */
  if (integer_zerop (val))
    return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 2),
					 lval,
					 non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					 jump_target);
  return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1),
				       lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p,
				       jump_target);
}

/* Returns less than, equal to, or greater than zero if KEY is found to be
   less than, to match, or to be greater than the constructor_elt's INDEX.  */

static int
array_index_cmp (tree key, tree index)
{
  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (key) == INTEGER_CST);

  switch (TREE_CODE (index))
    {
    case INTEGER_CST:
      return tree_int_cst_compare (key, index);
    case RANGE_EXPR:
      {
	tree lo = TREE_OPERAND (index, 0);
	tree hi = TREE_OPERAND (index, 1);
	if (tree_int_cst_lt (key, lo))
	  return -1;
	else if (tree_int_cst_lt (hi, key))
	  return 1;
	else
	  return 0;
      }
    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }
}

/* Returns the index of the constructor_elt of ARY which matches DINDEX, or -1
   if none.  If INSERT is true, insert a matching element rather than fail.  */

static HOST_WIDE_INT
find_array_ctor_elt (tree ary, tree dindex, bool insert = false)
{
  if (tree_int_cst_sgn (dindex) < 0)
    return -1;

  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i = tree_to_uhwi (dindex);
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *elts = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary);
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT len = vec_safe_length (elts);

  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT end = len;
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT begin = 0;

  /* If the last element of the CONSTRUCTOR has its own index, we can assume
     that the same is true of the other elements and index directly.  */
  if (end > 0)
    {
      tree cindex = (*elts)[end-1].index;
      if (TREE_CODE (cindex) == INTEGER_CST
	  && compare_tree_int (cindex, end-1) == 0)
	{
	  if (i < end)
	    return i;
	  else
	    begin = end;
	}
    }

  /* Otherwise, find a matching index by means of a binary search.  */
  while (begin != end)
    {
      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT middle = (begin + end) / 2;
      constructor_elt &elt = (*elts)[middle];
      tree idx = elt.index;

      int cmp = array_index_cmp (dindex, idx);
      if (cmp < 0)
	end = middle;
      else if (cmp > 0)
	begin = middle + 1;
      else
	{
	  if (insert && TREE_CODE (idx) == RANGE_EXPR)
	    {
	      /* We need to split the range.  */
	      constructor_elt e;
	      tree lo = TREE_OPERAND (idx, 0);
	      tree hi = TREE_OPERAND (idx, 1);
	      if (tree_int_cst_lt (lo, dindex))
		{
		  /* There are still some lower elts; shorten the range.  */
		  tree new_hi = int_const_binop (MINUS_EXPR, dindex,
						 size_one_node);
		  if (tree_int_cst_equal (lo, new_hi))
		    /* Only one element left, no longer a range.  */
		    elt.index = lo;
		  else
		    TREE_OPERAND (idx, 1) = new_hi;
		  /* Append the element we want to insert.  */
		  ++middle;
		  e.index = dindex;
		  e.value = unshare_constructor (elt.value);
		  vec_safe_insert (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary), middle, e);
		}
	      else
		/* No lower elts, the range elt is now ours.  */
		elt.index = dindex;

	      if (tree_int_cst_lt (dindex, hi))
		{
		  /* There are still some higher elts; append a range.  */
		  tree new_lo = int_const_binop (PLUS_EXPR, dindex,
						 size_one_node);
		  if (tree_int_cst_equal (new_lo, hi))
		    e.index = hi;
		  else
		    e.index = build2 (RANGE_EXPR, sizetype, new_lo, hi);
		  e.value = unshare_constructor (elt.value);
		  vec_safe_insert (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary), middle+1, e);
		}
	    }
	  return middle;
	}
    }

  if (insert)
    {
      constructor_elt e = { dindex, NULL_TREE };
      vec_safe_insert (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary), end, e);
      return end;
    }

  return -1;
}

/* Under the control of CTX, issue a detailed diagnostic for
   an out-of-bounds subscript INDEX into the expression ARRAY.  */

static void
diag_array_subscript (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree array, tree index)
{
  if (!ctx->quiet)
    {
      tree arraytype = TREE_TYPE (array);

      /* Convert the unsigned array subscript to a signed integer to avoid
	 printing huge numbers for small negative values.  */
      tree sidx = fold_convert (ssizetype, index);
      if (DECL_P (array))
	{
	  error ("array subscript value %qE is outside the bounds "
		 "of array %qD of type %qT", sidx, array, arraytype);
	  inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (array), "declared here");
	}
      else
	error ("array subscript value %qE is outside the bounds "
	       "of array type %qT", sidx, arraytype);
    }
}

/* Extract element INDEX consisting of CHARS_PER_ELT chars from
   STRING_CST STRING.  */

static tree
extract_string_elt (tree string, unsigned chars_per_elt, unsigned index)
{
  tree type = cv_unqualified (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (string)));
  tree r;

  if (chars_per_elt == 1)
    r = build_int_cst (type, TREE_STRING_POINTER (string)[index]);
  else
    {
      const unsigned char *ptr
	= ((const unsigned char *)TREE_STRING_POINTER (string)
	   + index * chars_per_elt);
      r = native_interpret_expr (type, ptr, chars_per_elt);
    }
  return r;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Attempt to reduce a reference to an array slot.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_array_reference (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			  bool lval,
			  bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree oldary = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree ary = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, oldary,
					   lval,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  tree index, oldidx;
  HOST_WIDE_INT i = 0;
  tree elem_type = NULL_TREE;
  unsigned len = 0, elem_nchars = 1;
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  oldidx = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  index = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, oldidx,
					false,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (index);
  if (!lval)
    {
      elem_type = TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (ary));
      if (TREE_CODE (ary) == VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR
	  && VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (ary, 0)))
	  && TREE_TYPE (t) == TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (ary, 0))))
	ary = TREE_OPERAND (ary, 0);
      if (TREE_CODE (ary) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	len = CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (ary);
      else if (TREE_CODE (ary) == STRING_CST)
	{
	  elem_nchars = (TYPE_PRECISION (elem_type)
			 / TYPE_PRECISION (char_type_node));
	  len = (unsigned) TREE_STRING_LENGTH (ary) / elem_nchars;
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (ary) == VECTOR_CST)
	len = VECTOR_CST_NELTS (ary);
      else
	{
	  /* We can't do anything with other tree codes, so use
	     VERIFY_CONSTANT to complain and fail.  */
	  VERIFY_CONSTANT (ary);
	  gcc_unreachable ();
	}

      if (!tree_fits_shwi_p (index)
	  || (i = tree_to_shwi (index)) < 0)
	{
	  diag_array_subscript (ctx, ary, index);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  return t;
	}
    }

  tree nelts;
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ary)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    nelts = array_type_nelts_top (TREE_TYPE (ary));
  else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (ary)))
    nelts = size_int (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (TREE_TYPE (ary)));
  else
    gcc_unreachable ();

  /* For VLAs, the number of elements won't be an integer constant.  */
  nelts = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, nelts, false, non_constant_p,
					overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (nelts);
  if ((lval
       ? !tree_int_cst_le (index, nelts)
       : !tree_int_cst_lt (index, nelts))
      || tree_int_cst_sgn (index) < 0)
    {
      diag_array_subscript (ctx, ary, index);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  if (lval && ary == oldary && index == oldidx)
    return t;
  else if (lval)
    return build4 (ARRAY_REF, TREE_TYPE (t), ary, index, NULL, NULL);

  bool found;
  if (TREE_CODE (ary) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      HOST_WIDE_INT ix = find_array_ctor_elt (ary, index);
      found = (ix >= 0);
      if (found)
	i = ix;
    }
  else
    found = (i < len);

  if (found)
    {
      tree r;
      if (TREE_CODE (ary) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	r = (*CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary))[i].value;
      else if (TREE_CODE (ary) == VECTOR_CST)
	r = VECTOR_CST_ELT (ary, i);
      else
	r = extract_string_elt (ary, elem_nchars, i);

      if (r)
	/* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here.  */
	return r;

      /* Otherwise the element doesn't have a value yet.  */
    }

  /* Not found.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (ary) == CONSTRUCTOR
      && CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (ary))
    {
      /* 'ary' is part of the aggregate initializer we're currently
	 building; if there's no initializer for this element yet,
	 that's an error.  */
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("accessing uninitialized array element");
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* If it's within the array bounds but doesn't have an explicit
     initializer, it's value-initialized.  */
  tree val = build_value_init (elem_type, tf_warning_or_error);
  return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, val, lval, non_constant_p,
				       overflow_p);
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Attempt to reduce a field access of a value of class type.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_component_reference (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			      bool lval,
			      bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i;
  tree field;
  tree value;
  tree part = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  tree orig_whole = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree whole = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_whole,
					     lval,
					     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (TREE_CODE (whole) == INDIRECT_REF
      && integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (whole, 0))
      && !ctx->quiet)
    error ("dereferencing a null pointer in %qE", orig_whole);

  if (TREE_CODE (whole) == PTRMEM_CST)
    whole = cplus_expand_constant (whole);
  if (whole == orig_whole)
    return t;
  if (lval)
    return fold_build3 (COMPONENT_REF, TREE_TYPE (t),
			whole, part, NULL_TREE);
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here; we only want to check that we got a
     CONSTRUCTOR.  */
  if (!*non_constant_p && TREE_CODE (whole) != CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("%qE is not a constant expression", orig_whole);
      *non_constant_p = true;
    }
  if (DECL_MUTABLE_P (part))
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("mutable %qD is not usable in a constant expression", part);
      *non_constant_p = true;
    }
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  bool pmf = TYPE_PTRMEMFUNC_P (TREE_TYPE (whole));
  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (whole), i, field, value)
    {
      /* Use name match for PMF fields, as a variant will have a
	 different FIELD_DECL with a different type.  */
      if (pmf ? DECL_NAME (field) == DECL_NAME (part)
	  : field == part)
	{
	  if (value)
	    return value;
	  else
	    /* We're in the middle of initializing it.  */
	    break;
	}
    }
  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (whole)) == UNION_TYPE
      && CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (whole) > 0)
    {
      /* DR 1188 says we don't have to deal with this.  */
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("accessing %qD member instead of initialized %qD member in "
	       "constant expression", part, CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (whole, 0)->index);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* We only create a CONSTRUCTOR for a subobject when we modify it, so empty
     classes never get represented; throw together a value now.  */
  if (is_really_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (t)))
    return build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (t), NULL);

  gcc_assert (DECL_CONTEXT (part) == TYPE_MAIN_VARIANT (TREE_TYPE (whole)));

  if (CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (whole))
    {
      /* 'whole' is part of the aggregate initializer we're currently
	 building; if there's no initializer for this member yet, that's an
	 error.  */
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("accessing uninitialized member %qD", part);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* If there's no explicit init for this field, it's value-initialized.  */
  value = build_value_init (TREE_TYPE (t), tf_warning_or_error);
  return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, value,
				       lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Attempt to reduce a field access of a value of class type that is
   expressed as a BIT_FIELD_REF.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_bit_field_ref (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			bool lval,
			bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree orig_whole = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree retval, fldval, utype, mask;
  bool fld_seen = false;
  HOST_WIDE_INT istart, isize;
  tree whole = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_whole,
					     lval,
					     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  tree start, field, value;
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i;

  if (whole == orig_whole)
    return t;
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here; we only want to check that we got a
     CONSTRUCTOR.  */
  if (!*non_constant_p
      && TREE_CODE (whole) != VECTOR_CST
      && TREE_CODE (whole) != CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("%qE is not a constant expression", orig_whole);
      *non_constant_p = true;
    }
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;

  if (TREE_CODE (whole) == VECTOR_CST)
    return fold_ternary (BIT_FIELD_REF, TREE_TYPE (t), whole,
			 TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), TREE_OPERAND (t, 2));

  start = TREE_OPERAND (t, 2);
  istart = tree_to_shwi (start);
  isize = tree_to_shwi (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1));
  utype = TREE_TYPE (t);
  if (!TYPE_UNSIGNED (utype))
    utype = build_nonstandard_integer_type (TYPE_PRECISION (utype), 1);
  retval = build_int_cst (utype, 0);
  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (whole), i, field, value)
    {
      tree bitpos = bit_position (field);
      if (bitpos == start && DECL_SIZE (field) == TREE_OPERAND (t, 1))
	return value;
      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (field)) == INTEGER_TYPE
	  && TREE_CODE (value) == INTEGER_CST
	  && tree_fits_shwi_p (bitpos)
	  && tree_fits_shwi_p (DECL_SIZE (field)))
	{
	  HOST_WIDE_INT bit = tree_to_shwi (bitpos);
	  HOST_WIDE_INT sz = tree_to_shwi (DECL_SIZE (field));
	  HOST_WIDE_INT shift;
	  if (bit >= istart && bit + sz <= istart + isize)
	    {
	      fldval = fold_convert (utype, value);
	      mask = build_int_cst_type (utype, -1);
	      mask = fold_build2 (LSHIFT_EXPR, utype, mask,
				  size_int (TYPE_PRECISION (utype) - sz));
	      mask = fold_build2 (RSHIFT_EXPR, utype, mask,
				  size_int (TYPE_PRECISION (utype) - sz));
	      fldval = fold_build2 (BIT_AND_EXPR, utype, fldval, mask);
	      shift = bit - istart;
	      if (BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
		shift = TYPE_PRECISION (utype) - shift - sz;
	      fldval = fold_build2 (LSHIFT_EXPR, utype, fldval,
				    size_int (shift));
	      retval = fold_build2 (BIT_IOR_EXPR, utype, retval, fldval);
	      fld_seen = true;
	    }
	}
    }
  if (fld_seen)
    return fold_convert (TREE_TYPE (t), retval);
  gcc_unreachable ();
  return error_mark_node;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Evaluate a short-circuited logical expression T in the context
   of a given constexpr CALL.  BAILOUT_VALUE is the value for
   early return.  CONTINUE_VALUE is used here purely for
   sanity check purposes.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_logical_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
                             tree bailout_value, tree continue_value,
			     bool lval,
			     bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree r;
  tree lhs = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
					   lval,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (lhs);
  if (tree_int_cst_equal (lhs, bailout_value))
    return lhs;
  gcc_assert (tree_int_cst_equal (lhs, continue_value));
  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1),
				    lval, non_constant_p,
				    overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (r);
  return r;
}

/* REF is a COMPONENT_REF designating a particular field.  V is a vector of
   CONSTRUCTOR elements to initialize (part of) an object containing that
   field.  Return a pointer to the constructor_elt corresponding to the
   initialization of the field.  */

static constructor_elt *
base_field_constructor_elt (vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *v, tree ref)
{
  tree aggr = TREE_OPERAND (ref, 0);
  tree field = TREE_OPERAND (ref, 1);
  HOST_WIDE_INT i;
  constructor_elt *ce;

  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (ref) == COMPONENT_REF);

  if (TREE_CODE (aggr) == COMPONENT_REF)
    {
      constructor_elt *base_ce
	= base_field_constructor_elt (v, aggr);
      v = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (base_ce->value);
    }

  for (i = 0; vec_safe_iterate (v, i, &ce); ++i)
    if (ce->index == field)
      return ce;

  gcc_unreachable ();
  return NULL;
}

/* Some of the expressions fed to the constexpr mechanism are calls to
   constructors, which have type void.  In that case, return the type being
   initialized by the constructor.  */

static tree
initialized_type (tree t)
{
  if (TYPE_P (t))
    return t;
  tree type = cv_unqualified (TREE_TYPE (t));
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == CALL_EXPR || TREE_CODE (t) == AGGR_INIT_EXPR)
    {
      /* A constructor call has void type, so we need to look deeper.  */
      tree fn = get_function_named_in_call (t);
      if (fn && TREE_CODE (fn) == FUNCTION_DECL
	  && DECL_CXX_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fn))
	type = DECL_CONTEXT (fn);
    }
  return type;
}

/* We're about to initialize element INDEX of an array or class from VALUE.
   Set up NEW_CTX appropriately by adjusting .object to refer to the
   subobject and creating a new CONSTRUCTOR if the element is itself
   a class or array.  */

static void
init_subob_ctx (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, constexpr_ctx &new_ctx,
	       tree index, tree &value)
{
  new_ctx = *ctx;

  if (index && TREE_CODE (index) != INTEGER_CST
      && TREE_CODE (index) != FIELD_DECL)
    /* This won't have an element in the new CONSTRUCTOR.  */
    return;

  tree type = initialized_type (value);
  if (!AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (type) && !VECTOR_TYPE_P (type))
    /* A non-aggregate member doesn't get its own CONSTRUCTOR.  */
    return;

  /* The sub-aggregate initializer might contain a placeholder;
     update object to refer to the subobject and ctor to refer to
     the (newly created) sub-initializer.  */
  if (ctx->object)
    new_ctx.object = build_ctor_subob_ref (index, type, ctx->object);
  tree elt = build_constructor (type, NULL);
  CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (elt) = true;
  new_ctx.ctor = elt;

  if (TREE_CODE (value) == TARGET_EXPR)
    /* Avoid creating another CONSTRUCTOR when we expand the TARGET_EXPR.  */
    value = TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (value);
}

/* We're about to process an initializer for a class or array TYPE.  Make
   sure that CTX is set up appropriately.  */

static void
verify_ctor_sanity (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree type)
{
  /* We don't bother building a ctor for an empty base subobject.  */
  if (is_empty_class (type))
    return;

  /* We're in the middle of an initializer that might involve placeholders;
     our caller should have created a CONSTRUCTOR for us to put the
     initializer into.  We will either return that constructor or T.  */
  gcc_assert (ctx->ctor);
  gcc_assert (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
	      (type, TREE_TYPE (ctx->ctor)));
  /* We used to check that ctx->ctor was empty, but that isn't the case when
     the object is zero-initialized before calling the constructor.  */
  if (ctx->object)
    {
      tree otype = TREE_TYPE (ctx->object);
      gcc_assert (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (type, otype)
		  /* Handle flexible array members.  */
		  || (TREE_CODE (otype) == ARRAY_TYPE
		      && TYPE_DOMAIN (otype) == NULL_TREE
		      && TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
		      && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
			  (TREE_TYPE (type), TREE_TYPE (otype)))));
    }
  gcc_assert (!ctx->object || !DECL_P (ctx->object)
	      || *(ctx->values->get (ctx->object)) == ctx->ctor);
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   The expression tree T denotes a C-style array or a C-style
   aggregate.  Reduce it to a constant expression.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_bare_aggregate (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			 bool lval,
			 bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *v = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (t);
  bool changed = false;
  gcc_assert (!BRACE_ENCLOSED_INITIALIZER_P (t));
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (t);

  constexpr_ctx new_ctx;
  if (TYPE_PTRMEMFUNC_P (type) || VECTOR_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      /* We don't really need the ctx->ctor business for a PMF or
	 vector, but it's simpler to use the same code.  */
      new_ctx = *ctx;
      new_ctx.ctor = build_constructor (type, NULL);
      new_ctx.object = NULL_TREE;
      ctx = &new_ctx;
    };
  verify_ctor_sanity (ctx, type);
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> **p = &CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ctx->ctor);
  vec_alloc (*p, vec_safe_length (v));

  unsigned i;
  tree index, value;
  bool constant_p = true;
  bool side_effects_p = false;
  FOR_EACH_CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (v, i, index, value)
    {
      tree orig_value = value;
      init_subob_ctx (ctx, new_ctx, index, value);
      if (new_ctx.ctor != ctx->ctor)
	/* If we built a new CONSTRUCTOR, attach it now so that other
	   initializers can refer to it.  */
	CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*p, index, new_ctx.ctor);
      tree elt = cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, value,
					       lval,
					       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here.  */
      if (ctx->quiet && *non_constant_p)
	break;
      if (elt != orig_value)
	changed = true;

      if (!TREE_CONSTANT (elt))
	constant_p = false;
      if (TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (elt))
	side_effects_p = true;
      if (index && TREE_CODE (index) == COMPONENT_REF)
	{
	  /* This is an initialization of a vfield inside a base
	     subaggregate that we already initialized; push this
	     initialization into the previous initialization.  */
	  constructor_elt *inner = base_field_constructor_elt (*p, index);
	  inner->value = elt;
	  changed = true;
	}
      else if (index
	       && (TREE_CODE (index) == NOP_EXPR
		   || TREE_CODE (index) == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR))
	{
	  /* This is an initializer for an empty base; now that we've
	     checked that it's constant, we can ignore it.  */
	  gcc_assert (is_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (index))));
	  changed = true;
	}
      else if (new_ctx.ctor != ctx->ctor)
	{
	  /* We appended this element above; update the value.  */
	  gcc_assert ((*p)->last().index == index);
	  (*p)->last().value = elt;
	}
      else
	CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*p, index, elt);
    }
  if (*non_constant_p || !changed)
    return t;
  t = ctx->ctor;
  /* We're done building this CONSTRUCTOR, so now we can interpret an
     element without an explicit initializer as value-initialized.  */
  CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (t) = false;
  TREE_CONSTANT (t) = constant_p;
  TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (t) = side_effects_p;
  if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (type))
    t = fold (t);
  return t;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   The expression tree T is a VEC_INIT_EXPR which denotes the desired
   initialization of a non-static data member of array type.  Reduce it to a
   CONSTRUCTOR.

   Note that apart from value-initialization (when VALUE_INIT is true),
   this is only intended to support value-initialization and the
   initializations done by defaulted constructors for classes with
   non-static data members of array type.  In this case, VEC_INIT_EXPR_INIT
   will either be NULL_TREE for the default constructor, or a COMPONENT_REF
   for the copy/move constructor.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_vec_init_1 (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree atype, tree init,
		     bool value_init, bool lval,
		     bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree elttype = TREE_TYPE (atype);
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT max = tree_to_uhwi (array_type_nelts_top (atype));
  verify_ctor_sanity (ctx, atype);
  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> **p = &CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ctx->ctor);
  vec_alloc (*p, max + 1);
  bool pre_init = false;
  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT i;

  /* For the default constructor, build up a call to the default
     constructor of the element type.  We only need to handle class types
     here, as for a constructor to be constexpr, all members must be
     initialized, which for a defaulted default constructor means they must
     be of a class type with a constexpr default constructor.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (elttype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
    /* We only do this at the lowest level.  */;
  else if (value_init)
    {
      init = build_value_init (elttype, tf_warning_or_error);
      pre_init = true;
    }
  else if (!init)
    {
      vec<tree, va_gc> *argvec = make_tree_vector ();
      init = build_special_member_call (NULL_TREE, complete_ctor_identifier,
					&argvec, elttype, LOOKUP_NORMAL,
					tf_warning_or_error);
      release_tree_vector (argvec);
      init = build_aggr_init_expr (TREE_TYPE (init), init);
      pre_init = true;
    }

  for (i = 0; i < max; ++i)
    {
      tree idx = build_int_cst (size_type_node, i);
      tree eltinit;
      bool reuse = false;
      constexpr_ctx new_ctx;
      init_subob_ctx (ctx, new_ctx, idx, pre_init ? init : elttype);
      if (new_ctx.ctor != ctx->ctor)
	CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*p, idx, new_ctx.ctor);
      if (TREE_CODE (elttype) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	{
	  /* A multidimensional array; recurse.  */
	  if (value_init || init == NULL_TREE)
	    {
	      eltinit = NULL_TREE;
	      reuse = i == 0;
	    }
	  else
	    eltinit = cp_build_array_ref (input_location, init, idx,
					  tf_warning_or_error);
	  eltinit = cxx_eval_vec_init_1 (&new_ctx, elttype, eltinit, value_init,
					 lval,
					 non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	}
      else if (pre_init)
	{
	  /* Initializing an element using value or default initialization
	     we just pre-built above.  */
	  eltinit = cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, init, lval,
						  non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	  reuse = i == 0;
	}
      else
	{
	  /* Copying an element.  */
	  gcc_assert (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		      (atype, TREE_TYPE (init)));
	  eltinit = cp_build_array_ref (input_location, init, idx,
					tf_warning_or_error);
	  if (!lvalue_p (init))
	    eltinit = move (eltinit);
	  eltinit = force_rvalue (eltinit, tf_warning_or_error);
	  eltinit = (cxx_eval_constant_expression
		     (&new_ctx, eltinit, lval,
		      non_constant_p, overflow_p));
	}
      if (*non_constant_p && !ctx->quiet)
	break;
      if (new_ctx.ctor != ctx->ctor)
	{
	  /* We appended this element above; update the value.  */
	  gcc_assert ((*p)->last().index == idx);
	  (*p)->last().value = eltinit;
	}
      else
	CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*p, idx, eltinit);
      /* Reuse the result of cxx_eval_constant_expression call
	  from the first iteration to all others if it is a constant
	  initializer that doesn't require relocations.  */
      if (reuse
	  && max > 1
	  && (initializer_constant_valid_p (eltinit, TREE_TYPE (eltinit))
	      == null_pointer_node))
	{
	  if (new_ctx.ctor != ctx->ctor)
	    eltinit = new_ctx.ctor;
	  for (i = 1; i < max; ++i)
	    {
	      idx = build_int_cst (size_type_node, i);
	      CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (*p, idx, unshare_constructor (eltinit));
	    }
	  break;
	}
    }

  if (!*non_constant_p)
    {
      init = ctx->ctor;
      CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (init) = false;
    }
  return init;
}

static tree
cxx_eval_vec_init (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
		   bool lval,
		   bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree atype = TREE_TYPE (t);
  tree init = VEC_INIT_EXPR_INIT (t);
  tree r = cxx_eval_vec_init_1 (ctx, atype, init,
				VEC_INIT_EXPR_VALUE_INIT (t),
				lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  else
    return r;
}

/* A less strict version of fold_indirect_ref_1, which requires cv-quals to
   match.  We want to be less strict for simple *& folding; if we have a
   non-const temporary that we access through a const pointer, that should
   work.  We handle this here rather than change fold_indirect_ref_1
   because we're dealing with things like ADDR_EXPR of INTEGER_CST which
   don't really make sense outside of constant expression evaluation.  Also
   we want to allow folding to COMPONENT_REF, which could cause trouble
   with TBAA in fold_indirect_ref_1.

   Try to keep this function synced with fold_indirect_ref_1.  */

static tree
cxx_fold_indirect_ref (location_t loc, tree type, tree op0, bool *empty_base)
{
  tree sub, subtype;

  sub = op0;
  STRIP_NOPS (sub);
  subtype = TREE_TYPE (sub);
  if (!POINTER_TYPE_P (subtype))
    return NULL_TREE;

  if (TREE_CODE (sub) == ADDR_EXPR)
    {
      tree op = TREE_OPERAND (sub, 0);
      tree optype = TREE_TYPE (op);

      /* *&CONST_DECL -> to the value of the const decl.  */
      if (TREE_CODE (op) == CONST_DECL)
	return DECL_INITIAL (op);
      /* *&p => p;  make sure to handle *&"str"[cst] here.  */
      if (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (optype, type)
	  /* Also handle the case where the desired type is an array of unknown
	     bounds because the variable has had its bounds deduced since the
	     ADDR_EXPR was created.  */
	  || (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && TREE_CODE (optype) == ARRAY_TYPE
	      && TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE
	      && same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (TREE_TYPE (optype),
							    TREE_TYPE (type))))
	{
	  tree fop = fold_read_from_constant_string (op);
	  if (fop)
	    return fop;
	  else
	    return op;
	}
      /* *(foo *)&fooarray => fooarray[0] */
      else if (TREE_CODE (optype) == ARRAY_TYPE
	       && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		   (type, TREE_TYPE (optype))))
	{
	  tree type_domain = TYPE_DOMAIN (optype);
	  tree min_val = size_zero_node;
	  if (type_domain && TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain))
	    min_val = TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain);
	  return build4_loc (loc, ARRAY_REF, type, op, min_val,
			     NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
	}
      /* *(foo *)&complexfoo => __real__ complexfoo */
      else if (TREE_CODE (optype) == COMPLEX_TYPE
	       && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		   (type, TREE_TYPE (optype))))
	return fold_build1_loc (loc, REALPART_EXPR, type, op);
      /* *(foo *)&vectorfoo => BIT_FIELD_REF<vectorfoo,...> */
      else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (optype)
	       && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		   (type, TREE_TYPE (optype))))
	{
	  tree part_width = TYPE_SIZE (type);
	  tree index = bitsize_int (0);
	  return fold_build3_loc (loc, BIT_FIELD_REF, type, op, part_width, index);
	}
      /* Also handle conversion to an empty base class, which
	 is represented with a NOP_EXPR.  */
      else if (is_empty_class (type)
	       && CLASS_TYPE_P (optype)
	       && DERIVED_FROM_P (type, optype))
	{
	  *empty_base = true;
	  return op;
	}
      /* *(foo *)&struct_with_foo_field => COMPONENT_REF */
      else if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (optype))
	{
	  tree field = TYPE_FIELDS (optype);
	  for (; field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
	    if (TREE_CODE (field) == FIELD_DECL
		&& TREE_TYPE (field) != error_mark_node
		&& integer_zerop (byte_position (field))
		&& (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		    (TREE_TYPE (field), type)))
	      return fold_build3 (COMPONENT_REF, type, op, field, NULL_TREE);
	}
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (sub) == POINTER_PLUS_EXPR
	   && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (sub, 1)) == INTEGER_CST)
    {
      tree op00 = TREE_OPERAND (sub, 0);
      tree op01 = TREE_OPERAND (sub, 1);

      STRIP_NOPS (op00);
      if (TREE_CODE (op00) == ADDR_EXPR)
	{
	  tree op00type;
	  op00 = TREE_OPERAND (op00, 0);
	  op00type = TREE_TYPE (op00);

	  /* ((foo*)&vectorfoo)[1] => BIT_FIELD_REF<vectorfoo,...> */
	  if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (op00type)
	      && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		  (type, TREE_TYPE (op00type))))
	    {
	      HOST_WIDE_INT offset = tree_to_shwi (op01);
	      tree part_width = TYPE_SIZE (type);
	      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT part_widthi = tree_to_shwi (part_width)/BITS_PER_UNIT;
	      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT indexi = offset * BITS_PER_UNIT;
	      tree index = bitsize_int (indexi);

	      if (offset / part_widthi < TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (op00type))
		return fold_build3_loc (loc,
					BIT_FIELD_REF, type, op00,
					part_width, index);

	    }
	  /* ((foo*)&complexfoo)[1] => __imag__ complexfoo */
	  else if (TREE_CODE (op00type) == COMPLEX_TYPE
		   && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		       (type, TREE_TYPE (op00type))))
	    {
	      tree size = TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type);
	      if (tree_int_cst_equal (size, op01))
		return fold_build1_loc (loc, IMAGPART_EXPR, type, op00);
	    }
	  /* ((foo *)&fooarray)[1] => fooarray[1] */
	  else if (TREE_CODE (op00type) == ARRAY_TYPE
		   && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		       (type, TREE_TYPE (op00type))))
	    {
	      tree type_domain = TYPE_DOMAIN (op00type);
	      tree min_val = size_zero_node;
	      if (type_domain && TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain))
		min_val = TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain);
	      op01 = size_binop_loc (loc, EXACT_DIV_EXPR, op01,
				     TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type));
	      op01 = size_binop_loc (loc, PLUS_EXPR, op01, min_val);
	      return build4_loc (loc, ARRAY_REF, type, op00, op01,
				 NULL_TREE, NULL_TREE);
	    }
	  /* Also handle conversion to an empty base class, which
	     is represented with a NOP_EXPR.  */
	  else if (is_empty_class (type)
		   && CLASS_TYPE_P (op00type)
		   && DERIVED_FROM_P (type, op00type))
	    {
	      *empty_base = true;
	      return op00;
	    }
	  /* ((foo *)&struct_with_foo_field)[1] => COMPONENT_REF */
	  else if (RECORD_OR_UNION_TYPE_P (op00type))
	    {
	      tree field = TYPE_FIELDS (op00type);
	      for (; field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
		if (TREE_CODE (field) == FIELD_DECL
		    && TREE_TYPE (field) != error_mark_node
		    && tree_int_cst_equal (byte_position (field), op01)
		    && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
			(TREE_TYPE (field), type)))
		  return fold_build3 (COMPONENT_REF, type, op00,
				      field, NULL_TREE);
	    }
	}
    }
  /* *(foo *)fooarrptr => (*fooarrptr)[0] */
  else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (subtype)) == ARRAY_TYPE
	   && (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
	       (type, TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (subtype)))))
    {
      tree type_domain;
      tree min_val = size_zero_node;
      tree newsub = cxx_fold_indirect_ref (loc, TREE_TYPE (subtype), sub, NULL);
      if (newsub)
	sub = newsub;
      else
	sub = build1_loc (loc, INDIRECT_REF, TREE_TYPE (subtype), sub);
      type_domain = TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (sub));
      if (type_domain && TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain))
	min_val = TYPE_MIN_VALUE (type_domain);
      return build4_loc (loc, ARRAY_REF, type, sub, min_val, NULL_TREE,
			 NULL_TREE);
    }

  return NULL_TREE;
}

static tree
cxx_eval_indirect_ref (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
		       bool lval,
		       bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  tree orig_op0 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  bool empty_base = false;

  /* We can handle a MEM_REF like an INDIRECT_REF, if MEM_REF's second
     operand is an integer-zero.  Otherwise reject the MEM_REF for now.  */

  if (TREE_CODE (t) == MEM_REF
      && (!TREE_OPERAND (t, 1) || !integer_zerop (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1))))
    {
      gcc_assert (ctx->quiet);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }

  /* First try to simplify it directly.  */
  tree r = cxx_fold_indirect_ref (EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_TYPE (t), orig_op0,
				  &empty_base);
  if (!r)
    {
      /* If that didn't work, evaluate the operand first.  */
      tree op0 = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, orig_op0,
					       /*lval*/false, non_constant_p,
					       overflow_p);
      /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here.  */
      if (*non_constant_p)
	return t;

      if (!lval && integer_zerop (op0))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error ("dereferencing a null pointer");
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  return t;
	}

      r = cxx_fold_indirect_ref (EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_TYPE (t), op0,
				 &empty_base);
      if (r == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  /* We couldn't fold to a constant value.  Make sure it's not
	     something we should have been able to fold.  */
	  tree sub = op0;
	  STRIP_NOPS (sub);
	  if (TREE_CODE (sub) == ADDR_EXPR)
	    {
	      gcc_assert (!same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
			  (TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (sub)), TREE_TYPE (t)));
	      /* DR 1188 says we don't have to deal with this.  */
	      if (!ctx->quiet)
		error ("accessing value of %qE through a %qT glvalue in a "
		       "constant expression", build_fold_indirect_ref (sub),
		       TREE_TYPE (t));
	      *non_constant_p = true;
	      return t;
	    }

	  if (lval && op0 != orig_op0)
	    return build1 (INDIRECT_REF, TREE_TYPE (t), op0);
	  if (!lval)
	    VERIFY_CONSTANT (t);
	  return t;
	}
    }

  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, r,
				    lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;

  /* If we're pulling out the value of an empty base, just return an empty
     CONSTRUCTOR.  */
  if (empty_base && !lval)
    {
      r = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (t), NULL);
      TREE_CONSTANT (r) = true;
    }

  return r;
}

/* Complain about R, a VAR_DECL, not being usable in a constant expression.
   Shared between potential_constant_expression and
   cxx_eval_constant_expression.  */

static void
non_const_var_error (tree r)
{
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (r);
  error ("the value of %qD is not usable in a constant "
	 "expression", r);
  /* Avoid error cascade.  */
  if (DECL_INITIAL (r) == error_mark_node)
    return;
  if (DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (r))
    inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
	    "%qD used in its own initializer", r);
  else if (INTEGRAL_OR_ENUMERATION_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      if (!CP_TYPE_CONST_P (type))
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
		"%q#D is not const", r);
      else if (CP_TYPE_VOLATILE_P (type))
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
		"%q#D is volatile", r);
      else if (!DECL_INITIAL (r)
	       || !TREE_CONSTANT (DECL_INITIAL (r))
	       || !DECL_INITIALIZED_BY_CONSTANT_EXPRESSION_P (r))
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
		"%qD was not initialized with a constant "
		"expression", r);
      else
	gcc_unreachable ();
    }
  else if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
    inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
	    "%qD was not initialized with a constant "
	    "expression", r);
  else
    {
      if (cxx_dialect >= cxx11 && !DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (r))
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
		"%qD was not declared %<constexpr%>", r);
      else
	inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (r),
		"%qD does not have integral or enumeration type",
		r);
    }
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
   Like cxx_eval_unary_expression, except for trinary expressions.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_trinary_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			     bool lval,
			     bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  int i;
  tree args[3];
  tree val;

  for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
    {
      args[i] = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, i),
					      lval,
					      non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      VERIFY_CONSTANT (args[i]);
    }

  val = fold_ternary_loc (EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_CODE (t), TREE_TYPE (t),
			  args[0], args[1], args[2]);
  if (val == NULL_TREE)
    return t;
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (val);
  return val;
}

/* True if T was declared in a function declared to be constexpr, and
   therefore potentially constant in C++14.  */

bool
var_in_constexpr_fn (tree t)
{
  tree ctx = DECL_CONTEXT (t);
  return (ctx && TREE_CODE (ctx) == FUNCTION_DECL
	  && DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (ctx));
}

/* True if T was declared in a function that might be constexpr: either a
   function that was declared constexpr, or a C++17 lambda op().  */

bool
var_in_maybe_constexpr_fn (tree t)
{
  if (cxx_dialect >= cxx17
      && DECL_FUNCTION_SCOPE_P (t)
      && LAMBDA_FUNCTION_P (DECL_CONTEXT (t)))
    return true;
  return var_in_constexpr_fn (t);
}

/* We're assigning INIT to TARGET.  In do_build_copy_constructor and
   build_over_call we implement trivial copy of a class with tail padding using
   assignment of character arrays, which is valid in normal code, but not in
   constexpr evaluation.  We don't need to worry about clobbering tail padding
   in constexpr evaluation, so strip the type punning.  */

static void
maybe_simplify_trivial_copy (tree &target, tree &init)
{
  if (TREE_CODE (target) == MEM_REF
      && TREE_CODE (init) == MEM_REF
      && TREE_TYPE (target) == TREE_TYPE (init)
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (target)) == ARRAY_TYPE
      && TREE_TYPE (TREE_TYPE (target)) == unsigned_char_type_node)
    {
      target = build_fold_indirect_ref (TREE_OPERAND (target, 0));
      init = build_fold_indirect_ref (TREE_OPERAND (init, 0));
    }
}

/* Evaluate an INIT_EXPR or MODIFY_EXPR.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			   bool lval,
			   bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  constexpr_ctx new_ctx = *ctx;

  tree init = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  if (TREE_CLOBBER_P (init))
    /* Just ignore clobbers.  */
    return void_node;

  /* First we figure out where we're storing to.  */
  tree target = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);

  maybe_simplify_trivial_copy (target, init);

  tree type = TREE_TYPE (target);
  target = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, target,
					 true,
					 non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;

  /* cxx_eval_array_reference for lval = true allows references one past
     end of array, because it does not know if it is just taking address
     (which is valid), or actual dereference.  Here we know it is
     a dereference, so diagnose it here.  */
  for (tree probe = target; probe; )
    {
      switch (TREE_CODE (probe))
	{
	case ARRAY_REF:
	  tree nelts, ary;
	  ary = TREE_OPERAND (probe, 0);
	  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (ary)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
	    nelts = array_type_nelts_top (TREE_TYPE (ary));
	  else if (VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (ary)))
	    nelts = size_int (TYPE_VECTOR_SUBPARTS (TREE_TYPE (ary)));
	  else
	    gcc_unreachable ();
	  nelts = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, nelts, false,
						non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	  VERIFY_CONSTANT (nelts);
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (nelts) == INTEGER_CST
		      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (probe, 1)) == INTEGER_CST);
	  if (wi::to_widest (TREE_OPERAND (probe, 1)) == wi::to_widest (nelts))
	    {
	      diag_array_subscript (ctx, ary, TREE_OPERAND (probe, 1));
	      *non_constant_p = true;
	      return t;
	    }
	  /* FALLTHRU */

	case BIT_FIELD_REF:
	case COMPONENT_REF:
	  probe = TREE_OPERAND (probe, 0);
	  continue;

	default:
	  probe = NULL_TREE;
	  continue;
	}
    }

  if (!same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (TREE_TYPE (target), type))
    {
      /* For initialization of an empty base, the original target will be
         *(base*)this, which the above evaluation resolves to the object
	 argument, which has the derived type rather than the base type.  In
	 this situation, just evaluate the initializer and return, since
	 there's no actual data to store.  */
      gcc_assert (is_empty_class (type));
      return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, init, false,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
    }

  /* And then find the underlying variable.  */
  vec<tree,va_gc> *refs = make_tree_vector();
  tree object = NULL_TREE;
  for (tree probe = target; object == NULL_TREE; )
    {
      switch (TREE_CODE (probe))
	{
	case BIT_FIELD_REF:
	case COMPONENT_REF:
	case ARRAY_REF:
	  vec_safe_push (refs, TREE_OPERAND (probe, 1));
	  vec_safe_push (refs, TREE_TYPE (probe));
	  probe = TREE_OPERAND (probe, 0);
	  break;

	default:
	  object = probe;
	}
    }

  /* And then find/build up our initializer for the path to the subobject
     we're initializing.  */
  tree *valp;
  if (object == ctx->object && VAR_P (object)
      && DECL_NAME (object) && ctx->call == NULL)
    /* The variable we're building up an aggregate initializer for is outside
       the constant-expression, so don't evaluate the store.  We check
       DECL_NAME to handle TARGET_EXPR temporaries, which are fair game.  */
    valp = NULL;
  else if (DECL_P (object))
    valp = ctx->values->get (object);
  else
    valp = NULL;
  if (!valp)
    {
      /* A constant-expression cannot modify objects from outside the
	 constant-expression.  */
      if (!ctx->quiet)
	error ("modification of %qE is not a constant expression", object);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }
  type = TREE_TYPE (object);
  bool no_zero_init = true;

  vec<tree,va_gc> *ctors = make_tree_vector ();
  while (!refs->is_empty())
    {
      if (*valp == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  *valp = build_constructor (type, NULL);
	  CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (*valp) = no_zero_init;
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (*valp) == STRING_CST)
	{
	  /* An array was initialized with a string constant, and now
	     we're writing into one of its elements.  Explode the
	     single initialization into a set of element
	     initializations.  */
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE);

	  tree string = *valp;
	  tree elt_type = TREE_TYPE (type);
	  unsigned chars_per_elt = (TYPE_PRECISION (elt_type)
				    / TYPE_PRECISION (char_type_node));
	  unsigned num_elts = TREE_STRING_LENGTH (string) / chars_per_elt;
	  tree ary_ctor = build_constructor (type, NULL);

	  vec_safe_reserve (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary_ctor), num_elts);
	  for (unsigned ix = 0; ix != num_elts; ix++)
	    {
	      constructor_elt elt = 
		{
		  build_int_cst (size_type_node, ix),
		  extract_string_elt (string, chars_per_elt, ix)
		};
	      CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (ary_ctor)->quick_push (elt);
	    }
	  
	  *valp = ary_ctor;
	}

      /* If the value of object is already zero-initialized, any new ctors for
	 subobjects will also be zero-initialized.  */
      no_zero_init = CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (*valp);

      vec_safe_push (ctors, *valp);

      enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);
      type = refs->pop();
      tree index = refs->pop();

      constructor_elt *cep = NULL;
      if (code == ARRAY_TYPE)
	{
	  HOST_WIDE_INT i
	    = find_array_ctor_elt (*valp, index, /*insert*/true);
	  gcc_assert (i >= 0);
	  cep = CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, i);
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (cep->index) != RANGE_EXPR);
	}
      else
	{
	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (index) == FIELD_DECL);

	  /* We must keep the CONSTRUCTOR's ELTS in FIELD order.
	     Usually we meet initializers in that order, but it is
	     possible for base types to be placed not in program
	     order.  */
	  tree fields = TYPE_FIELDS (DECL_CONTEXT (index));
	  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT idx;

	  if (code == UNION_TYPE && CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (*valp)
	      && CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, 0)->index != index)
	    /* Changing active member.  */
	    vec_safe_truncate (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (*valp), 0);

	  for (idx = 0;
	       vec_safe_iterate (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (*valp), idx, &cep);
	       idx++, fields = DECL_CHAIN (fields))
	    {
	      if (index == cep->index)
		goto found;

	      /* The field we're initializing must be on the field
		 list.  Look to see if it is present before the
		 field the current ELT initializes.  */
	      for (; fields != cep->index; fields = DECL_CHAIN (fields))
		if (index == fields)
		  goto insert;
	    }

	  /* We fell off the end of the CONSTRUCTOR, so insert a new
	     entry at the end.  */
	insert:
	  {
	    constructor_elt ce = { index, NULL_TREE };

	    vec_safe_insert (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (*valp), idx, ce);
	    cep = CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, idx);
	  }
	found:;
	}
      valp = &cep->value;
    }
  release_tree_vector (refs);

  if (AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (type) || VECTOR_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      /* Create a new CONSTRUCTOR in case evaluation of the initializer
	 wants to modify it.  */
      if (*valp == NULL_TREE)
	{
	  *valp = build_constructor (type, NULL);
	  CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (*valp) = no_zero_init;
	}
      else if (TREE_CODE (*valp) == PTRMEM_CST)
	*valp = cplus_expand_constant (*valp);
      new_ctx.ctor = *valp;
      new_ctx.object = target;
    }

  init = cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, init, false,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  /* Don't share a CONSTRUCTOR that might be changed later.  */
  init = unshare_constructor (init);
  if (target == object)
    /* The hash table might have moved since the get earlier.  */
    valp = ctx->values->get (object);

  if (TREE_CODE (init) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    {
      /* An outer ctx->ctor might be pointing to *valp, so replace
	 its contents.  */
      CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (*valp) = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (init);
      TREE_CONSTANT (*valp) = TREE_CONSTANT (init);
      TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (*valp) = TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (init);
      CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (*valp)
	= CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (init);
    }
  else
    *valp = init;

  /* Update TREE_CONSTANT and TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS on enclosing
     CONSTRUCTORs, if any.  */
  tree elt;
  unsigned i;
  bool c = TREE_CONSTANT (init);
  bool s = TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (init);
  if (!c || s)
    FOR_EACH_VEC_SAFE_ELT (ctors, i, elt)
      {
	if (!c)
	  TREE_CONSTANT (elt) = false;
	if (s)
	  TREE_SIDE_EFFECTS (elt) = true;
      }
  release_tree_vector (ctors);

  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  else if (lval)
    return target;
  else
    return init;
}

/* Evaluate a ++ or -- expression.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_increment_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			      bool lval,
			      bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p)
{
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);
  tree type = TREE_TYPE (t);
  tree op = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  tree offset = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  gcc_assert (TREE_CONSTANT (offset));

  /* The operand as an lvalue.  */
  op = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, op, true,
				     non_constant_p, overflow_p);

  /* The operand as an rvalue.  */
  tree val
    = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, op, false,
				    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  /* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT if this might be dealing with a pointer to
     a local array in a constexpr function.  */
  bool ptr = POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (val));
  if (!ptr)
    VERIFY_CONSTANT (val);

  /* The modified value.  */
  bool inc = (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == POSTINCREMENT_EXPR);
  tree mod;
  if (POINTER_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      /* The middle end requires pointers to use POINTER_PLUS_EXPR.  */
      offset = convert_to_ptrofftype (offset);
      if (!inc)
	offset = fold_build1 (NEGATE_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (offset), offset);
      mod = fold_build2 (POINTER_PLUS_EXPR, type, val, offset);
    }
  else
    mod = fold_build2 (inc ? PLUS_EXPR : MINUS_EXPR, type, val, offset);
  if (!ptr)
    VERIFY_CONSTANT (mod);

  /* Storing the modified value.  */
  tree store = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, type, op, mod);
  cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, store,
				true, non_constant_p, overflow_p);

  /* And the value of the expression.  */
  if (code == PREINCREMENT_EXPR || code == PREDECREMENT_EXPR)
    {
      /* Prefix ops are lvalues.  */
      if (lval)
	return op;
      else
	/* But we optimize when the caller wants an rvalue.  */
	return mod;
    }
  else
    /* Postfix ops are rvalues.  */
    return val;
}

/* Predicates for the meaning of *jump_target.  */

static bool
returns (tree *jump_target)
{
  return *jump_target
    && (TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == RETURN_EXPR
	|| (TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == LABEL_DECL
	    && LABEL_DECL_CDTOR (*jump_target)));
}

static bool
breaks (tree *jump_target)
{
  return *jump_target
    && ((TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == LABEL_DECL
	 && LABEL_DECL_BREAK (*jump_target))
	|| TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == EXIT_EXPR);
}

static bool
continues (tree *jump_target)
{
  return *jump_target
    && TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == LABEL_DECL
    && LABEL_DECL_CONTINUE (*jump_target);
}

static bool
switches (tree *jump_target)
{
  return *jump_target
    && TREE_CODE (*jump_target) == INTEGER_CST;
}

/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_statement_list.  Determine whether the statement
   STMT matches *jump_target.  If we're looking for a case label and we see
   the default label, note it in ctx->css_state.  */

static bool
label_matches (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree *jump_target, tree stmt)
{
  switch (TREE_CODE (*jump_target))
    {
    case LABEL_DECL:
      if (TREE_CODE (stmt) == LABEL_EXPR
	  && LABEL_EXPR_LABEL (stmt) == *jump_target)
	return true;
      break;

    case INTEGER_CST:
      if (TREE_CODE (stmt) == CASE_LABEL_EXPR)
	{
	  gcc_assert (ctx->css_state != NULL);
	  if (!CASE_LOW (stmt))
	    {
	      /* default: should appear just once in a SWITCH_EXPR
		 body (excluding nested SWITCH_EXPR).  */
	      gcc_assert (*ctx->css_state != css_default_seen);
	      /* When evaluating SWITCH_EXPR body for the second time,
		 return true for the default: label.  */
	      if (*ctx->css_state == css_default_processing)
		return true;
	      *ctx->css_state = css_default_seen;
	    }
	  else if (CASE_HIGH (stmt))
	    {
	      if (tree_int_cst_le (CASE_LOW (stmt), *jump_target)
		  && tree_int_cst_le (*jump_target, CASE_HIGH (stmt)))
		return true;
	    }
	  else if (tree_int_cst_equal (*jump_target, CASE_LOW (stmt)))
	    return true;
	}
      break;

    default:
      gcc_unreachable ();
    }
  return false;
}

/* Evaluate a STATEMENT_LIST for side-effects.  Handles various jump
   semantics, for switch, break, continue, and return.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_statement_list (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			 bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
			 tree *jump_target)
{
  tree_stmt_iterator i;
  tree local_target;
  /* In a statement-expression we want to return the last value.
     For empty statement expression return void_node.  */
  tree r = void_node;
  if (!jump_target)
    {
      local_target = NULL_TREE;
      jump_target = &local_target;
    }
  for (i = tsi_start (t); !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
    {
      tree stmt = tsi_stmt (i);
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, stmt, false,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					jump_target);
      if (*non_constant_p)
	break;
      if (returns (jump_target) || breaks (jump_target))
	break;
    }
  return r;
}

/* Evaluate a LOOP_EXPR for side-effects.  Handles break and return
   semantics; continue semantics are covered by cxx_eval_statement_list.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_loop_expr (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
		    bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
		    tree *jump_target)
{
  constexpr_ctx new_ctx = *ctx;

  tree body = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  int count = 0;
  do
    {
      hash_set<tree> save_exprs;
      new_ctx.save_exprs = &save_exprs;

      cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, body, /*lval*/false,
				    non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);

      /* Forget saved values of SAVE_EXPRs.  */
      for (hash_set<tree>::iterator iter = save_exprs.begin();
	   iter != save_exprs.end(); ++iter)
	new_ctx.values->remove (*iter);
      if (++count >= constexpr_loop_limit)
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
		      "constexpr loop iteration count exceeds limit of %d "
		      "(use -fconstexpr-loop-limit= to increase the limit)",
		      constexpr_loop_limit);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  break;
	}
    }
  while (!returns (jump_target)
	 && !breaks (jump_target)
	 && !switches (jump_target)
	 && !*non_constant_p);

  if (breaks (jump_target))
    *jump_target = NULL_TREE;

  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Evaluate a SWITCH_EXPR for side-effects.  Handles switch and break jump
   semantics.  */

static tree
cxx_eval_switch_expr (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
		      bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
		      tree *jump_target)
{
  tree cond = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  cond = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, cond, false,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
  VERIFY_CONSTANT (cond);
  *jump_target = cond;

  tree body = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  constexpr_ctx new_ctx = *ctx;
  constexpr_switch_state css = css_default_not_seen;
  new_ctx.css_state = &css;
  cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, body, false,
				non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);
  if (switches (jump_target) && css == css_default_seen)
    {
      /* If the SWITCH_EXPR body has default: label, process it once again,
	 this time instructing label_matches to return true for default:
	 label on switches (jump_target).  */
      css = css_default_processing;
      cxx_eval_constant_expression (&new_ctx, body, false,
				    non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);
    }
  if (breaks (jump_target) || switches (jump_target))
    *jump_target = NULL_TREE;
  return NULL_TREE;
}

/* Find the object of TYPE under initialization in CTX.  */

static tree
lookup_placeholder (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, bool lval, tree type)
{
  if (!ctx)
    return NULL_TREE;

  /* We could use ctx->object unconditionally, but using ctx->ctor when we
     can is a minor optimization.  */
  if (!lval && ctx->ctor && same_type_p (TREE_TYPE (ctx->ctor), type))
    return ctx->ctor;

  if (!ctx->object)
    return NULL_TREE;

  /* Since an object cannot have a field of its own type, we can search outward
     from ctx->object to find the unique containing object of TYPE.  */
  tree ob = ctx->object;
  while (ob)
    {
      if (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (TREE_TYPE (ob), type))
	break;
      if (handled_component_p (ob))
	ob = TREE_OPERAND (ob, 0);
      else
	ob = NULL_TREE;
    }

  return ob;
}

/* Attempt to reduce the expression T to a constant value.
   On failure, issue diagnostic and return error_mark_node.  */
/* FIXME unify with c_fully_fold */
/* FIXME overflow_p is too global */

static tree
cxx_eval_constant_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
			      bool lval,
			      bool *non_constant_p, bool *overflow_p,
			      tree *jump_target)
{
  constexpr_ctx new_ctx;
  tree r = t;

  if (jump_target && *jump_target)
    {
      /* If we are jumping, ignore all statements/expressions except those
	 that could have LABEL_EXPR or CASE_LABEL_EXPR in their bodies.  */
      switch (TREE_CODE (t))
	{
	case BIND_EXPR:
	case STATEMENT_LIST:
	case LOOP_EXPR:
	case COND_EXPR:
	  break;
	case LABEL_EXPR:
	case CASE_LABEL_EXPR:
	  if (label_matches (ctx, jump_target, t))
	    /* Found it.  */
	    *jump_target = NULL_TREE;
	  return NULL_TREE;
	default:
	  return NULL_TREE;
	}
    }
  if (t == error_mark_node)
    {
      *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;
    }
  if (CONSTANT_CLASS_P (t))
    {
      if (TREE_OVERFLOW (t))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    permerror (input_location, "overflow in constant expression");
	  if (!flag_permissive || ctx->quiet)
	    *overflow_p = true;
	}

      if (TREE_CODE (t) == INTEGER_CST
	  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == POINTER_TYPE
	  && !integer_zerop (t))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error ("value %qE of type %qT is not a constant expression",
		   t, TREE_TYPE (t));
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	}

      return t;
    }

  tree_code tcode = TREE_CODE (t);
  switch (tcode)
    {
    case RESULT_DECL:
      if (lval)
	return t;
      /* We ask for an rvalue for the RESULT_DECL when indirecting
	 through an invisible reference, or in named return value
	 optimization.  */
      return (*ctx->values->get (t));

    case VAR_DECL:
      if (DECL_HAS_VALUE_EXPR_P (t))
	return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, DECL_VALUE_EXPR (t),
					     lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      /* fall through */
    case CONST_DECL:
      /* We used to not check lval for CONST_DECL, but darwin.c uses
	 CONST_DECL for aggregate constants.  */
      if (lval)
	return t;
      if (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
	  && is_really_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  /* If the class is empty, we aren't actually loading anything.  */
	  r = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (t), NULL);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (r) = true;
	}
      else if (ctx->strict)
	r = decl_really_constant_value (t);
      else
	r = decl_constant_value (t);
      if (TREE_CODE (r) == TARGET_EXPR
	  && TREE_CODE (TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (r)) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	r = TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (r);
      if (VAR_P (r))
	if (tree *p = ctx->values->get (r))
	  if (*p != NULL_TREE)
	    r = *p;
      if (DECL_P (r))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    non_const_var_error (r);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	}
      break;

    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case TEMPLATE_DECL:
    case LABEL_DECL:
    case LABEL_EXPR:
    case CASE_LABEL_EXPR:
    case PREDICT_EXPR:
      return t;

    case PARM_DECL:
      if (lval && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) != REFERENCE_TYPE)
	/* glvalue use.  */;
      else if (tree *p = ctx->values->get (r))
	r = *p;
      else if (lval)
	/* Defer in case this is only used for its type.  */;
      else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
	/* Defer, there's no lvalue->rvalue conversion.  */;
      else if (COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
	       && is_really_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  /* If the class is empty, we aren't actually loading anything.  */
	  r = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (t), NULL);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (r) = true;
	}
      else
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error ("%qE is not a constant expression", t);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	}
      break;

    case CALL_EXPR:
    case AGGR_INIT_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_call_expression (ctx, t, lval,
				    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case DECL_EXPR:
      {
	r = DECL_EXPR_DECL (t);
	if (AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r))
	    || VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r)))
	  {
	    new_ctx = *ctx;
	    new_ctx.object = r;
	    new_ctx.ctor = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (r), NULL);
	    CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (new_ctx.ctor) = true;
	    new_ctx.values->put (r, new_ctx.ctor);
	    ctx = &new_ctx;
	  }

	if (tree init = DECL_INITIAL (r))
	  {
	    init = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, init,
						 false,
						 non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	    /* Don't share a CONSTRUCTOR that might be changed.  */
	    init = unshare_constructor (init);
	    ctx->values->put (r, init);
	  }
	else if (ctx == &new_ctx)
	  /* We gave it a CONSTRUCTOR above.  */;
	else
	  ctx->values->put (r, NULL_TREE);
      }
      break;

    case TARGET_EXPR:
      if (!literal_type_p (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    {
	      error ("temporary of non-literal type %qT in a "
		     "constant expression", TREE_TYPE (t));
	      explain_non_literal_class (TREE_TYPE (t));
	    }
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  break;
	}
      if ((AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t)) || VECTOR_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))))
	{
	  /* We're being expanded without an explicit target, so start
	     initializing a new object; expansion with an explicit target
	     strips the TARGET_EXPR before we get here.  */
	  new_ctx = *ctx;
	  new_ctx.ctor = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (t), NULL);
	  CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (new_ctx.ctor) = true;
	  new_ctx.object = TARGET_EXPR_SLOT (t);
	  ctx->values->put (new_ctx.object, new_ctx.ctor);
	  ctx = &new_ctx;
	}
      /* Pass false for 'lval' because this indicates
	 initialization of a temporary.  */
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1),
					false,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      if (!*non_constant_p)
	/* Adjust the type of the result to the type of the temporary.  */
	r = adjust_temp_type (TREE_TYPE (t), r);
      if (lval)
	{
	  tree slot = TARGET_EXPR_SLOT (t);
	  r = unshare_constructor (r);
	  ctx->values->put (slot, r);
	  return slot;
	}
      break;

    case INIT_EXPR:
    case MODIFY_EXPR:
      gcc_assert (jump_target == NULL || *jump_target == NULL_TREE);
      r = cxx_eval_store_expression (ctx, t, lval,
				     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case SCOPE_REF:
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1),
					lval,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case RETURN_EXPR:
      if (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0) != NULL_TREE)
	r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
					  lval,
					  non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      *jump_target = t;
      break;

    case SAVE_EXPR:
      /* Avoid evaluating a SAVE_EXPR more than once.  */
      if (tree *p = ctx->values->get (t))
	r = *p;
      else
	{
	  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), false,
					    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	  ctx->values->put (t, r);
	  if (ctx->save_exprs)
	    ctx->save_exprs->add (t);
	}
      break;

    case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
    case TRY_CATCH_EXPR:
    case TRY_BLOCK:
    case CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR:
    case MUST_NOT_THROW_EXPR:
    case EXPR_STMT:
    case EH_SPEC_BLOCK:
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
					lval,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					jump_target);
      break;

    case TRY_FINALLY_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), lval,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					jump_target);
      if (!*non_constant_p)
	/* Also evaluate the cleanup.  */
	cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), true,
				      non_constant_p, overflow_p,
				      jump_target);
      break;

      /* These differ from cxx_eval_unary_expression in that this doesn't
	 check for a constant operand or result; an address can be
	 constant without its operand being, and vice versa.  */
    case MEM_REF:
    case INDIRECT_REF:
      r = cxx_eval_indirect_ref (ctx, t, lval,
				 non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case ADDR_EXPR:
      {
	tree oldop = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	tree op = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, oldop,
						/*lval*/true,
						non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	/* Don't VERIFY_CONSTANT here.  */
	if (*non_constant_p)
	  return t;
	gcc_checking_assert (TREE_CODE (op) != CONSTRUCTOR);
	/* This function does more aggressive folding than fold itself.  */
	r = build_fold_addr_expr_with_type (op, TREE_TYPE (t));
	if (TREE_CODE (r) == ADDR_EXPR && TREE_OPERAND (r, 0) == oldop)
	  return t;
	break;
      }

    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
      if (lval)
	{
	  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), lval,
					    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	  if (r == error_mark_node)
	    ;
	  else if (r == TREE_OPERAND (t, 0))
	    r = t;
	  else
	    r = fold_build1 (TREE_CODE (t), TREE_TYPE (t), r);
	  break;
	}
      /* FALLTHRU */
    case CONJ_EXPR:
    case FIX_TRUNC_EXPR:
    case FLOAT_EXPR:
    case NEGATE_EXPR:
    case ABS_EXPR:
    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
    case FIXED_CONVERT_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_unary_expression (ctx, t, lval,
				     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case SIZEOF_EXPR:
      r = fold_sizeof_expr (t);
      VERIFY_CONSTANT (r);
      break;

    case COMPOUND_EXPR:
      {
	/* check_return_expr sometimes wraps a TARGET_EXPR in a
	   COMPOUND_EXPR; don't get confused.  Also handle EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR
	   introduced by build_call_a.  */
	tree op0 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	tree op1 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
	STRIP_NOPS (op1);
	if ((TREE_CODE (op0) == TARGET_EXPR && op1 == TARGET_EXPR_SLOT (op0))
	    || TREE_CODE (op1) == EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR)
	  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, op0,
					    lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					    jump_target);
	else
	  {
	    /* Check that the LHS is constant and then discard it.  */
	    cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, op0,
					  true, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					  jump_target);
	    if (*non_constant_p)
	      return t;
	    op1 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
	    r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, op1,
					      lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					      jump_target);
	  }
      }
      break;

    case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
    case PLUS_EXPR:
    case MINUS_EXPR:
    case MULT_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
    case CEIL_DIV_EXPR:
    case FLOOR_DIV_EXPR:
    case ROUND_DIV_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_MOD_EXPR:
    case CEIL_MOD_EXPR:
    case ROUND_MOD_EXPR:
    case RDIV_EXPR:
    case EXACT_DIV_EXPR:
    case MIN_EXPR:
    case MAX_EXPR:
    case LSHIFT_EXPR:
    case RSHIFT_EXPR:
    case LROTATE_EXPR:
    case RROTATE_EXPR:
    case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
    case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
    case BIT_AND_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_XOR_EXPR:
    case LT_EXPR:
    case LE_EXPR:
    case GT_EXPR:
    case GE_EXPR:
    case EQ_EXPR:
    case NE_EXPR:
    case UNORDERED_EXPR:
    case ORDERED_EXPR:
    case UNLT_EXPR:
    case UNLE_EXPR:
    case UNGT_EXPR:
    case UNGE_EXPR:
    case UNEQ_EXPR:
    case LTGT_EXPR:
    case RANGE_EXPR:
    case COMPLEX_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_binary_expression (ctx, t, lval,
				      non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

      /* fold can introduce non-IF versions of these; still treat them as
	 short-circuiting.  */
    case TRUTH_AND_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_logical_expression (ctx, t, boolean_false_node,
				       boolean_true_node,
				       lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case TRUTH_OR_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_logical_expression (ctx, t, boolean_true_node,
				       boolean_false_node,
				       lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case ARRAY_REF:
      r = cxx_eval_array_reference (ctx, t, lval,
				    non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case COMPONENT_REF:
      if (is_overloaded_fn (t))
	{
	  /* We can only get here in checking mode via 
	     build_non_dependent_expr,  because any expression that
	     calls or takes the address of the function will have
	     pulled a FUNCTION_DECL out of the COMPONENT_REF.  */
	  gcc_checking_assert (ctx->quiet || errorcount);
	  *non_constant_p = true;
	  return t;
	}
      r = cxx_eval_component_reference (ctx, t, lval,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case BIT_FIELD_REF:
      r = cxx_eval_bit_field_ref (ctx, t, lval,
				  non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case COND_EXPR:
      if (jump_target && *jump_target)
	{
	  /* When jumping to a label, the label might be either in the
	     then or else blocks, so process then block first in skipping
	     mode first, and if we are still in the skipping mode at its end,
	     process the else block too.  */
	  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 1),
					    lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					    jump_target);
	  if (*jump_target)
	    r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 2),
					      lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					      jump_target);
	  break;
	}
      /* FALLTHRU */
    case VEC_COND_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_conditional_expression (ctx, t, lval,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					   jump_target);
      break;

    case CONSTRUCTOR:
      if (TREE_CONSTANT (t))
	{
	  /* Don't re-process a constant CONSTRUCTOR, but do fold it to
	     VECTOR_CST if applicable.  */
	  /* FIXME after GCC 6 branches, make the verify unconditional.  */
	  if (CHECKING_P)
	    verify_constructor_flags (t);
	  else
	    recompute_constructor_flags (t);
	  if (TREE_CONSTANT (t))
	    return fold (t);
	}
      r = cxx_eval_bare_aggregate (ctx, t, lval,
				   non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case VEC_INIT_EXPR:
      /* We can get this in a defaulted constructor for a class with a
	 non-static data member of array type.  Either the initializer will
	 be NULL, meaning default-initialization, or it will be an lvalue
	 or xvalue of the same type, meaning direct-initialization from the
	 corresponding member.  */
      r = cxx_eval_vec_init (ctx, t, lval,
			     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case FMA_EXPR:
    case VEC_PERM_EXPR:
      r = cxx_eval_trinary_expression (ctx, t, lval,
				       non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      break;

    case CONVERT_EXPR:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
    case NOP_EXPR:
    case UNARY_PLUS_EXPR:
      {
	tree oldop = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);

	tree op = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, oldop,
						lval,
						non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	if (*non_constant_p)
	  return t;
	tree type = TREE_TYPE (t);
	if (TREE_CODE (op) == PTRMEM_CST
	    && !TYPE_PTRMEM_P (type))
	  op = cplus_expand_constant (op);
	if (TREE_CODE (op) == PTRMEM_CST && tcode == NOP_EXPR)
	  {
	    if (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p (type,
							   TREE_TYPE (op))
		|| can_convert_qual (type, op))
	      return cp_fold_convert (type, op);
	    else
	      {
		if (!ctx->quiet)
		  error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
			    "a reinterpret_cast is not a constant expression");
		*non_constant_p = true;
		return t;
	      }
	  }

	if (POINTER_TYPE_P (type) && TREE_CODE (op) == INTEGER_CST)
	  {
	    if (integer_zerop (op))
	      {
		if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
		  {
		    if (!ctx->quiet)
		      error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
				"dereferencing a null pointer");
		    *non_constant_p = true;
		    return t;
		  }
		else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (op)) == POINTER_TYPE)
		  {
		    tree from = TREE_TYPE (op);

		    if (!can_convert (type, from, tf_none))
		      {
			if (!ctx->quiet)
			  error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
				    "conversion of %qT null pointer to %qT "
				    "is not a constant expression",
				    from, type);
			*non_constant_p = true;
			return t;
		      }
		  }
	      }
	    else
	      {
		/* This detects for example:
		     reinterpret_cast<void*>(sizeof 0)
		*/
		if (!ctx->quiet)
		  error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
			    "%<reinterpret_cast<%T>(%E)%> is not "
			    "a constant expression",
			    type, op);
		*non_constant_p = true;
		return t;
	      }
	  }
	if (op == oldop && tcode != UNARY_PLUS_EXPR)
	  /* We didn't fold at the top so we could check for ptr-int
	     conversion.  */
	  return fold (t);
	if (tcode == UNARY_PLUS_EXPR)
	  r = fold_convert (TREE_TYPE (t), op);
	else
	  r = fold_build1 (tcode, type, op);
	/* Conversion of an out-of-range value has implementation-defined
	   behavior; the language considers it different from arithmetic
	   overflow, which is undefined.  */
	if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (r) && !TREE_OVERFLOW_P (op))
	  TREE_OVERFLOW (r) = false;
      }
      break;

    case EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR:
      /* This is good enough for a function argument that might not get
	 used, and they can't do anything with it, so just return it.  */
      return t;

    case STATEMENT_LIST:
      new_ctx = *ctx;
      new_ctx.ctor = new_ctx.object = NULL_TREE;
      return cxx_eval_statement_list (&new_ctx, t,
				      non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);

    case BIND_EXPR:
      return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, BIND_EXPR_BODY (t),
					   lval,
					   non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					   jump_target);

    case PREINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case PREDECREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTDECREMENT_EXPR:
      return cxx_eval_increment_expression (ctx, t,
					    lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);

    case LAMBDA_EXPR:
    case NEW_EXPR:
    case VEC_NEW_EXPR:
    case DELETE_EXPR:
    case VEC_DELETE_EXPR:
    case THROW_EXPR:
    case MODOP_EXPR:
      /* GCC internal stuff.  */
    case VA_ARG_EXPR:
    case OBJ_TYPE_REF:
    case NON_DEPENDENT_EXPR:
    case BASELINK:
    case OFFSET_REF:
      if (!ctx->quiet)
        error_at (EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location),
		  "expression %qE is not a constant expression", t);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      break;

    case PLACEHOLDER_EXPR:
      /* Use of the value or address of the current object.  */
      if (tree ctor = lookup_placeholder (ctx, lval, TREE_TYPE (t)))
	return cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, ctor, lval,
					     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
      /* A placeholder without a referent.  We can get here when
	 checking whether NSDMIs are noexcept, or in massage_init_elt;
	 just say it's non-constant for now.  */
      gcc_assert (ctx->quiet);
      *non_constant_p = true;
      break;

    case EXIT_EXPR:
      {
	tree cond = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	cond = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, cond, /*lval*/false,
					     non_constant_p, overflow_p);
	VERIFY_CONSTANT (cond);
	if (integer_nonzerop (cond))
	  *jump_target = t;
      }
      break;

    case GOTO_EXPR:
      *jump_target = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
      gcc_assert (breaks (jump_target) || continues (jump_target)
		  /* Allow for jumping to a cdtor_label.  */
		  || returns (jump_target));
      break;

    case LOOP_EXPR:
      cxx_eval_loop_expr (ctx, t,
			  non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);
      break;

    case SWITCH_EXPR:
      cxx_eval_switch_expr (ctx, t,
			    non_constant_p, overflow_p, jump_target);
      break;

    case REQUIRES_EXPR:
      /* It's possible to get a requires-expression in a constant
         expression. For example:

             template<typename T> concept bool C() {
               return requires (T t) { t; };
             }

             template<typename T> requires !C<T>() void f(T);

         Normalization leaves f with the associated constraint
         '!requires (T t) { ... }' which is not transformed into
         a constraint.  */
      if (!processing_template_decl)
        return evaluate_constraint_expression (t, NULL_TREE);
      else
        *non_constant_p = true;
      return t;

    case ANNOTATE_EXPR:
      gcc_assert (tree_to_uhwi (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1)) == annot_expr_ivdep_kind);
      r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
					lval,
					non_constant_p, overflow_p,
					jump_target);
      break;

    default:
      if (STATEMENT_CODE_P (TREE_CODE (t)))
	{
	  /* This function doesn't know how to deal with pre-genericize
	     statements; this can only happen with statement-expressions,
	     so for now just fail.  */
	  if (!ctx->quiet)
	    error_at (EXPR_LOCATION (t),
		      "statement is not a constant expression");
	}
      else
	internal_error ("unexpected expression %qE of kind %s", t,
			get_tree_code_name (TREE_CODE (t)));
      *non_constant_p = true;
      break;
    }

  if (r == error_mark_node)
    *non_constant_p = true;

  if (*non_constant_p)
    return t;
  else
    return r;
}

static tree
cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (tree t, bool allow_non_constant,
				  bool strict = true, tree object = NULL_TREE)
{
  auto_timevar time (TV_CONSTEXPR);

  bool non_constant_p = false;
  bool overflow_p = false;
  hash_map<tree,tree> map;

  constexpr_ctx ctx = { NULL, &map, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
			allow_non_constant, strict };

  tree type = initialized_type (t);
  tree r = t;
  if (AGGREGATE_TYPE_P (type) || VECTOR_TYPE_P (type))
    {
      /* In C++14 an NSDMI can participate in aggregate initialization,
	 and can refer to the address of the object being initialized, so
	 we need to pass in the relevant VAR_DECL if we want to do the
	 evaluation in a single pass.  The evaluation will dynamically
	 update ctx.values for the VAR_DECL.  We use the same strategy
	 for C++11 constexpr constructors that refer to the object being
	 initialized.  */
      ctx.ctor = build_constructor (type, NULL);
      CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (ctx.ctor) = true;
      if (!object)
	{
	  if (TREE_CODE (t) == TARGET_EXPR)
	    object = TARGET_EXPR_SLOT (t);
	  else if (TREE_CODE (t) == AGGR_INIT_EXPR)
	    object = AGGR_INIT_EXPR_SLOT (t);
	}
      ctx.object = object;
      if (object)
	gcc_assert (same_type_ignoring_top_level_qualifiers_p
		    (type, TREE_TYPE (object)));
      if (object && DECL_P (object))
	map.put (object, ctx.ctor);
      if (TREE_CODE (r) == TARGET_EXPR)
	/* Avoid creating another CONSTRUCTOR when we expand the
	   TARGET_EXPR.  */
	r = TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (r);
    }

  r = cxx_eval_constant_expression (&ctx, r,
				    false, &non_constant_p, &overflow_p);

  verify_constant (r, allow_non_constant, &non_constant_p, &overflow_p);

  /* Mutable logic is a bit tricky: we want to allow initialization of
     constexpr variables with mutable members, but we can't copy those
     members to another constexpr variable.  */
  if (TREE_CODE (r) == CONSTRUCTOR
      && CONSTRUCTOR_MUTABLE_POISON (r))
    {
      if (!allow_non_constant)
	error ("%qE is not a constant expression because it refers to "
	       "mutable subobjects of %qT", t, type);
      non_constant_p = true;
    }

  if (TREE_CODE (r) == CONSTRUCTOR
      && CONSTRUCTOR_NO_IMPLICIT_ZERO (r))
    {
      if (!allow_non_constant)
	error ("%qE is not a constant expression because it refers to "
	       "an incompletely initialized variable", t);
      TREE_CONSTANT (r) = false;
      non_constant_p = true;
    }

  /* Technically we should check this for all subexpressions, but that
     runs into problems with our internal representation of pointer
     subtraction and the 5.19 rules are still in flux.  */
  if (CONVERT_EXPR_CODE_P (TREE_CODE (r))
      && ARITHMETIC_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r))
      && TREE_CODE (TREE_OPERAND (r, 0)) == ADDR_EXPR)
    {
      if (!allow_non_constant)
	error ("conversion from pointer type %qT "
	       "to arithmetic type %qT in a constant expression",
	       TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (r, 0)), TREE_TYPE (r));
      non_constant_p = true;
    }

  if (!non_constant_p && overflow_p)
    non_constant_p = true;

  /* Unshare the result unless it's a CONSTRUCTOR in which case it's already
     unshared.  */
  bool should_unshare = true;
  if (r == t || TREE_CODE (r) == CONSTRUCTOR)
    should_unshare = false;

  if (non_constant_p && !allow_non_constant)
    return error_mark_node;
  else if (non_constant_p && TREE_CONSTANT (r))
    {
      /* This isn't actually constant, so unset TREE_CONSTANT.  */
      if (EXPR_P (r))
	r = copy_node (r);
      else if (TREE_CODE (r) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	r = build1 (VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (r), r);
      else
	r = build_nop (TREE_TYPE (r), r);
      TREE_CONSTANT (r) = false;
    }
  else if (non_constant_p || r == t)
    return t;

  if (should_unshare)
    r = unshare_expr (r);

  if (TREE_CODE (r) == CONSTRUCTOR && CLASS_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (r)))
    {
      if (TREE_CODE (t) == TARGET_EXPR
	  && TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (t) == r)
	return t;
      else
	{
	  r = get_target_expr (r);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (r) = true;
	  return r;
	}
    }
  else
    return r;
}

/* Returns true if T is a valid subexpression of a constant expression,
   even if it isn't itself a constant expression.  */

bool
is_sub_constant_expr (tree t)
{
  bool non_constant_p = false;
  bool overflow_p = false;
  hash_map <tree, tree> map;

  constexpr_ctx ctx = { NULL, &map, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, true, true };

  cxx_eval_constant_expression (&ctx, t, false, &non_constant_p,
				&overflow_p);
  return !non_constant_p && !overflow_p;
}

/* If T represents a constant expression returns its reduced value.
   Otherwise return error_mark_node.  If T is dependent, then
   return NULL.  */

tree
cxx_constant_value (tree t, tree decl)
{
  return cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (t, false, true, decl);
}

/* Helper routine for fold_simple function.  Either return simplified
   expression T, otherwise NULL_TREE.
   In contrast to cp_fully_fold, and to maybe_constant_value, we try to fold
   even if we are within template-declaration.  So be careful on call, as in
   such case types can be undefined.  */

static tree
fold_simple_1 (tree t)
{
  tree op1;
  enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (t);

  switch (code)
    {
    case INTEGER_CST:
    case REAL_CST:
    case VECTOR_CST:
    case FIXED_CST:
    case COMPLEX_CST:
      return t;

    case SIZEOF_EXPR:
      return fold_sizeof_expr (t);

    case ABS_EXPR:
    case CONJ_EXPR:
    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
    case NEGATE_EXPR:
    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
    case NOP_EXPR:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
    case CONVERT_EXPR:
    case FLOAT_EXPR:
    case FIX_TRUNC_EXPR:
    case FIXED_CONVERT_EXPR:
    case ADDR_SPACE_CONVERT_EXPR:

      op1 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);

      t = const_unop (code, TREE_TYPE (t), op1);
      if (!t)
	return NULL_TREE;

      if (CONVERT_EXPR_CODE_P (code)
	  && TREE_OVERFLOW_P (t) && !TREE_OVERFLOW_P (op1))
	TREE_OVERFLOW (t) = false;
      return t;

    default:
      return NULL_TREE;
    }
}

/* If T is a simple constant expression, returns its simplified value.
   Otherwise returns T.  In contrast to maybe_constant_value do we
   simplify only few operations on constant-expressions, and we don't
   try to simplify constexpressions.  */

tree
fold_simple (tree t)
{
  tree r = NULL_TREE;
  if (processing_template_decl)
    return t;

  r = fold_simple_1 (t);
  if (!r)
    r = t;

  return r;
}

/* If T is a constant expression, returns its reduced value.
   Otherwise, if T does not have TREE_CONSTANT set, returns T.
   Otherwise, returns a version of T without TREE_CONSTANT.  */

static GTY((deletable)) hash_map<tree, tree> *cv_cache;

tree
maybe_constant_value (tree t, tree decl)
{
  tree r;

  if (!is_nondependent_constant_expression (t))
    {
      if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (t))
	{
	  t = build_nop (TREE_TYPE (t), t);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (t) = false;
	}
      return t;
    }
  else if (CONSTANT_CLASS_P (t))
    /* No caching or evaluation needed.  */
    return t;

  if (cv_cache == NULL)
    cv_cache = hash_map<tree, tree>::create_ggc (101);
  if (tree *cached = cv_cache->get (t))
    return *cached;

  r = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (t, true, true, decl);
  gcc_checking_assert (r == t
		       || CONVERT_EXPR_P (t)
		       || TREE_CODE (t) == VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR
		       || (TREE_CONSTANT (t) && !TREE_CONSTANT (r))
		       || !cp_tree_equal (r, t));
  cv_cache->put (t, r);
  return r;
}

/* Dispose of the whole CV_CACHE.  */

static void
clear_cv_cache (void)
{
  if (cv_cache != NULL)
    cv_cache->empty ();
}

/* Dispose of the whole CV_CACHE and FOLD_CACHE.  */

void
clear_cv_and_fold_caches (void)
{
  clear_cv_cache ();
  clear_fold_cache ();
}

/* Like maybe_constant_value but first fully instantiate the argument.

   Note: this is equivalent to instantiate_non_dependent_expr_sfinae
   (t, tf_none) followed by maybe_constant_value but is more efficient,
   because calls instantiation_dependent_expression_p and
   potential_constant_expression at most once.  */

tree
fold_non_dependent_expr (tree t)
{
  if (t == NULL_TREE)
    return NULL_TREE;

  /* If we're in a template, but T isn't value dependent, simplify
     it.  We're supposed to treat:

       template <typename T> void f(T[1 + 1]);
       template <typename T> void f(T[2]);

     as two declarations of the same function, for example.  */
  if (processing_template_decl)
    {
      if (is_nondependent_constant_expression (t))
	{
	  processing_template_decl_sentinel s;
	  t = instantiate_non_dependent_expr_internal (t, tf_none);

	  if (type_unknown_p (t)
	      || BRACE_ENCLOSED_INITIALIZER_P (t))
	    {
	      if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (t))
		{
		  t = build_nop (TREE_TYPE (t), t);
		  TREE_CONSTANT (t) = false;
		}
	      return t;
	    }

	  tree r = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (t, true, true, NULL_TREE);
	  /* cp_tree_equal looks through NOPs, so allow them.  */
	  gcc_checking_assert (r == t
			       || CONVERT_EXPR_P (t)
			       || TREE_CODE (t) == VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR
			       || (TREE_CONSTANT (t) && !TREE_CONSTANT (r))
			       || !cp_tree_equal (r, t));
	  return r;
	}
      else if (TREE_OVERFLOW_P (t))
	{
	  t = build_nop (TREE_TYPE (t), t);
	  TREE_CONSTANT (t) = false;
	}
      return t;
    }

  return maybe_constant_value (t);
}

/* Like maybe_constant_value, but returns a CONSTRUCTOR directly, rather
   than wrapped in a TARGET_EXPR.  */

tree
maybe_constant_init (tree t, tree decl)
{
  if (!t)
    return t;
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == EXPR_STMT)
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == CONVERT_EXPR
      && VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t)))
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == INIT_EXPR)
    t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == TARGET_EXPR)
    t = TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (t);
  if (!is_nondependent_static_init_expression (t))
    /* Don't try to evaluate it.  */;
  else if (CONSTANT_CLASS_P (t))
    /* No evaluation needed.  */;
  else
    t = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (t, true, false, decl);
  if (TREE_CODE (t) == TARGET_EXPR)
    {
      tree init = TARGET_EXPR_INITIAL (t);
      if (TREE_CODE (init) == CONSTRUCTOR)
	t = init;
    }
  return t;
}

#if 0
/* FIXME see ADDR_EXPR section in potential_constant_expression_1.  */
/* Return true if the object referred to by REF has automatic or thread
   local storage.  */

enum { ck_ok, ck_bad, ck_unknown };
static int
check_automatic_or_tls (tree ref)
{
  machine_mode mode;
  HOST_WIDE_INT bitsize, bitpos;
  tree offset;
  int volatilep = 0, unsignedp = 0;
  tree decl = get_inner_reference (ref, &bitsize, &bitpos, &offset,
				   &mode, &unsignedp, &volatilep, false);
  duration_kind dk;

  /* If there isn't a decl in the middle, we don't know the linkage here,
     and this isn't a constant expression anyway.  */
  if (!DECL_P (decl))
    return ck_unknown;
  dk = decl_storage_duration (decl);
  return (dk == dk_auto || dk == dk_thread) ? ck_bad : ck_ok;
}
#endif

/* Return true if T denotes a potentially constant expression.  Issue
   diagnostic as appropriate under control of FLAGS.  If WANT_RVAL is true,
   an lvalue-rvalue conversion is implied.  If NOW is true, we want to
   consider the expression in the current context, independent of constexpr
   substitution.

   C++0x [expr.const] used to say

   6 An expression is a potential constant expression if it is
     a constant expression where all occurrences of function
     parameters are replaced by arbitrary constant expressions
     of the appropriate type.

   2  A conditional expression is a constant expression unless it
      involves one of the following as a potentially evaluated
      subexpression (3.2), but subexpressions of logical AND (5.14),
      logical OR (5.15), and conditional (5.16) operations that are
      not evaluated are not considered.   */

static bool
potential_constant_expression_1 (tree t, bool want_rval, bool strict, bool now,
				 tsubst_flags_t flags)
{
#define RECUR(T,RV) \
  potential_constant_expression_1 ((T), (RV), strict, now, flags)

  enum { any = false, rval = true };
  int i;
  tree tmp;

  if (t == error_mark_node)
    return false;
  if (t == NULL_TREE)
    return true;
  location_t loc = EXPR_LOC_OR_LOC (t, input_location);
  if (TREE_THIS_VOLATILE (t) && !DECL_P (t))
    {
      if (flags & tf_error)
        error_at (loc, "expression %qE has side-effects", t);
      return false;
    }
  if (CONSTANT_CLASS_P (t))
    return true;
  if (CODE_CONTAINS_STRUCT (TREE_CODE (t), TS_TYPED)
      && TREE_TYPE (t) == error_mark_node)
    return false;

  switch (TREE_CODE (t))
    {
    case FUNCTION_DECL:
    case BASELINK:
    case TEMPLATE_DECL:
    case OVERLOAD:
    case TEMPLATE_ID_EXPR:
    case LABEL_DECL:
    case LABEL_EXPR:
    case CASE_LABEL_EXPR:
    case CONST_DECL:
    case SIZEOF_EXPR:
    case ALIGNOF_EXPR:
    case OFFSETOF_EXPR:
    case NOEXCEPT_EXPR:
    case TEMPLATE_PARM_INDEX:
    case TRAIT_EXPR:
    case IDENTIFIER_NODE:
    case USERDEF_LITERAL:
      /* We can see a FIELD_DECL in a pointer-to-member expression.  */
    case FIELD_DECL:
    case RESULT_DECL:
    case USING_DECL:
    case USING_STMT:
    case PLACEHOLDER_EXPR:
    case BREAK_STMT:
    case CONTINUE_STMT:
    case REQUIRES_EXPR:
    case STATIC_ASSERT:
      return true;

    case PARM_DECL:
      if (now)
	{
	  if (flags & tf_error)
	    error ("%qE is not a constant expression", t);
	  return false;
	}
      return true;

    case AGGR_INIT_EXPR:
    case CALL_EXPR:
      /* -- an invocation of a function other than a constexpr function
            or a constexpr constructor.  */
      {
        tree fun = get_function_named_in_call (t);
        const int nargs = call_expr_nargs (t);
	i = 0;

	if (fun == NULL_TREE)
	  {
	    /* Reset to allow the function to continue past the end
	       of the block below.  Otherwise return early.  */
	    bool bail = true;

	    if (TREE_CODE (t) == CALL_EXPR
		&& CALL_EXPR_FN (t) == NULL_TREE)
	      switch (CALL_EXPR_IFN (t))
		{
		/* These should be ignored, they are optimized away from
		   constexpr functions.  */
		case IFN_UBSAN_NULL:
		case IFN_UBSAN_BOUNDS:
		case IFN_UBSAN_VPTR:
		case IFN_FALLTHROUGH:
		  return true;

		case IFN_ADD_OVERFLOW:
		case IFN_SUB_OVERFLOW:
		case IFN_MUL_OVERFLOW:
		case IFN_LAUNDER:
		  bail = false;

		default:
		  break;
		}

	    if (bail)
	      {
		/* fold_call_expr can't do anything with IFN calls.  */
		if (flags & tf_error)
		  error_at (loc, "call to internal function %qE", t);
		return false;
	      }
	  }

	if (fun && is_overloaded_fn (fun))
	  {
	    if (TREE_CODE (fun) == FUNCTION_DECL)
	      {
		if (builtin_valid_in_constant_expr_p (fun))
		  return true;
		if (!DECL_DECLARED_CONSTEXPR_P (fun)
		    /* Allow any built-in function; if the expansion
		       isn't constant, we'll deal with that then.  */
		    && !is_builtin_fn (fun))
		  {
		    if (flags & tf_error)
		      {
			error_at (loc, "call to non-constexpr function %qD",
				  fun);
			explain_invalid_constexpr_fn (fun);
		      }
		    return false;
		  }
		/* A call to a non-static member function takes the address
		   of the object as the first argument.  But in a constant
		   expression the address will be folded away, so look
		   through it now.  */
		if (DECL_NONSTATIC_MEMBER_FUNCTION_P (fun)
		    && !DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
		  {
		    tree x = get_nth_callarg (t, 0);
		    if (is_this_parameter (x))
		      return true;
		    /* Don't require an immediately constant value, as
		       constexpr substitution might not use the value.  */
		    bool sub_now = false;
		    if (!potential_constant_expression_1 (x, rval, strict,
							  sub_now, flags))
		      return false;
		    i = 1;
		  }
	      }
	    else
	      {
		if (!RECUR (fun, true))
		  return false;
		fun = get_first_fn (fun);
	      }
	    /* Skip initial arguments to base constructors.  */
	    if (DECL_BASE_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
	      i = num_artificial_parms_for (fun);
	    fun = DECL_ORIGIN (fun);
	  }
	else if (fun)
          {
	    if (RECUR (fun, rval))
	      /* Might end up being a constant function pointer.  */;
	    else
	      return false;
          }
        for (; i < nargs; ++i)
          {
            tree x = get_nth_callarg (t, i);
	    /* In a template, reference arguments haven't been converted to
	       REFERENCE_TYPE and we might not even know if the parameter
	       is a reference, so accept lvalue constants too.  */
	    bool rv = processing_template_decl ? any : rval;
	    /* Don't require an immediately constant value, as constexpr
	       substitution might not use the value of the argument.  */
	    bool sub_now = false;
	    if (!potential_constant_expression_1 (x, rv, strict,
						  sub_now, flags))
	      return false;
          }
        return true;
      }

    case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
      /* -- an lvalue-to-rvalue conversion (4.1) unless it is applied to
            -- an lvalue of integral type that refers to a non-volatile
               const variable or static data member initialized with
               constant expressions, or

            -- an lvalue of literal type that refers to non-volatile
               object defined with constexpr, or that refers to a
               sub-object of such an object;  */
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval);

    case VAR_DECL:
      if (DECL_HAS_VALUE_EXPR_P (t))
	return RECUR (DECL_VALUE_EXPR (t), rval);
      if (want_rval
	  && !var_in_maybe_constexpr_fn (t)
	  && !type_dependent_expression_p (t)
	  && !decl_maybe_constant_var_p (t)
	  && (strict
	      || !CP_TYPE_CONST_NON_VOLATILE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
	      || (DECL_INITIAL (t)
		  && !DECL_INITIALIZED_BY_CONSTANT_EXPRESSION_P (t)))
	  && COMPLETE_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
	  && !is_really_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (t)))
        {
          if (flags & tf_error)
            non_const_var_error (t);
          return false;
        }
      return true;

    case NOP_EXPR:
    case CONVERT_EXPR:
    case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
      /* -- a reinterpret_cast.  FIXME not implemented, and this rule
	 may change to something more specific to type-punning (DR 1312).  */
      {
        tree from = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	if (POINTER_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t))
	    && TREE_CODE (from) == INTEGER_CST
	    && !integer_zerop (from))
	  {
	    if (flags & tf_error)
	      error_at (loc, "reinterpret_cast from integer to pointer");
	    return false;
	  }
        return (RECUR (from, TREE_CODE (t) != VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR));
      }

    case ADDRESSOF_EXPR:
      /* This is like ADDR_EXPR, except it won't form pointer-to-member.  */
      t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
      goto handle_addr_expr;

    case ADDR_EXPR:
      /* -- a unary operator & that is applied to an lvalue that
            designates an object with thread or automatic storage
            duration;  */
      t = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);

      if (TREE_CODE (t) == OFFSET_REF && PTRMEM_OK_P (t))
	/* A pointer-to-member constant.  */
	return true;

    handle_addr_expr:
#if 0
      /* FIXME adjust when issue 1197 is fully resolved.  For now don't do
         any checking here, as we might dereference the pointer later.  If
         we remove this code, also remove check_automatic_or_tls.  */
      i = check_automatic_or_tls (t);
      if (i == ck_ok)
	return true;
      if (i == ck_bad)
        {
          if (flags & tf_error)
            error ("address-of an object %qE with thread local or "
                   "automatic storage is not a constant expression", t);
          return false;
        }
#endif
      return RECUR (t, any);

    case REALPART_EXPR:
    case IMAGPART_EXPR:
    case COMPONENT_REF:
    case BIT_FIELD_REF:
    case ARROW_EXPR:
    case OFFSET_REF:
      /* -- a class member access unless its postfix-expression is
            of literal type or of pointer to literal type.  */
      /* This test would be redundant, as it follows from the
	 postfix-expression being a potential constant expression.  */
      if (type_unknown_p (t))
	return true;
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), want_rval);

    case EXPR_PACK_EXPANSION:
      return RECUR (PACK_EXPANSION_PATTERN (t), want_rval);

    case INDIRECT_REF:
      {
        tree x = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
        STRIP_NOPS (x);
        if (is_this_parameter (x) && !is_capture_proxy (x))
	  {
	    if (!var_in_maybe_constexpr_fn (x))
	      {
		if (flags & tf_error)
		  error_at (loc, "use of %<this%> in a constant expression");
		return false;
	      }
	    return true;
	  }
	return RECUR (x, rval);
      }

    case STATEMENT_LIST:
      {
	tree_stmt_iterator i;
	for (i = tsi_start (t); !tsi_end_p (i); tsi_next (&i))
	  {
	    if (!RECUR (tsi_stmt (i), any))
	      return false;
	  }
	return true;
      }
      break;

    case MODIFY_EXPR:
      if (cxx_dialect < cxx14)
	goto fail;
      if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), any))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), rval))
	return false;
      return true;

    case MODOP_EXPR:
      if (cxx_dialect < cxx14)
	goto fail;
      if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 2), rval))
	return false;
      return true;

    case DO_STMT:
      if (!RECUR (DO_COND (t), rval))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (DO_BODY (t), any))
	return false;
      return true;

    case FOR_STMT:
      if (!RECUR (FOR_INIT_STMT (t), any))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (FOR_COND (t), rval))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (FOR_EXPR (t), any))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (FOR_BODY (t), any))
	return false;
      return true;

    case RANGE_FOR_STMT:
      if (!RECUR (RANGE_FOR_EXPR (t), any))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (RANGE_FOR_BODY (t), any))
	return false;
      return true;

    case WHILE_STMT:
      if (!RECUR (WHILE_COND (t), rval))
	return false;
      if (!RECUR (WHILE_BODY (t), any))
	return false;
      return true;

    case SWITCH_STMT:
      if (!RECUR (SWITCH_STMT_COND (t), rval))
	return false;
      /* FIXME we don't check SWITCH_STMT_BODY currently, because even
	 unreachable labels would be checked.  */
      return true;

    case STMT_EXPR:
      return RECUR (STMT_EXPR_STMT (t), rval);

    case LAMBDA_EXPR:
    case DYNAMIC_CAST_EXPR:
    case PSEUDO_DTOR_EXPR:
    case NEW_EXPR:
    case VEC_NEW_EXPR:
    case DELETE_EXPR:
    case VEC_DELETE_EXPR:
    case THROW_EXPR:
    case OMP_PARALLEL:
    case OMP_TASK:
    case OMP_FOR:
    case OMP_DISTRIBUTE:
    case OMP_TASKLOOP:
    case OMP_TEAMS:
    case OMP_TARGET_DATA:
    case OMP_TARGET:
    case OMP_SECTIONS:
    case OMP_ORDERED:
    case OMP_CRITICAL:
    case OMP_SINGLE:
    case OMP_SECTION:
    case OMP_MASTER:
    case OMP_TASKGROUP:
    case OMP_TARGET_UPDATE:
    case OMP_TARGET_ENTER_DATA:
    case OMP_TARGET_EXIT_DATA:
    case OMP_ATOMIC:
    case OMP_ATOMIC_READ:
    case OMP_ATOMIC_CAPTURE_OLD:
    case OMP_ATOMIC_CAPTURE_NEW:
    case OACC_PARALLEL:
    case OACC_KERNELS:
    case OACC_DATA:
    case OACC_HOST_DATA:
    case OACC_LOOP:
    case OACC_CACHE:
    case OACC_DECLARE:
    case OACC_ENTER_DATA:
    case OACC_EXIT_DATA:
    case OACC_UPDATE:
    case CILK_SIMD:
    case CILK_FOR:
      /* GCC internal stuff.  */
    case VA_ARG_EXPR:
    case OBJ_TYPE_REF:
    case TRANSACTION_EXPR:
    case ASM_EXPR:
    case AT_ENCODE_EXPR:
    fail:
      if (flags & tf_error)
	error_at (loc, "expression %qE is not a constant expression", t);
      return false;

    case TYPEID_EXPR:
      /* -- a typeid expression whose operand is of polymorphic
            class type;  */
      {
        tree e = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
        if (!TYPE_P (e) && !type_dependent_expression_p (e)
	    && TYPE_POLYMORPHIC_P (TREE_TYPE (e)))
          {
            if (flags & tf_error)
              error_at (loc, "typeid-expression is not a constant expression "
			"because %qE is of polymorphic type", e);
            return false;
          }
        return true;
      }

    case MINUS_EXPR:
      want_rval = true;
      goto binary;

    case LT_EXPR:
    case LE_EXPR:
    case GT_EXPR:
    case GE_EXPR:
    case EQ_EXPR:
    case NE_EXPR:
      want_rval = true;
      goto binary;

    case PREINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTINCREMENT_EXPR:
    case PREDECREMENT_EXPR:
    case POSTDECREMENT_EXPR:
      if (cxx_dialect < cxx14)
	goto fail;
      goto unary;

    case BIT_NOT_EXPR:
      /* A destructor.  */
      if (TYPE_P (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0)))
	return true;
      /* fall through.  */

    case CONJ_EXPR:
    case SAVE_EXPR:
    case FIX_TRUNC_EXPR:
    case FLOAT_EXPR:
    case NEGATE_EXPR:
    case ABS_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_NOT_EXPR:
    case FIXED_CONVERT_EXPR:
    case UNARY_PLUS_EXPR:
    case UNARY_LEFT_FOLD_EXPR:
    case UNARY_RIGHT_FOLD_EXPR:
    unary:
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval);

    case CAST_EXPR:
    case CONST_CAST_EXPR:
    case STATIC_CAST_EXPR:
    case REINTERPRET_CAST_EXPR:
    case IMPLICIT_CONV_EXPR:
      if (cxx_dialect < cxx11
	  && !dependent_type_p (TREE_TYPE (t))
	  && !INTEGRAL_OR_ENUMERATION_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	/* In C++98, a conversion to non-integral type can't be part of a
	   constant expression.  */
	{
	  if (flags & tf_error)
	    error_at (loc,
		      "cast to non-integral type %qT in a constant expression",
		      TREE_TYPE (t));
	  return false;
	}

      return (RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
		     TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) != REFERENCE_TYPE));

    case BIND_EXPR:
      return RECUR (BIND_EXPR_BODY (t), want_rval);

    case CLEANUP_POINT_EXPR:
    case MUST_NOT_THROW_EXPR:
    case TRY_CATCH_EXPR:
    case TRY_BLOCK:
    case EH_SPEC_BLOCK:
    case EXPR_STMT:
    case PAREN_EXPR:
    case NON_DEPENDENT_EXPR:
      /* For convenience.  */
    case RETURN_EXPR:
    case LOOP_EXPR:
    case EXIT_EXPR:
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), want_rval);

    case DECL_EXPR:
      tmp = DECL_EXPR_DECL (t);
      if (VAR_P (tmp) && !DECL_ARTIFICIAL (tmp))
	{
	  if (TREE_STATIC (tmp))
	    {
	      if (flags & tf_error)
		error_at (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (tmp), "%qD declared "
			  "%<static%> in %<constexpr%> context", tmp);
	      return false;
	    }
	  else if (CP_DECL_THREAD_LOCAL_P (tmp))
	    {
	      if (flags & tf_error)
		error_at (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (tmp), "%qD declared "
			  "%<thread_local%> in %<constexpr%> context", tmp);
	      return false;
	    }
	  else if (!DECL_NONTRIVIALLY_INITIALIZED_P (tmp))
	    {
	      if (flags & tf_error)
		error_at (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (tmp), "uninitialized "
			  "variable %qD in %<constexpr%> context", tmp);
	      return false;
	    }
	}
      return RECUR (tmp, want_rval);

    case TRY_FINALLY_EXPR:
      return (RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), want_rval)
	      && RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), any));

    case SCOPE_REF:
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), want_rval);

    case TARGET_EXPR:
      if (!literal_type_p (TREE_TYPE (t)))
	{
	  if (flags & tf_error)
	    {
	      error_at (loc, "temporary of non-literal type %qT in a "
			"constant expression", TREE_TYPE (t));
	      explain_non_literal_class (TREE_TYPE (t));
	    }
	  return false;
	}
      /* FALLTHRU */
    case INIT_EXPR:
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), rval);

    case CONSTRUCTOR:
      {
        vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *v = CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (t);
        constructor_elt *ce;
        for (i = 0; vec_safe_iterate (v, i, &ce); ++i)
	  if (!RECUR (ce->value, want_rval))
	    return false;
	return true;
      }

    case TREE_LIST:
      {
	gcc_assert (TREE_PURPOSE (t) == NULL_TREE
		    || DECL_P (TREE_PURPOSE (t)));
	if (!RECUR (TREE_VALUE (t), want_rval))
	  return false;
	if (TREE_CHAIN (t) == NULL_TREE)
	  return true;
	return RECUR (TREE_CHAIN (t), want_rval);
      }

    case TRUNC_DIV_EXPR:
    case CEIL_DIV_EXPR:
    case FLOOR_DIV_EXPR:
    case ROUND_DIV_EXPR:
    case TRUNC_MOD_EXPR:
    case CEIL_MOD_EXPR:
    case ROUND_MOD_EXPR:
      {
	tree denom = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
	if (!RECUR (denom, rval))
	  return false;
	/* We can't call cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr on an expression
	   that hasn't been through instantiate_non_dependent_expr yet.  */
	if (!processing_template_decl)
	  denom = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (denom, true);
	if (integer_zerop (denom))
	  {
	    if (flags & tf_error)
	      error ("division by zero is not a constant expression");
	    return false;
	  }
	else
	  {
	    want_rval = true;
	    return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), want_rval);
	  }
      }

    case COMPOUND_EXPR:
      {
	/* check_return_expr sometimes wraps a TARGET_EXPR in a
	   COMPOUND_EXPR; don't get confused.  Also handle EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR
	   introduced by build_call_a.  */
	tree op0 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	tree op1 = TREE_OPERAND (t, 1);
	STRIP_NOPS (op1);
	if ((TREE_CODE (op0) == TARGET_EXPR && op1 == TARGET_EXPR_SLOT (op0))
	    || TREE_CODE (op1) == EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR)
	  return RECUR (op0, want_rval);
	else
	  goto binary;
      }

      /* If the first operand is the non-short-circuit constant, look at
	 the second operand; otherwise we only care about the first one for
	 potentiality.  */
    case TRUTH_AND_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_ANDIF_EXPR:
      tmp = boolean_true_node;
      goto truth;
    case TRUTH_OR_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_ORIF_EXPR:
      tmp = boolean_false_node;
    truth:
      {
	tree op = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	if (!RECUR (op, rval))
	  return false;
	if (!processing_template_decl)
	  op = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (op, true);
	if (tree_int_cst_equal (op, tmp))
	  return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), rval);
	else
	  return true;
      }

    case PLUS_EXPR:
    case MULT_EXPR:
    case POINTER_PLUS_EXPR:
    case RDIV_EXPR:
    case EXACT_DIV_EXPR:
    case MIN_EXPR:
    case MAX_EXPR:
    case LSHIFT_EXPR:
    case RSHIFT_EXPR:
    case LROTATE_EXPR:
    case RROTATE_EXPR:
    case BIT_IOR_EXPR:
    case BIT_XOR_EXPR:
    case BIT_AND_EXPR:
    case TRUTH_XOR_EXPR:
    case UNORDERED_EXPR:
    case ORDERED_EXPR:
    case UNLT_EXPR:
    case UNLE_EXPR:
    case UNGT_EXPR:
    case UNGE_EXPR:
    case UNEQ_EXPR:
    case LTGT_EXPR:
    case RANGE_EXPR:
    case COMPLEX_EXPR:
      want_rval = true;
      /* Fall through.  */
    case ARRAY_REF:
    case ARRAY_RANGE_REF:
    case MEMBER_REF:
    case DOTSTAR_EXPR:
    case MEM_REF:
    case BINARY_LEFT_FOLD_EXPR:
    case BINARY_RIGHT_FOLD_EXPR:
    binary:
      for (i = 0; i < 2; ++i)
	if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, i), want_rval))
	  return false;
      return true;

    case CILK_SYNC_STMT:
    case CILK_SPAWN_STMT:
    case ARRAY_NOTATION_REF:
      return false;

    case FMA_EXPR:
    case VEC_PERM_EXPR:
     for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
      if (!RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, i), true))
	return false;
     return true;

    case COND_EXPR:
      if (COND_EXPR_IS_VEC_DELETE (t))
	{
	  if (flags & tf_error)
	    error_at (loc, "%<delete[]%> is not a constant expression");
	  return false;
	}
      /* Fall through.  */
    case IF_STMT:
    case VEC_COND_EXPR:
      /* If the condition is a known constant, we know which of the legs we
	 care about; otherwise we only require that the condition and
	 either of the legs be potentially constant.  */
      tmp = TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
      if (!RECUR (tmp, rval))
	return false;
      if (!processing_template_decl)
	tmp = cxx_eval_outermost_constant_expr (tmp, true);
      if (integer_zerop (tmp))
	return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 2), want_rval);
      else if (TREE_CODE (tmp) == INTEGER_CST)
	return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1), want_rval);
      for (i = 1; i < 3; ++i)
	if (potential_constant_expression_1 (TREE_OPERAND (t, i),
					     want_rval, strict, now, tf_none))
	  return true;
      if (flags & tf_error)
	error_at (loc, "expression %qE is not a constant expression", t);
      return false;

    case VEC_INIT_EXPR:
      if (VEC_INIT_EXPR_IS_CONSTEXPR (t))
	return true;
      if (flags & tf_error)
	{
	  error_at (loc, "non-constant array initialization");
	  diagnose_non_constexpr_vec_init (t);
	}
      return false;

    case TYPE_DECL:
    case TAG_DEFN:
      /* We can see these in statement-expressions.  */
      return true;

    case CLEANUP_STMT:
    case EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR:
    case PREDICT_EXPR:
      return false;

    case GOTO_EXPR:
      {
	tree *target = &TREE_OPERAND (t, 0);
	/* Gotos representing break and continue are OK.  */
	if (breaks (target) || continues (target))
	  return true;
	if (flags & tf_error)
	  error_at (loc, "%<goto%> is not a constant expression");
	return false;
      }

    case ANNOTATE_EXPR:
      gcc_assert (tree_to_uhwi (TREE_OPERAND (t, 1)) == annot_expr_ivdep_kind);
      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval);

    default:
      if (objc_is_property_ref (t))
	return false;

      sorry ("unexpected AST of kind %s", get_tree_code_name (TREE_CODE (t)));
      gcc_unreachable ();
      return false;
    }
#undef RECUR
}

/* The main entry point to the above.  */

bool
potential_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, false, true, false, tf_none);
}

/* As above, but require a constant rvalue.  */

bool
potential_rvalue_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, true, true, false, tf_none);
}

/* Like above, but complain about non-constant expressions.  */

bool
require_potential_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, false, true, false, tf_warning_or_error);
}

/* Cross product of the above.  */

bool
require_potential_rvalue_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, true, true, false, tf_warning_or_error);
}

/* Like potential_constant_expression, but don't consider possible constexpr
   substitution of the current function.  That is, PARM_DECL qualifies under
   potential_constant_expression, but not here.

   This is basically what you can check when any actual constant values might
   be value-dependent.  */

bool
is_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, false, true, true, tf_none);
}

/* Like above, but complain about non-constant expressions.  */

bool
require_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, false, true, true,
					  tf_warning_or_error);
}

/* Like is_constant_expression, but allow const variables that are not allowed
   under constexpr rules.  */

bool
is_static_init_expression (tree t)
{
  return potential_constant_expression_1 (t, false, false, true, tf_none);
}

/* Returns true if T is a potential constant expression that is not
   instantiation-dependent, and therefore a candidate for constant folding even
   in a template.  */

bool
is_nondependent_constant_expression (tree t)
{
  return (!type_unknown_p (t)
	  && !BRACE_ENCLOSED_INITIALIZER_P (t)
	  && is_constant_expression (t)
	  && !instantiation_dependent_expression_p (t));
}

/* Returns true if T is a potential static initializer expression that is not
   instantiation-dependent.  */

bool
is_nondependent_static_init_expression (tree t)
{
  return (!type_unknown_p (t)
	  && !BRACE_ENCLOSED_INITIALIZER_P (t)
	  && is_static_init_expression (t)
	  && !instantiation_dependent_expression_p (t));
}

/* Finalize constexpr processing after parsing.  */

void
fini_constexpr (void)
{
  /* The contexpr call and fundef copies tables are no longer needed.  */
  constexpr_call_table = NULL;
  fundef_copies_table = NULL;
}

#include "gt-cp-constexpr.h"